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OCTOBER, 1947 

CHICAGO, IL 60616 

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your T-ZONE" 
will fell you... 

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if Camels don't 

suit your'T-ZONE" 

to a"T" 





Contributors . . . 

Linton E. Grinler, research pro- 
fessor of civil engineering and 
mechanics at Illinois Tech, has gained 
wide recognition for his work in struc- 
tural engineering. He received his 
bachelor's and civil engineering de- 
grees at the University of Kansas 
and his master's degree and doctorate 
at the University of Illinois. He 
served as professor of structural en- 
gineering at Texas A & M college 
from 1929 until 1937, when he joined 
the staff of Armour Tech. He has 
held the positions of dean of the 
graduate school and vice president 
of Illinois Tech. Dr. Grinter has pub- 
lished five books on structural analy- 
sis and design and has written nu- 
merous articles on indeterminate 
structures. His essay, "The Education 
of Engineers for Latin America", 
appeared in the March, 1947, Illi- 
nois Tech Engineer. 

Alfred C. Ames is assistant pro- 
) fessor of English at Illinois Tech. He 
received his bachelor's degree at the 
University of Kansas and his mas- 
■ ter's degree and doctorate at the Uni- 
: versity of Illinois. He taught at Illi- 
' nois from 1937 until 1944, when he 
. joined the staff of Illinois Tech. Dr. 
■^ Ames' articles have been published 
J- in Poetry, ETC.: A Review of Gen- 
eral Semantics, Modern Language 
Notes, and the Journal oi Engineer- 
ing Education. 

Roy D. Haworth, Jr., is supervi- 
sor of foundry process research of 
Armour Research Foundation. A 
graduate of Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1939, he was associ- 
ated with the Ingersoll-Rand com- 
pany, Phillipsburg, N. J., for two 
years as metallurgist and chief metal- 
lographer. In the early war years he 
held a position with the Wyman- 
Gordon company, Harvey, 111., and 
in 1943 he became chief metallurgist 
for the Lehigh Foundries, Easton, Pa. 
Mr. Haworth joined the staff of 
(please turn to page 4) 

Gilman, graduate student who lives 
at 1516 Birchwood street, Chicago, 
uses the heat treating and hardening 
furnace in the metallurgical engineer- 
ing laboratory. 

OCTOBER, 1947 



J™ this i.SMie 


By Linton E. Grinter 


A Unique Situation ... 9 

By Alfred C. Ames 


By Roy D. Haworth and W. C. Wick 

ATOMIC POWER: What Does It Mean To Our 
Peacetime Economy? .13 

By Herbert A. Simon 


By Otto Zmeskal 


ANNUAL REPORT 1946-47 18 

By Elmore S. Pettyjohn 


By F. K. Richter 



THELMA L. COLEMAN, Business Manager 

Associate Editors 

Student Staff 




Published October, December, March and May. 

Subscription rates, $1.50 per year. 

Editorial and Business Office, Illinois Institute of Technology, 

3300 Federal St., Chicago 16, Illinois. 

OCTOBER, 1947 

lo ) <7 5 X 

PROBLEM: You are designing a valve grinding machine. You have to 
provide a drive for the chuck that holds the valve stem. This chuck 
must be adjustable in three different directions. Your problem now is to 
devise a method of driving the chuck which permits these adjustments. 
How would you do it? 


Use an S.S.White power 
drive flexible shaft to 
transmit power to the 
chuck. The shaft provides 
a positive, dependable 
drive that permits free 
movement of the chuck in 
any direction. 

This is just one of hundreds 
of remote control and 
power drive problems to 
which S.S.White flexible 

This is how one large manufacturer did il. t 

shafts provide a simple answer. That's why 
every engineer should be familiar with 
the wide range and scope of these useful 
"Metal Muscles"* for mechanical bodies. 


It gives essential facts and engineering data 
about flexible shafts and their application. A 
copy is yours free for the asking. Write today. 



C*t of ft-teUotCa A AAA Imduttoiat Sntotftttaex 

(continued from page 3) 

Armour Research Foundation in 


William C. Wick joined the staff 
of Armour Research Foundation in 
1940. Previously, he had been an 
organizer and charter member of the 
Junior Foundrymen of America. 
From January, 1944, to February 
1946, he served in the United States 
Navy and was assigned to the Naval 
Research laboratory, where he 
started and developed the use of in- 
sulated risers for non-ferrous cast- 
ings. Now serving as an assistant 
metallurgist, Mr. Wick has written 
for trade publications and has pre- 
sented a paper before the annual 
convention of the American Found- 
rymen's association. 

Herbert A. Simon is professor 
and chairman of the department of 
political and social science at Illinois 
Tech. He received his bachelor's de- 
gree and doctorate at the University 
of Chicago. From 1939 to 1942 he 
was associated with the University of 
California. He joined the Illinois 
Tech staff in 1942. Dr. Simon is con- 
sultant to the International City 
Managers' Association, Institute for 
Training in Municipal Administra- 
tion, the United States Bureau of the 
Budget, the United States Census 
Bureau, and the Cowles Commission 
for Research in Education. He has 
published numerous articles and 
monographs. His essay, "What is 
Urban Redevelopment?", appeared 
in the December, 1946, Illinois Tech 

Otto Zmeskal, professor and 
director of the department of metal- 
lurgical engineering at Illinois Tech, 
has done outstanding research in the 
fields of aluminum alloys and radi- 
ography. Dr. Zmeskal at one time 
served as the director of a program 
sponsored by the Engineering Foun- 
dation and the American Welding 
Society on the corrosion cracking of 
stainless steel. He received his bache- 
lor's and master's degrees at Illinois 
Tech and his doctorate at Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. An in- 
structor at Illinois Tech from 1938 
to 1941, he returned in the fall of 
1946 as director of the department. 
(please turn to page 58) 



Philip Armour sat listening on a Sunday long ago to a sermon by Frank W. "Would you carry them out if you had the means?" the packer questioned. 

Gunsaulus on the topic, "What I would do if I had a million dollars?" "Most assuredly," said the preacher. "Very well," replied the decisive Armour, 

"I would establish a school to help young people who want to help themselves," "If you will give me five years of your time, I will give you the money." 

the minister said. "Do you believe in those ideas you just expressed?" the rich That was the beginning of Illinois Institute of Technology, which emerged 

merchant asked after the service. "I assuredly do," was the firm response. from the consolidation of Lewis Institute and the institution founded by Philip 



LE CORBUSIER in his book, 
When the Cathedrals Were 
White, tells us that our skyscrapers 
are too small! Only a score of them 
are tall enough to please France's 
famous architect who thinks of build- 
ings as machines in which to live and 
work. But none yet built comes up 
to his desire for concentration of 
floor space within the walls of a sin- 
gle structure. 

These tremendous acreages under 
roof and behind glass would be sep- 
arated by several blocks of green 
grass so that all rooms would receive 
fresh air and sunlight. Each com- 
mercial sky habitation would be 
reached by an elevated superhigh- 
way with intersections blocks apart 
so that traffic might travel above 50 
miles an hour. Each would be a 
complete unit with motor parking, 
stores, restaurants, and perhaps liv- 
ing space for some of its thousands 
of productive occupants. 

The great French architect has 
thus sketched in freehand an excit- 
ing mural of a future metropolis; 
but we must live with the dirt and 
noise of crowded streets and continu- 
ous pavements congesting and, some 
say, strangling Chicago and New 
York. If we were motivated by 
morals and ethics alone, we would 
build more skyscrapers only where 
they would help the transition from 
today's slums and slum-like work- 
shops to tomorrow's clean, quiet, 
comfortable, healthful factories and 

But we Americans are agreed that 
private initiative must not be re- 
stricted too greatly, and we have not 
as yet been willing to tell a land own- 
er exactly what he can do with his 
land. Le Corbusier's plan might re- 
quire public ownership of all the 
land of the city. Its fruition seems 
even farther in the future when we 
look behind Chicago's Outer Drive 
or move a block or two away from 
New York's famed Fifth Avenue. 

Since our interest centers in those 
years bracketing 1950 when con- 
struction controls will be long past 
and materials will be at hand for any 
investor's use, we reluctantly thrust 

The Empire State Building 

When Will Skyscrapers 
Rise Again? 


Le Corbusier's idealism aside. Hard- 
headed, dollar -conscious American 
commercialism will still determine 
whether the new building to be erect- 
ed near State and Madison or 42nd 
and Broadway will be 2, 20, or 100 
stories high. It is not likely that the 
owner will even be required by law 
to provide a parking place for the 
extra vehicles that his bright new 
building will bring into the traffic 
cage of the central business district. 
Aside from fire regulations and 
strength requirements, he will be 
nearly as free as a pioneer in the 
wilderness to build as he pleases. 

If money can be borrowed freely, 
he will pile story on story until a 
height is reached beyond which the 
income from the next story would 
not amortize its cost over a reason- 
able period of years while returning 
to the owner the cost of upkeep, in- 
terest charges, and the desired profit. 
We must look into the probable eco- 
nomic conditions following 1950 to 
guess whether our cities will again 
rise to greater heights than the 
crowded redwood forests of the Pa- 
cific Coast or spread out intermin- 
ably over poorer land in a fashion 
more like the mesquite country of 
the Southwest. 

The year 1930 marks the termina- 
tion of the period of skyscraper con- 
struction in the United States. Like 
world famous jewels, we can name 
nearly every skyscraper that has 
been planned since then. The Kohi- 
noor Diamond and Rockefeller Cen- 
ter are equally renowned. 1930 also 
is the publication date of a book 
called The Skyscraper, written by 
two able economist-builders, which 
seems to prove that the owner of a 

superior building site in a central 
metropolitan area, seeking a high 
percentage return on his investment, 
should choose to construct a build- 
ing about 60 stories in height. 

Yet in the 17-year interim since 
this book appeared, nearly all new 
construction within the commercial 
heart of such metropolitan areas has 
been for "taxpayers" — buildings of a 
few stories, or even of one story, in 
height. Evidently the economic bon- 
fire of the late twenties which burned 
itself out by 1930 has not yet re- 
kindled to produce the conditions 
favoring skyscraper construction that 
these authors looked upon as normal. 
Let us consider some of the factors 

that have changed. 

Central Metropolitan building 
sites in the late twenties were con- 
sidered to have a value from 100 to 
300 dollars per square foot. In the 
depression, site values collapsed and 
have been slow to revive. During a 
period of great construction activity, 
these values would no doubt reap- 
pear; but until then, we may fairly 
reduce the 1929 value of the site by 
one-half. Hence, where Clark and 
Kingston, who wrote The Skyscrap- 
er, placed a value of $200 per square 
foot upon a block of land 200 feet 
by 405 feet in size, we choose to re- 
duce this land value of $16,200,000 
to $8,100,000 as item A in the table 
entitled "Economic Height of a Sky- 

On the other hand, the cost of the 
building is dependent upon inflated 
wages and increased prices of mate- 
rials which now range from 50 to 
100 per cent above 1929. We will 
assume that the more remarkable 
gyrations of the present inflation cy- 
cle will quiet down and that a new 
stable level of construction costs will 
be reached at 50 per cent above the 


Adapted to assume conditions 

for 1950 from estimates in 

"The Skyscraper", Am. Inst. 


15-Story 22-Story 

30-Story 37-Story 50-Story 63-Story 75-Story 

of Steel Construction, 1930 

Building Building Building 

Building Building Building Building Building 


(in t 


s of doll 


A. LAND (81,000 Bq. ft. @ 

$100 per sq. ft 





$ 8,100 





(50% above 1929) 









1. Interest during con- 


(a) Land (4% for full 

period) _ 









(b) Building (4% for 

half period) 









2. Land taxes during con- 

struction _ 









3. Insurance during con- 





















(A + B + O) 









(in thousands of dollars) 



(70% of 1929) _ 






. 3,910 




1. Operating (50% above 










3. Taxes (same tax rate 

as for 1929) _._ 








3. Depreciation (over 50 




















(E minus F) 









(in thousands of dollars) 












(Based upon assumed con- 

ditions for 1950) 











OCTOBER, 1947 

level of 1929. The result of applying 
this correction to the estimates of 
Clark and Kingston of the costs of 
eight buildings is presented in line B 
of the table. As shown by the block 
diagram, these eight buildings were 
obtained by successively reducing 
the height of a 75-story building to 
63, 50, 37. 30, 22, 15 and finally 8 
stories without making any other 
changes in the plan. 

The third great element of cost, in 
addition to the land and the building 
itself, is the carrying charges. In 
compartment C of the table, we find 
a small item for insurance during 
construction, a major charge for 
taxes on the land during the one to 
two years of the construction period, 
and naturally an interest charge on 
the gradually increasing investment 
in land and building. 

The tax rate per hundred dollars 
of land valuation is taken to be the 
same as for 1929, but it seems rea- 
sonable to reduce the interest rate 
on invested capital from 6 per cent 
to 4 per cent, since investment 
money has remained available at 
about 4 per cent for a decade. The 
sum of the value of the land, the cost 
of the building itself, and the un- 
avoidable carrying charges give us 
the grand total cost in line D of the 
table for each of the eight buildings 
considered. This investment ranges 
from 515,798,000 for the 8-story 
building up to 544,376,000 for the 
75-story building. 

Now that the approximate overall 
investment required for each build- 
ing is known, it is only necessary to 
estimate the probable net income 
from each building in order to cal- 
culate the net return on each option- 
al investment. Net income is equal 
to gross income less operating ex- 
penses. Here we find a great change 
since 1929. Rents have decreased, 
and, therefore, gross income has de- 
creased, too. While rents in 1929 
were estimated from 52.42 per 
rquare foot for the least desirable 
office space to 518.23 per square foot 
for the first floor of a 75-story build- 
ing, we recall that those figures were 
still halved in 1940. Since then, large 
rent increases have occurred; but to 
estimate the average gross rentals 


„.■!!•! ill llll 

The Merchandise Mart, Chicago. 

over the 50-year life of a building at 
more than 70 per cent of the extreme 
1929 rental would be dealing in eco- 
nomic gossamer. 

Experience over many years shows 
that some allowance must be made 
for vacancies and for decreased rent- 
als after the intangible values to the 
tenant of residence in a new building 
have disappeared. Item E in the 
table therefore anticipates average 
rentals of 70 per cent of Clark and 
Kingston's 1929 estimates. 

Under expenses, item F, we find 
operation, which has been raised 50 
per cent to allow for increased wages 
and the inflated prices of all operat- 
ing supplies. As mentioned earlier, 
annual taxes are assumed to be 
based upon the same tax rate per 
hundred dollars of valuation as for 
1929. Depreciation is simply two per 
cent per year, forecasting a 50-year 
life for the structure. The building 
should remain useful for more than 
50 years, but it is doubtful if any in- 
vestment group would be willing to 
wait a greater period of time for 
complete amortization of the initial 
cost of construction. 

When the total expenses are de- 
ducted from the gross income, the 
resulting annual net income (line G) 
ranges from a maximum of 51,398.- 
000 for the 63-story building down 
to 542 1,000 for the 8-story building. 
The net yearly income from the 75- 
story building is shown to be less 

than the net income from the 63- 
story building, which proves that the 
upper part of the structure above 63 
stories is wholly uneconomic under 
the conditions assumed. 

A comparison of the percentage 
returns on the total investments giv- 
en in line H of the table shows that 
the percentage return increases grad- 
ually with height from 8 to 50 stories, 
remains nearly constant from 50 to 
63 stories, and then decreases sharp- 
ly. The conclusions of Clark and 
Kingston about economic height are 
not greatly changed if we assume 
that a building of eight stories or 
more is to be built. A wise investor 
will then choose a building in the 
range of from 50 to 60 stories where 
the probable return on his invest- 
ment is fairly constant at about 3.5 
per cent. 

The question remains as to wheth- 
er skyscrapers will be built at all un- 
der the conditions foreseen for the 
years bracketing 1950. The owner 
of vacant property or of an obsoles- 
cent building always may choose the 
alternative of erecting a low "tax- 
payer building", thus delaying his in- 
vestment in constructing a skyscrap- 
er until the probable return appears 
more favorable. 

If we compare the two final lines 
of the table, we see the great differ- 
ence in predicted return on invest- 
ment between 1929 and 1950. Where 
(please turn to page 24) 


THREE DAYS in Minneapolis last 
June gave me a greatly heightened 
awareness of the challenging and 
anomalous situation in which teach- 
ers and students in the department 
of language, literature, and philos- 
ophy at Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology find themselves. The situation 
is unique — more emphatically unique 
than I had previously realized. Some 
explanation of this situation may well 
be of interest. 

Those June days in Minneapolis 
were the occasion of the 1947 annual 
convention of the American Society 
for Engineering Education, a large 
affair, with over a thousand in at- 
tendance and with many "confer- 
ences," including one in English. I 
can hardly explain what I learned 
there about LIT. without being to 
some extent personal, so I shall speak 
of the background subjectively and 
reminiscently, without apology. 

The context 

Like nearly all other collegiate 
teachers of English, as an undergrad- 
uate I was an English major in a 
liberal arts curriculum. My alma 
mater was one of many state univer- 
sities that taught both "Ejiglish" and 
"engineering English." The latter 
work was conducted by a separate 
staff, a definite enclave within the 
English department faculty, presided 
over by that rarity in university fac- 
ulties, a full professor without a doc- 
tor's degree. We liberal arts freshmen 
rarely had engineering students in 
classes with us, and never in Erfglish 
composition. As an English major, I 
was hardly aware of the existence of 
the "engineering English" program or 

English at Illinois Institute 

of Technology: a Unique 


by Alfred C. Ames * 

of its instructional staff. 

After college came graduate school 
and a teaching assistantship for me 
at the University of Illinois. Illinois 
did not segregate its freshman engi- 
neers, but mixed all freshmen to- 
gether in sections that were more or 
less representative cross sections. 
First year students in engineering, 
liberal arts, agriculture, fine arts, 
physical education, and commerce 
all took "rhetoric" courses in a pro- 
gram administered by the depart- 
ment of English and staffed largely 
by graduate students in English. 

In 1941, I attended my first na- 
tional convention of the Modern 
Language Association, the principal 
professional organization of collegiate 
teachers of English and other modern 
literatures. I have not missed a na- 
tional convention since; and I have 
been consistently impressed by the 
tone and emphases of these gather- 
ings. The M.L.A. is a scholarly organ- 
ization. Its programs are largely given 
over to new findings or syntheses in 
specialized areas of literary or philo- 
logical history. Its journal, Publica- 
tions of the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation, is famous or notorious, de- 
pending upon the viewpoint, for its 
solemnity (or stuffiness), substantial- 
ness (or dullness), and scientific 
rigor (or much ado about nothing). 
The "Old Guard" of the M.L.A. con- 
sists, in general, of the weightiest, be~t 
known, highest salaried professors of 
literature in the country. They as- 
semble in their capacity as scholars. 
An observer would not learn from 
the official proceedings that they 
were teachers at all. 

Illinois Tech, I was reminded in 
my first interview, was no ordinary 

engineering school as far as its 
English department was concerned. 
This I and nearly everyone else in 
the profession knew already, thanks 
to the widely known publications of 
some members of the staff here. A 
study of the catalogue (the Ph.D.'s in 
English from Harvard, Northwestern, 
Washington, Wisconsin, and Yale; 
the extensive list of courses) con- 
firmed, on the customary basis of out- 
side, uninformed judgment, the prop- 
osition that teaching English at I.I.T. 
was professionally honorific, rather 
than otherwise, and was essentially 
teaching English, not "engineering 

Three years' experience on the in- 
side, and numerous departures from 
and additions to the staff (none in- 
volving other technical schools) have 
served to support further the idea 
that I.IT.'s English department has 
status in the main stream of univer- 
sity and liberal arts college English 
departments. Many of the courses 
listed in the catalogue are rarely, if 
ever, given, but enough materialize 
to enable the department to give a 
sound English major in the liberal 
studies division, and the administra- 
tion unequivocally accepts university 
standards for its English faculty. 

At the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation conventions I can hardly turn 
around without seeing acquaintances 
from universities and present or for- 
mer colleagues at Illinois Tech. At 
the American Society for Engineer- 
ing Education convention, an almost 
entirely different set of English pro- 
fessors appeared — teachers of "engi- 
neering English" in the universities 
and the principal English professors 
of such schools as Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology and California 
(please turn to page 28) 

OCTOBER, 1947 

fZA m 

Controlled Pouring 

by the 


Counter-Gravity Casting Process 

by Roy D. Haworth and W. C. Wick* 

THE IDEA of counter-gravity or 
vacuum casting is not new. In 
1918, for example, a patent was issued 
to Simon Lake for a process involv- 
ing a combination of vacuum and 
pressure casting. For many years the 
Wetherill Engineering Company of 
Philadelphia produced gray iron 
castings by a counter-gravity pres- 
sure technique in which molten metal 
was forced upward into the bottom of 
the mold cavity under pressure. 

Difficulties presented by the higher 
temperatures required for casting 

steel, coupled with the dangers inher- 
ent in constraining molten metal 
under pressure, led to the develop- 
ment of the present-day counter- 
gravity vacuum casting technique by 
Armour Research Foundation under 
the sponsorship of the Wetherill En- 
gineering Company and other indus- 
trial concerns. The technique in 
essence consists of sucking molten 
metal under controlled vacuum into 
the bottom of the mold without tur- 
bulence and without gas and dirt 

Figure 1. The Wetherill counter- 
gravity casting unit as developed by 
Armour Research Foundation. 

The modern Wetherill process as 
developed by Armour differs from 
Lake's process in that Lake com- 
pletely exhausted the mold cavity, 
which was then filled with metal from 
the top. This vacuum, while increas- 
ing the probability of filling the 
molds was uncontrolled and thereby 
increased the natural inrush of metal 
and probably aggravated the forma- 
tion of defects. 

Undoubtedly the most important 
single operation in producing cast- 
ings in large or small quantities is the 
pouring of the molten metal into the 
mold. Anyone familiar with casting 
techniques is aware of the many dif- 
ferent types of gates used. The pri- 
mary objectives of the gate should be 
to control metal entry into the mold 
at the desired filling rate and location, 
with a minimum amount of turbu- 

A number of advantages are to be 

* Supervisor, foundry process research, and as- 
sistant metallurgist, respectively, Armour Research 
Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology. 



gained by having the metal enter the 
mold slowly and quietly. Gas entrap- 
ment, mold erosion, misruns, surface 
laps, sand and slag inclusions, to 
name but a few, are quite often 
caused by improper or uncontrolled 
pouring procedures. Mechanical con- 
trol of pouring with scientific accu- 
racy is now obtainable through ihe 
use of the counter-gravity method of 
casting. A brief description of the 
Wetherill Counter-Gravity Casting 
Machine will offer some explanation 
for the advantages of the process. 

The present counter-gravity unit 
in operation at Armour Research 
Foundation in Chicago occupies a 
floor space of approximately 110 
square feet. This area includes the 
casting unit or tower and the neces- 
sary vacuum pump system. The cast- 
ing tower consists mainly of an angle 
iron structure which supports the vac- 
uum chamber and molds. A system 
containing an air hoist and air- 
operated piston is used to raise and 
lower the entire mold assembly and 
vacuum chamber. 

The machine is operated by one 
man at a central control panel shown 
to the right of the unit in Fig. 1. The 

"The process and equipment described in this 
article were primarily the result of development 
work carried out under the direct guidance ci Dr. 
T. C. Poulter, Associate Director, and Mr. M. H. 
Kalina, Assistant Chairman, Metals Research ot 
Armour Research Foundaiion cl Illinois Institute 
ct Technology." 

equipment on the control panel con- 
sists of a series of four switches and 
signal lights, a control lever, an auto- 
matic timing device, and a strip chart 
vacuum recorder. The entire casting 
operation from start to finish is con- 
trolled by a multi-acting lever. A glass 
protection shield enables the opera- 
tor to observe the entire operation 
from the control panel. 

The machine ready for operation 
is illustrated in Fig. 1. The metal is 
tapped from the melting furnace into 
a ladle, which in turn is carried on 
a buggy and track under the vacuum 
chamber. A refractory nozzle extends 
below the vacuum chamber. Before 
the nozzle is lowered into the metal, 
an automatic skimmer blows slag 
and dirt from the surface of the metal 
immediately below the nozzle. The 
nozzle is dipped into the ladle of 
molten metal and the vacuum is then 
applied; this sucks the molten metal 
up into the mold. 

Figure 2. Brake shoe head produced by the counter-gravity method. 
As quenched high-speed steel (1000 X) contains diamond-hard particles of 
carbides embedded in a hard (martensitic) matrix. 

As the metal level drops in the 
ladle, the nozzle and vacuum cham- 
ber are lowered by the operator. After 
the molds have been filled and held 
for a predetermined solidification pe- 
riod, the vacuum is automatically 
broken. The entire gate and vacuum 
chamber containing the molds are 
raised from the tapping ladle and the 
molds are ready for the shake-out. 
This machine is so designed and 
constructed that it can be adapted to 
a highly-mechanized production line. 
For light weight castings, mold as- 
semblies could be set up on indi- 
vidual buggies and rolled under the 
vacuum chamber at the rate of about 
one a minute. 

Although the operation of the ma- 
chine is simple, the control mechan- 
ism is quite extensive in order to 
insure complete and reproducible 
control. The vacuum system consists 
of a series of automatic valves which 
open and close the vacuum chamber 
from the pumps. These valves are 
interconnected to the interval timer 
which controls the total vacuum time 
by starting and closing a motor op- 
erated valve. Adjustments can be 
made on the valve mechanism to 
obtain a wide range of filling rates 
and vacuum valves. 

This control makes it possible to 
cast a great variety of alloys, both 
ferrous and non-ferrous. The maxi- 
mum vacuum used is determined by 
the height through which the metal 
must be raised from the ladle to fill 
the mold. An excess vacuum equiva- 
lent to a head of four to six inches of 
steel is normally maintained. 

The control over pouring condi- 
tions that this process offers results 
in many advantages which cannot be 
obtained by conventional gravity- 
casting methods. Primarily, the proc- 
ess removes control over pouring 
from an individual basis, with the 
accompanying uncertainties of pour- 
ing rate and pouring temperature 
normally encountered in foundries, 
and permits establishment of pre- 
cisely regulated mechanical control 
over this important operation. 

The importance of controlled pour- 
ing is recognized by all progressive 
foundrymen and cannot be empha- 
sized too strongly. For conventional 

OCTOBER, 1947 


Figure 3. Assembled sand molds preparatory to casting 112 landing-geai 

pouring, many elaborate gating sys- 
tems are used in order to produce 
molds with bottom gates. In the 
Wetherill Counter -Gravity method 
all molds are bottom gated, and since 
the metal is sucked directly up into 
the mold without an intermediate 
down gate, a necessary evil in gravity 
casting, turbulence and erosion of 
molds are at an absolute minimum. 

The filling by counter- gravity 
methods eliminates the variation in 
filling rate of the mold from bottom 
to top, which occurs in conventional 
pouring practices. By the constant 
lifting effect of the vacuum, the filling 
progresses at a uniformly smooth 
rate; while in gravity pouring, the 
mold starts to fill fast and, as the 
head pressure decreases, the rate of 
metal-rise in the mold decreases pro- 
portionately. This condition may 
often be the cause of misruns, i.e., 
failure to fill out the entire mold, par- 
ticularly on castings which may be 
poured too slowly and on the "cold" 

Actual pouring practice has been 
experimentally determined for a va- 
riety of castings, ranging in weight 
from approximately 1 lb. to 100 lbs. 
each. The filling rate is determined 
by the design of the casting. A cast- 
ing with very thin sections, for ex- 
ample, can be filled more rapidly 
than one with heavy sections. This 

control over filling rate is especially 
important for thin section castings 
where mixrunning is a serious prob- 
lem in conventional pouring. Many 
castings found difficult to fill by grav- 
ity pouring have been made with 
comparative ease by the counter- 
gravity method. 

Because of the decrease in misrun 
defects affected by the Wetherill 
process, it has been possible to re- 
design such castings as the brake 
shoe head shown in Fig. 2. Sections of 
this casting were decreased in metal 
thickness from 1 4" and 3 16" to 
1 8" without any increased scrap 
loss, and service requirements were 
still adequate. The weight of the cast- 
ing was reduced from 13 pounds to 
10 pounds at the same time. The per- 
centage of good castings produced on 
a series of six heats containing 24 
brake heads each was 97 per cent. It 
has been found that less than three 
per cent defectives can be maintained 
on this type of work. 

The desirable functions of the at- 
mospheric pressure riser may be em- 
loyed advantageously on castings 
requiring risers for filling by the use 
of counter-gravity casting technique. 
As the metal is drawn up into the 
mold cavities, the partial vacuum in 
the enclosed casting chamber keeps 
the metal in the molds for the pre- 
determined period. If the casting de- 

sign is such that heavy sections re- 
quire riser feeding, the vacuum cycle 
will be set to hold the metal until 
the gate is solidified. The vacuum is 
then automatically released and at- 
mospheric pressure acting on "Wil- 
liams" or V-notch type riser 1 func- 
tions to feed the casting. 

Another desirable feature of the 
counter-gravity process is the elim- 
ination of entrapped gas porosity 
caused by turbulence during filling. 
The constant vacuum has the effect 
of increased permeability sands be- 
cause the gases are drawn out of the 
mold at a rapid rate, and thus the 
odds against gases being entrapped 
in the mold to cause defects are 
greatly diminished. The removal of 
air and gases ahead of the metal re- 
sults in an apparent increased fluidity 
of the metal for a given casting tem- 
perature, particularly in light section 
castings. For this reason the lighter- 
section, lower-weight castings can be 
produced or lower pouring tempera- 
tures can be used, resulting in better 
casting surface. 

In some instances, very desirable 
fine grain structure and reduction of 
coarse dendritic structures have been 
obtained as a result of rapid chilling 
of the metal in permanent or water- 
cooled molds. Cylinders or tubing of 
short lengths can be cast by the 
counter -gravity process without 
cores, and, thereby, centerline por- 
osity, regardless of wall thickness or 
alloy composition, can be eliminated. 
When casting a cylinder, a water- 
cooled mold can be used to great ad- 
vantage to speed solidification and 

The mold is set up within the 
vacuum chamber in the regular man- 
ner and the mold cavity completely 
filled with molten metal. Instead of 
maintaining a vacuum until the gate 
is solidified, the vacuum is released 
after a predetermined period and 
normal atmospheric pressure enters 
the chamber. The center metal which 
has not yet solidified at that time 
(please turn to page 32) 

1. This estimate is based on a 75,000 KW plant; 
the "California" estimate is based upon a 300,000 
KW plant. It does not appear, however, that the 
difference between the estimates can be explained 
in terms of the greater economy of a larger plant. 
More likely, it reflects the different degrees of con- 
servatism of the two groups of i 



^ © 
® W 











by Herbert A. Simon* 

OCTOBER, 1947 

(Author's note: The material for this paper was 
gathered as part of a study of peacetime uses oi 
atomic power being conducted by the Cowles Com- 
mission for Research in Economics under the direc- 
tion of Professor Jacob Marschak and Dr. Sam 
Schurr. I am indebted to these and other colleagues 
on the study for their help, but the conclusions set 
forth here are my own.) 

WE HAVE now entered Year 
Three of the atomic age. Two 
years have passed, and few of the 
extravagant speculations in which 
the commentators indulged in the 
weeks after Hiroshima have yet been 
realized. The bomb so far has not 
taken mankind to Armageddon — al- 
though current events offer little 
comfort to those who would prefer 
to postpone this spectacular event. 
On the other hand, atomic energy 
applied to the purposes of peace has 
yet neither ushered in the era of 
plenty nor realized the Utopian's 
dream of a two-hour work day. Coal, 
oil, gas, and water still supply the 
energy that drives the machines. 

Two years, of course, is a very 
short time. No one familiar with the 
numerous engineering problems that 
must be solved in reducing basic sci- 
entific discovery to practical applica- 
tion has had any illusion that an 
atomic power plant would become a 
reality within such a short interval. 
But what about the future? Although 
the time schedule still seems to be a 
matter of speculation, even among 
the atomic scientists, the prospects 
appear bright for a practical atomic 
power plant within five or ten years. 
If this goal is actually realized (and 
assuming — optimistically — that the 
bombs do not explode too soon), 
what effects can we expect atomic 
power to have upon our economy 
during the first generation after it 
has been introduced? 

Prophecy on matters of this kind 
is a risky business. Perhaps the best 
the prophet can hope is that, before 
his predictions are proved by events 
to be incorrect, his prophecy will 
have been forgotten. He is not al- 
ways so lucky. The distinguished 
physicist, Robert A. Millikan, writing 
in the pages of Science for Septem- 
ber 28, 1928, was bold enough to pre- 

"The energy available . . . 

through the disintegration of 


radioactive, or any other, atoms 
may perhaps be sufficient to 
keep the corner peanut and pop- 
corn man going, on a few street 
corners in our larger towns for 
a long time yet to come, but 
that is all . . . The energy sup- 
ply to man in the past has been 
obtained wholly from the sun, 
and a billion years hence he 
will, I think, be supplying all 
his needs for light, and warmth, 
and power entirely from the 
Professor Millikan s billion-year es- 
timate was quoted in 1933 by Presi- 
dent Hoover's Committee on Recent 
Social Trends: and, now that the es- 
timate has proved some 999,999.975 
years too long, it still remains for all 
to read in the clear type of that com- 
mittee's report. 

One other prefatory remark is in 
order. The estimates contained in 
this paper are not based on any "con- 
fidential" information about atomic 
energy. The writer is not in posses- 
sion of any such information. The 
facts that will be used as the basis for 
prediction are contained in two pub- 
lished estimates of the probable cost 
of producing electricity in an atomic 
power plant. 

One of these estimates was pre- 
pared by the staff of the Manhattan 
Project and was published in Mr. 
Bernard Baruch's initial report to the 
United Nations. The other estimate 
was prepared by an unofficial group 
at the University of California, and 
it is based primarily on general en- 
gineering considerations rather than 
on "inside" information from the sci- 
entists actually engaged on the 
atomic energy project. 

In what form will atomic 
energy he used? 

Three possibilities for the use of 
atomic energy have been widely dis- 
cussed: the generation of electric 
energy in an atomic power plant, 
the use of direct heat from an atomic 
pile, and the use of atomic energy in 
some form to propel vehicles on land, 
sea, or in air. 

The first of these possibilities is 
apparently the one of most immedi- 
ate practicability, and it is perhaps 

not too optimistic to expect that a 
pilot plant will actually be construct- 
ed within five years. What problems 
of design are yet unsolved is a matter 
on which the public can only conjec- 

Direct heat from an atomic pile 
might have important applications in 
metallurgy and in the central heat- 
ing of cities. It will be necessary to 
devise materials, for use in the struc- 
ture of the pile, that will not disin- 
tegrate under a combination of high 
temperature and radioactive bom- 
bardment, and to devise a method 
for transferring heat without trans- 
ferring harmful radioactivity. 

The possibility of powering auto- 
mobiles, trains, airplanes, or boats 
with atomic energy appears some- 
what remote because of the shielding 
problem. Until nuclear radiation can 
be blocked by something lighter than 
a four-foot concrete wall, we will 
have to rely on more traditional 
fuels for our transportation. 

Since electric energy appears to be 
the most likely atomic product in the 
near future, we will be primarily con- 
cerned in our discussion with this 
particular application. 

Atomic energy is not free energy 

Some of the more extravagant pre- 
dictions for the atomic era have been 
based upon the misconception that 
atomically-produced electricity will 
be virtually free electricity. This idea 
is entirely false. 

Any engineer knows that the cost 
of fuel is only a very small part of 
the cost of electricity. We are al- 
ready getting a substantial part of 
our electricity from "free" fuel — 

waterpower. But before falling water 
can be transformed into electricity, 
dams must be built, generating sta- 
tions constructed, transmission lines 
erected. The interest on the invest- 
ment in these structures, their depre- 
ciation and obsolescence, and their 
maintenance and operating costs 
must all be charged against the elec- 
tric energy that is generated. Even 
in a coal generating plant several 
hundred miles from coal mines, the 
fuel cost will amount to only about 
2 mills per kilowatt hour gener- 
ated out of a total generating cost of 
4V2 to six mills. 

In estimating the cost of atomic 
energy, the fuel cost can be neglected 
— regardless of the price of uranium 
■ — since once the pile is in operation, 
it will manufacture its own fuel. 
Hence, the important question is: 
what will be the capital investment 
and operating cost of an atomic plant 
in comparison with coal and hydro- 
electric plants? 

According to the "official" esti- 
mate presented by Baruch, the capi- 
tal investment in an atomic gener- 
ating plant will be about $325 per 
kilowatt generating capacity. 1 The 
California group arrived at the much 
more optimistic investment figure of 
$130 per KW. Annual charges — in- 
terest, depreciation, and obsolescence 
— of not less than 10 per cent must 
be assessed against this investment. 
If we assume a load factor of 50 per 
cent, each kilowatt of capacity will 
generate 4,380 KWH of electricity 
per year. With an annual charge of 
$13 to $33 per KW, we get a gener- 
ating cost — for fixed charges alone — 
of 3 to 7.5 mills per KWH. To this 
must be added operating and main- 
tenance charges of not less than 1 or 
1.5 mills per KWH. 

Even if the more optimistic invest- 
ment figure is the correct one, we see 
that our electricity will cost 4 to 4.5 
mills per KWH at the generating 
station; while if the more conserva- 
tive estimate is correct, it will cost 
8.5 to 9 mills. Four mills is about the 
cost of electricity at our most eco- 
nomical hydro stations, and that is 
not much below the cost of electric- 
fp/eose turn to page 34) 





MAN has known steel for thou- 
sands of years, but alloy steels 
have been known for scarcely a 
century. The steel used by man for 
so long a period is what is known as 
simple carbon steel. Carbon is the 
only essential alloying element. The 
effect of this simple addition is so 
potent that through its control man 
has been able to fashion every article 
and tool he has needed for a relative- 
ly simple existence. The art had been 
known since antiquity, but the sci- 
ence came very slowly afterward. 
The British Museum has a piece of 
hardened steel found in the pyramids, 
but Sorby first applied the micro- 
scope to study of metals in 1864. 

Man's material progress prior to 
the nineteenth century was as a crawl 
compared to the pace of his advance 
since then. The industrial revolution 
brought the age of specialization; spe- 
cialties required enlargements of 
abilities; special abilities required 
special steels. "Tubal Cain his spear- 
head wrought from ore he smelted 
with the thorn and cactus tree," but 
armor piercing projectiles must be 
made from alloy steel. 

The maximum hardness of a steel 
is determined by its carbon content. 
The soft malleable articles are made 
of very low carbon steels; and, as the 
hardness requirements are raised, the 
carbon is increased. Additional hard- 
ness and strength are obtainable in 
the higher carbon steels by heat treat- 

Even today, for many purposes 
simple carbon steels are entirely sat- 
isfactory. Where hardness, strength, 
resistance to impact, and ductility, 
all in a fairly narrow temperature 
range around room temperature, are 
required, they are the most economi- 
cal steels for the purpose. The ma- 
chines of our highly complex civiliza- 
tion, however, have many compon- 

ents that undergo unusual conditions. 
Where strength, hardness, resistance 
to impact, and ductility are required 
either at high temperatures or at 
low temperatures, simple carbon 
steels are not satisfactory. Where 
the corrosion resistance imparted by 
painting, plating, or dipping is not 
enough, simple carbon steels can not 
be used. Where large parts must be 
hardened throughout the section, 
simple carbon steels will not do. 

Although the many demands of 
our highly mechanized existence re- 

quire many special steels, all of these 
steels may be classed into four basic 
groups : 

(1) Engineering alloy steels 

(2) Tool steels 

(3) Stainless steels 

(4) Heat resisting steels 

The engineering alloy steels com- 
prise the group catalogued under the 
S. A. E. four-number system; i. e., 
they are low in alloy content and 
simple in composition. The total al- 
loy content is under 5 per cent, and 
the number of alloy elements rare- 
ly exceeds 3 per cent (other than the 
manganese and silicon present in 


High-speed steel must be hardened from a temperature close to its melting 
point, but when this temperature is silghtly exceeded, the carbides migrate 
to the grain boundaries and fuse. Upon solidification they assume this 
skeleton-like shape. 

OCTOBER, 1947 


When tempered, the martensitic matrix ejects myriads of tiny carbides and 
etches very dark. The corrosion resistant large carbides stand out in relief. 

both alloy and simple carbon steels 
for reducing the embrittling effect 
of sulfur and oxygen). Their pur- 
pose is primarily to increase the 
depth of hardening. 

When a steel is hardened through 
in the quench (that is, no soft core 
is produced) its mechanical proper- 
ties on subsequent tempering are 
much better than the like properties 
of a steel incompletely hardened 
through on the quench. Simple car- 
bon steels have such high reaction 
rates of transformation to a soft 
structure during the intended hard- 
ening that only a relatively thin skin 
can be formed in the completely 
hardened condition. The function of 
the alloying elements in the engi- 
neering alloy steels is to slow down 
the softening reaction and thus per- 
mit deeper hardening for a given 
cooling rate. 

Through methods originally de- 
vised by Marcus Grossmann, director 
of research of the Carnegie-Illinois 
Steel Corporation, it is possible to 
calculate the composition of steel 
that should be ordered for a job, 

knowing the size of section and the 
nature of the hardening treatment to 
be followed. This work, and it has 
been verified fully by experiment, 
has shown that small amounts of 
several elements are of greater in- 
fluence on promoting deep harden- 
ing than a considerable amount of 
a single element. The product of 
war development, the N. E. steels 
and their counterpart, the S. A. E. 
eight-thousand series, are triple al- 
loy steels, containing nickel chromi- 
um and molybdenum. The element 
giving the strongest hardenability 
effect, as now known, is manganese; 
and it is used to fortify the previ- 
ously mentioned three. 

Aside from increased depth of 
hardening, certain alloy additions, as 
vanadium, promote fine grain, which 
markedly increases the shock resist- 
ance of the hardened condition. 

Simple carbon steels become very 
brittle at low temperatures (the 
cause of many welded-ship failures 
in the North Atlantic during the past 
war). Certain alloy additions, such 
as molybdenum, markedly lower the 

temperature at which this brittleness 

Salesmanship principally estab- 
lished low alloy steels in the early 
part of the present century and over- 
sold certain compositions. War-time 
research, however, has put the pur- 
chase of these steels on a scientific 

The first alloy tool steel was made 
by Robert Mushet in 1868, and for 
20 years this was the only alloy tool 
steel made. Now there are many 
different compositions available, fit- 
ting the needs of our complex mech- 

What was the power unleashed in 
the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury that started man on this on- 
rush of material progress? The tools 
made of simple carbon steel suited 
his purposes for many thousands of 
years, but now he was to need con- 
stantly improving ones. Why was it 
that this material progress became 
so greatly accelerated and why is it 
yet increasing in its acceleration? 
Appropriately, Samuel F. B. Morse, 
in the year 1844, sent these words in 
the first telegraph message: "What 
Hath God Wrought?" 

Carbon tool steels could not keep 
up with the pace of increasing cut- 
ting speeds and feeds; and, in fact, 
our best alloy tool steels will not be 
able to take the pace of the near 
future. Most of the new designs on 
machine tools are based on the use 
of cemented carbides, in which iron 
exists only as a trace. 

What did carbon tool steels lack? 
In the first place, the factors that 
make a tool steel are: first, its hard- 
ness; second, its ability to keep that 
hardness to a good measure at the 
elevated temperatures experienced 
in heavy or in high-speed cutting. 
Increasing the carbon to 0.80 per 
cent and above gives the requisite 
hardness; but there is no resistance 
on the part of carbon steels to soft- 
ening by heat. The carbon atoms 
move from the positions in the iron 
atom lattice that is the hard struc- 
ture to the positions of the softer 
structures under the increase in en- 
ergy resulting from heat. If the soften- 
ing temperature is to be raised, other 
kinds of atoms are required to hinder 



this movement of the carbon atoms. 

The most effective element is 
tungsten, and the least effective is 
iron itself. In general, the more com- 
plex the constitution, that is, the 
more different kinds of refractory 
atoms in the lattice structure, with 
more difficulty does the carbon atom 
move; and the tools made from such 
steels cut at higher temperatures. 
The highly unsettled conditions in 
China have made the price and sup- 
ply of tungsten extremely variable. 

Fortunately, we do not have to 
depend on tungsten for this property. 
Molybdenum, of which we produce 
90 per cent of the world's supply 
(and most of that from one moun- 
tain in Colorado) is as effective as 
tungsten. Also found in modern 
high-speed tool steels are chromium, 
vanadium, and cobalt. Although the 
cutting properties of high-speed cut- 
ting steels are somewhat proportion- 
al to their alloy content, certain com- 
positions have been found to give 
optimum results. Giving the figures 
in percentages, either 18 tungsten or 
9 molybdenum, 4 chromium, 2 vana- 
dium, and 10 cobalt is the most sat- 
isfactory tool material of the iron 
base alloys. 

This steel, and steels similar in 
composition, cut at a dull red heat. 
By eliminating the iron and increas- 
ing the chromium, tungsten, cobalt, 
and carbon, a material is obtained 
(non- workable tools can be cast to 
shape) that will cut at a bright red 

Basically, the cutting tool should 
consist of hard diamond-like par- 
ticles supported in a hard matrix 
that will stay hard at elevated tem- 
peratures. The hardest particles are 
the carbides, borides, and nitrides of 
tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, 
and vanadium. The best matrix is 
none at all, but a tool material can- 
not be made of hard particles alone; 
they must be bonded. The most sat- 
isfactory binder is cobalt. When the 
hard particles are present to about 
90 per cent of the structure, we have 
the tool material for greatest produc- 
tion, the cemented carbide. 

The die steels are also a part of 
the tool steel classification. The basic 
composition for a good cutting steel 

is also satisfactory for a good die 
steel. For cold die work, such as in 
shearing, high chromium steels are 
mainly used, principally because of 
their lower cost. For hot die work, 
such as in extrusion, the composition 
depends upon the temperature, the 
amount of tungsten and chromium 
increasing with the service require- 
ments. Because extreme hardness is 
not needed in the die steels for hot 
work, the carbon is lowered to one- 
third of its value in cutting steels; 
this also increases the ability to 
withstand thermal shock. 

The stainless steels have also con- 
tributed greatly to man's comfort 
and well-being. The immense chem- 
ical and food industries could not 
have developed to their present sta- 
ture, supplying good things for all 
men to enjoy, had not stainless steels 
been available in quantity. 

The principal element of steel — 
iron — is very readily attacked by 
many substances. When chromium 
is dissolved in the iron, the resulting 
alloy has increased resistance to at- 

tack; when the ratio of iron atoms to 
chromium atoms in solution is under 
11 to 1, the resulting alloy steel is 
immune to atmospheric attack, to 
oxidizing acids like nitric, and to 
many food acids. As the amount of 
chromium increases so does the cor- 
rosion resistance. 

For the milder corrosive condi- 
tions, such as encountered in the 
steam turbine, steel containing 12 
per cent chromium in solution is en- 
tirely satisfactory. Notice the em- 
phasis on chromium in solution; for, 
the chromium out of solution might 
as well not be there for all the good 
it does in enhancing the steel's cor- 
rosion resistance. How can the chro- 
mium get out of solution? Carbon 
is the answer. Chromium and car- 
bon are such good friends that they 
get together instantly when in sight 
of each other. The only way to break 
up this union is to use very high 
temperatures; and, if the carbon is 
high enough, the steel will melt be- 
fore all the chromium leaves the car- 
(please turn to page 42) 


As Quenched High Speed Steel (1000 X) contains diamond-hard particles 
of carbides embedded in a hard (martensitic) matrix. 

OCTOBER, 1947 

Excerpts from 

Institute Of Gas Technology 

nine companies amounted to more 
than $5,400 and special contributions 
from six companies totaled $53,500. 
Membership dues and contributions 
amounted to more than $125,000. 


The educational program, which 

A f Q 1 IO>f7 /fO was nomma Uy suspended in Febru- 

AnnUQl KepOn /y4/-40 ary 1944 because of a change in 


THE Institute of Gas Technology 
completed its sixth year of opera- 
tion on August 31. The year's de- 
velopments included several that 
were significant and auspicious. 
Among these was a substantial in- 
crease in the Institute's participation 
in the gas production research pro- 
gram of the American Gas Associa- 
tion. Most satisfactory contractual 
relations, together with a more com- 
plete recognition of the needs of the 
Institute, have been developed with 
the association. 

During the last 12 months, the In- 
stitute has moved further in the di- 
rection of accomplishing the purposes 
for which it was established. While 
definite progress has been made, the 
Institute has continued to be handi- 
capped by shortages in personnel and 
equipment, an aftermath of the war. 
The improvement in the financial 
position is shown in the accompany- 
ing charts. 

The first, presenting the sources of 
gross income, shows the effect of the 
shifting of the research program into 
the gas field largely as a result of the 
splendid three-year program spon- 
sored by the American Gas Associa- 
tion post-war planning committee 
and developed by the special com- 
mittee on gas industry research and 
promotional plan. 

The second, presenting the in- 
crease in assets, shows the rapid im- 
provement in current assets with the 
termination of the war and the ac- 
companying stabilization of the In- 
stitute's research, the latter again 
largely effected through the research 

program of the American Gas Asso- 

Improvement in financial position 
is a direct result of the continued 
support by members of the gas indus- 
try. The associate members and con- 
tributors who have supported and 
are still supporting the Institute are 
listed in Table I. Membership dues 
from 60 utility companies, appliance 
manufacturers, and ancillary com- 
panies totaled approximately $67,- 
000 during the past year. In this same 
period, general contributions from 

selective service regulations, was re- 
established with the fall semester of 
1946. Former fellows, who had with- 
drawn to enter the armed services or 
governmental activities, were con- 
tacted to determine their desire to 
participate in the program upon its 
re-activation. From the replies re- 
ceived, eight former fellows and two 
new candidates were enrolled. The 
first postwar class consisted of one 
doctoral candidate, one refresher, and 
seven masters candidates. At the end 
of the first semester, the refresher 
candidate, Thomas L. Pelican, com- 
pleted his course work and was em- 
ployed as a gas engineer by the Nat- 
ural Gas Pipe Line Company of 
America in Chicago. 








Chart I 

Gas Technology. 

Fiscal 1941-42 June 1-Aug. 31 

Periods 1942-47 Sept. 1-Aug. 31 



Roster of Associate Me 
August 31, 1947 

Amarillo Gas Co. 
American Stove Co 
Atlanta Gas Light 
Autogas Co. 
Bastian-Morley Co 



Boston Consolidated Gas Co. 
Bridgeport Gas Light Co. 
Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 
Bryant Healer Co. 
Cambridge Gas Light Co. 
Central Hudson Gas and Electric ( 
Cincinnati Gas and Electric Corp. 
Coast Counties Gas and Electric G 
Colorado Interstate Gas Co. 
Columbian Carbon Co. 
Columbia Engineering Co. 
Connelly Iron and Sponge Governc 
Consolidated Gas Electric Light an 
Continental Carbon Co. 
Derby Gas and Electric Co. 
Dresser Industries 

E. I. du Pont de Nemo 
East Ohio Gas Co. 
Globe-American Corp. 
Hartford Gas Co. 
Hope Natural Gas Co. 
Hope Producing Co. 
Houston Natural Cas ( 
I ■ > I ;j 1 1 • I Steel Co. 

I Co. 

Interstate Natural Cas Co. 

Lone Star Gas Co. 

Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. 

Minneapolis Gas Light Co. 

Mississippi River Fuel Corp. 

New Bedford Gas and Edison Light Co 

New York State Natural Gas Corp. 

Ohio Gas Light and Coke Co. 

Pacific Lighting Corp. 

Peoples Natural Gas Co. 

Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Co. 

Portland Gas and Coke Co. 

Rochester Gas and Electric Co. 

Rockland Gas Co. 

Rockwell Manufacturing Co. 

Geo. D. Roper Co. 

Seattle Gas Co. 

Servel, Inc. 

Southern California Gas Co. 

Southern Counties Gas Co. 

Standard Gas Equipment Corp. 

Surface Combustion Corp. 

Titan Valve and Manufacturing Co. 

Cities I„l 


United Gas Pipe Line Co. 
Warren Petroleum Corp. 
Washington Cas Light Co. 
West Texas Gas Co. 

Roster of Contributors 
Sept. 1, 1946 — Aug. 31, 1947 

• Gas Light Co. 

ce Cas and Electric Co. 

H. Lerch. Jr. 

Maiden and Melrose Gas Light Co 
Montana-Dakota Utilities Co. 
Peoples Gas Light * Coke Co. 
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Co. 
Rochester Cas and Electric Co. 
Williams Brothers Co. 
Worcester County ar d Electric Co. 

grees of master of science and doctor 
of philosophy in gas technology may 
be met. The curriculum has been re- 
vised to provide a more precise pres- 
entation of the material required by 
the by-laws of the Institute. More in- 
formation is presented in the 1947- 
48 catalog. 

The instruction in utilization has 
been enlarged through the use of out- 
side lecturers and afternoon classes 
in the service school and appliance 
testing laboratory of the Peoples Gas 
Light and Coke Company. 

The former practice of having 
semi-monthly seminars addressed by 
recognized leaders in various phases 
of the Gas Industry and by members 
of the research staff has been re- 
established. Last year students and 
staff had the very fortunate oppor- 
tunity of listening to the following: 

Harry E. Bates, Powell Cooper, 
Fenton Finn, Mark Fred, Edwin L. 
Hall, Marvin F. Johnson, and Frank 
H. Lerch, Jr. 


Every effort is being made to pro- 
vide a library that is unsurpassed in 

The present roster of students and 
the degrees granted by Illinois In- 
stitute of Technology to students who 
completed their work at the Institute 
of Gas Technology are shown in 
Tables II and III. Progress in stu- 
dent enrollment is shown in the 
accompanying chart. An examination 
of this chart will show the impact of 
the war upon the educational pro- 
gram, an impact which almost de- 
stroyed its effectiveness. The re- 
establishment of the educational pro- 
gram was made possible largely by 
contributions by companies and in- 
dividuals for fellowships and educa- 
tional purposes. Such contributions 
have been set aside in a special edu- 
cational reserve, and the amounts 
withdrawn for fellowship stipends 
and institutional fees have been trans- 
ferred from this fund to income as 

Dr. Joseph D. Parent is in active 
charge of the educational program. 
He is working with the graduate com- 
mittee of Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology to coordinate the instruction 
so that the requirements for the de- 









200,000 - 








Chart II 


1941-42 June 1-Aug. 31 
1942-47 Sept. 1-Aug. 31 

OCTOBER, 1947 






Chart III 

Program Terminated 2-26-44 
by Selective Service 

Re-established 9-23-47 

the field of Gas Technology and re- 
lated subjects. Much has already 
been achieved in this direction. Prac- 
tically all important manufacturer's 
literature, patents, and American and 
foreign periodicals and books which 
are pertinent to the Gas Industry are 
to be found here. Further, subject 
files are being built up for topics of 
special interest to members of the 
Gas Industry. Some foreign publica- 
tions which are extremely difficult to 
obtain are available on micro-film. 
A Recordak micro-film reader is on 
hand for use with this material. 

In addition to collecting scientific 
publications pertinent to the Gas In- 
dustry for the use of the students and 
technical staff of the Institute and 
representatives of member com- 
panies, the Institute offers certain 
services to its member companies to 
fulfill its objective of collecting and 
disseminating information. 

One of the most important services 
rendered by the Library is the prep- 
aration of the monthly Gas Ab- 
stracts. New books, patents, and pe- 
riodicals are reviewed, and those con- 
taining information of importance to 
the Industry are abstracted by the 
members of the research staff. Gas 


Abstracts is sent free to member 
companies; it may be obtained by 
others for a nominal fee. An annual 
index, arranged both by author and 
subject, is published. Articles in the 
literature reviewed are micro-filmed 
upon request. Also, bibliographies, 
translations and literature surveys 
are prepared upon request. If the 
survey involves an analysis and crit- 
ical evaluation of data, equipment, 
or methods, a member of the research 
staff is assigned to the task. Thus, a 
survey and critical evaluation of all 
data relating to the hydrates of the 
hydrocarbons, together with an 
analysis of the patents from the en- 
gineering point of view, has recently 
been completed for the National Gas 
Department of the American Gas 
Association by a member of the re- 
search staff. 

Space occupied by the Institute 
has been limited to the area avail- 
able in 1946, because of the large in- 
flux of students at Illinois Tech. This 
limitation has made it necessary to 
utilize all of the ground area to its 
maximum loading. New equipment 
on order will result in even further 
crowding. Limited space has required 

the disassembly of research equip- 
ment as soon as a project is completed 
and has necessitated the re-erection 
of new facilities on the old site. In 
some instances, this has proven to be 
a wasteful procedure but one which 
can be avoided only by increasing 
the floor area available to the Insti- 
tute. These increasing needs again 
have raised the desirability of ob- 
taining a new and modern research 
building for the Institute. Some pre- 
liminary sketches of such a building 
have been prepared and cost esti- 
mates have been made. 

The American Gas Association has 
undertaken to solicit its membership 
for contributions to a building fund 
for the Gas Institute. This campaign 
is in progress at present and the very 
early returns indicate a generous re- 
sponse. When the necessary funds 
are secured, erection of a new build- 
ing on the south side of 34th street 
can be started. To broaden the scope 
of the Institute's work, it is absolute- 
ly essential that the following lab- 
oratories be equipped and manned: 
High Pressure, Low Temperature, 
Gas Standards, Spectophotometry, 
Physical Measurements, Physical 
Testing of Coal and Coke, and Uti- 

The Institute's present facilities do 
not provide sufficient space to ac- 
commodate more than a small frac- 
tion of the equipment necessary for 
these laboratories. This lack of space 
and equipment for research and de- 
velopment and the additional lack of 
adequate housing for the student pro- 
gram are the major reasons for em- 
phasizing the necessity of a new 
building at this time. 

Research Pregram 

During the current fiscal year, the 
research activities of the Institute 
have been carried forward in three 
major groupings: (a) American Gas 
Association research, (b) sponsored 
research and tests, and (c) basic re- 

The work for the Gas Production 
Research Committee has been con- 
centrated largely upon the solution 
of the peak load problem. This prob- 
lem has been attacked at three points. 
(please turn fo page 46) 


a TELEPHONE engineer 

Here we see his tools — 

His head 

And his hands. 

He may have emphasized electronics or mechanics 

Or some other of the many engineering specialties, 

But, more important, 

He knows his mathematics and science. 

He has the engineer's viewpoint and approach — 

The ability to see things through. 

He's a lot of engineers rolled into one. 

He's happy in his work 
And his future looks good. 
He's a telephone engineer. 


OCTOBER, 1947 


German Publications 

Since the End of the War 

by F. K. RICHTER* 

AN EXACT account of what has 
^^ been going on within the realm 
of German letters since the end of 
the conflict can be given only if we 
limit our subject. For this reason all 
literature of German refugees is 
omitted here, since it is easily avail- 
able. Scholarly essays and theses are 
also outside of the field of our in- 

The most obvious fact about new 
books from Switzerland, Germany 
and Austria is the considerable num- 
ber of new editions and selections of 
already known and established lit- 
erature and of modern writers. There 
is Tristan^ very pleasantly retold in 
prose, and there are fine selections 
of Silesius, Goethe, Holderlin, Claud- 
ius, and Stifter, and of moderns such 
as Trakl. Heym, Morgenstern, and 
Hesse. Many of these works were 
published in the series Poetry of Con- 
solation, Lasting Letters of All 
Times". The title may indicate that, 
in these times of national disaster, 
this particular literature seems to 
give the most comfort and consola- 
tion to the German people. The au- 
thors themselves appear to be espe- 
cially akin to today's German through 
their own troubled lives. (Silesius' 
homeland was devastated by wars, 
and Holderlin, Stifter, Trakl, and 
Heym lived tragically or became in- 
sane or committed suicide.) 

A second category of books deals 
with the events of recent years. These 
can be divided into several groups. 
There are, first, a considerable num- 
ber of journalistic accounts, written 
close to the occurrence at the time 
of the event or shortly afterwards; 
these do not go much beyond mere 

fact-recording. The diaries of Am- 
bassador von Hassell :l belong to this 
group and seem to be particularly 
informative and moving. Beginning 
at the Munich Conference, these di- 
aries continue until shortly before 
July 20, 1944, the day of the "putsch" 
against Hitler, which Hassell helped 
prepare. Often the memos were 

* Associate professor of modern languages, de- 
triment of language, literature, and philosophy, 
'inois Institute of Technology. 

jotted down on trips, quite sketchily 
and using fictitious names for the 
major figures. 

Indignation and shame flow out of 
the work about things that were done 
in the name of his nation, and it is 
easy to follow the diplomat as he 
endeavored to prevent the war or to 
finish it as soon as possible by in- 
forming representatives of foreign 
powers about the final Nazi plans. 
This serious matter is interwoven 
with delightful anecdotes which Has- 
sell actually experienced on his vari- 
ous trips through the Reich — anec- 
dotes which may indicate to some 
extent the true feelings of the various 
classes of the population. 

The book Officers Against Hitler 
by Fabian von Schlabrendorff 4 also 
contains much informative material. 
It is not so detailed and variegated, 
however, as that of Hassel. Schlabren- 


dorff concentrates largely on the 
preparations for the coup of July 20. 
In addition to this information^in- 
formation which seems to make us 
modify somewhat our hostile atti- 
tude toward the leading German 
Army officials — I find the descrip- 
tion of Hitler particularly good: a 
man, equipped with an almost dia- 
bolic foresight, sensing attacks upon 
his life, and foreseeing national dis- 
aster. Those books by Hassel and 
Schlabrendorff render service to 
present-day Germany by indicating 
that there was resistance against Hit- 
ler in diplomatic as well as in army 

A third book of information comes 
to us from a poet, Ernst Wiechert. 
Unlike the attitudes of the officer or 
the diplomat, the poet reports only 
about himself, his fate, and his im- 
pressions. He calls his work, The 
Forest of The Dead-', a report. Al- 
though Wiechert intends it to be 
nothing more than a report, it never- 
theless projects itself into the next 
group of recent German publications, 
which tries to interpret events and 
seeks meaning behind them. Johan- 
nes, which is Wiechert's name for 
himself in this book, overcomes the 
misery of his months in Buchenwald 
— and, in fact, his whole period of his- 
tory — through his passive attitude of 
accepting suffering. 

To this attitude he had come after 
many years of spiritual struggle. In 
the acceptance of suffering he sees 
the only possibility of lightening his 
fate; he believes that in so doing he 
forces God to grant relief. When 
Wiechert left Buchenwald, someone 
in the barracks remarked, "When he 
came here, his face looked like a rock, 
and as he leaves, it looks the same." 
(please turn to page 50) 


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is this ad . . . condensed by microfilming's magic. 
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You can utilize it to save space ... to speed refer- 
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for quick viewing, full-size, in a Recordak Reader. 

You can utilize it to make sales presentations more 
complete, more resultful. With motion pictures, you 
can "pack" a plow, a plant, a whole process into a 
small can of film . . . travel it where you will . . . show 
it off "large as life" and much more dramatically. 
Only a suggestion . . . this ... of what photography 
can do because it can condense. For a better picture 
of the applicational possibilities that stem from this 
and other unique characteristics of photography, 
write for "Functional Photography." 

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester 4, N.Y. jjml 

Functional Photography 

is advancing business and 
industrial technics. 



Master skyscrapers would rise near super-highway outlets. The interior 
buildings would then grow obsolete and would not be replaced. 


(continued from page 8) 
the most favorable annual return an- 
ticipated in 1929 was 10.25 per cent 
on a $39, 142,000 investment in a 
63-story structure, the largest return 
to be expected on a 1950 building 
is 3.61 per cent for the 50-story 
structure costing $34,593,000. 

It becomes clear then that the rush 
to build skyscrapers in the late twen- 
ties was motivated by the expecta- 
tion of a nearly usurious return. The 
collapse of that investment bubble 
was so complete that most of the 
buildings had to be placed in re- 
ceivership. Now, after having found 
the probable return to be 3.5 per 
cent on the investment in a building 
to be opened in 1950, we need not 
ask why investment groups are apa- 
thetic toward skyscraper construc- 

The possibility of a depression, 
during which several annual deficits 
might develop, will probably keep 
investors away from the skyscraper 
market until an increase in rentals 
or a decrease in construction and op- 
eration costs brings the predicted re- 
turn up to at least 5 per cent. At 
that rate of return, the construction 

of a skyscraper might compare fa- 
vorably as an investment possibility 
with blue-chip stocks or industrial 
bonds. Large-scale housing and sky- 
scraper construction have to com- 
pete for the investor's dollar with 
business and industrial investments 
because money in a free economy 
continually seeks the greatest prob- 
able return. 

We have concluded that the cal- 
culated prospect of return on the in- 
vestor's dollar does not now forecast 
the raising of great skyscrapers. Le 
Corbusier explains that the erection 
of additional skyscrapers placed at 
random in the constricted kernel of 
a metropolitan area would choke its 
already swarming streets beyond re- 

His shocking observation that we 
have as yet developed only one en- 
tirely successful means of transpor- 
tation — the vertical elevator — places 
emphasis upon our greatest metro- 
politan problem. Perhaps by a kind- 
ly economic fate we shall be saved 
from desperately damaging our own 
future. It will be fortunate if we 
build few skyscrapers until engineers 
have reduced the traffic glut of super- 
saturated streets. 

American industrial civilization is 

dependent upon the automobile, but 
the building matrix of American 
cities had solidified before 1900, 
when traffic consisted of vehicles 
moving four or five miles per hour 
and the metropolitan populations 
encompassed less than one-half of 
their present millions. Depressed or 
elevated superhighways will even- 
tually speed traffic through or over 
residential areas, but no engineeding 
plan has yet been detailed that will 
move traffic smartly into and 
through a central business district 
where the motor deluge equals that 
of the Chicago Loop. 

Le Corbusier's replacement of 
present city blocks by a greater grid 
system of quarter- or half-mile 
squares serviced only by elevated 
superhighways neglects the fact that 
present buildings cannot be aban- 
doned; nor can the first one of his 
master skyscrapers be built until a 
superhighway system is devised to 
service it. 

Elevated superhighways such as 
the Congress Street development in 
Chicago are under way. When an ele- 
vated superhighway is completed, it 
will provide exceptional traffic serv- 
ice to those buildings near its traf- 
fic outlets. New skyscrapers may 
then become good investments when 
placed where the solution of the traf- 
fic problem raises the rental value. 

To attract a high rental, the in- 

Approximate outlines of eight build- 
ings studied in "The Skyscraper" 
and re-estimated for 1950 costs. 






Coal, gas, and oil (fired singly or in combination) 
are regular items on today's menu for B&W boilers. 
Occasional entrees include: grain hulls, wood chips, 
asphalt, sewage sludge, by-products of paper mills, 
steel plants and sugar mills... just about anything 
that burns. So B &W builds boilers and combustion 
equipment that burn what's available today . . . 
likely to be available tomorrow ... at top efficiency. 
Helping power plants to get the most from avail- 

able fuels is only one of the things long years have 
taught B&W to do well. Industry otfers examples 
of many others — proof of the imaginative engineer- 
ing at B&W. 

Through this policy of continuous development 
and research, B&W offers excellent career oppor- 
tunities to technical graduates . . .in diversified fields 
of manufacturing, engineering, sales and research. 



vestor may decide that convenient 
indoor parking will be essential; and 
he may enlarge the design of the 
structure to provide for automobiles. 
If not, he should be helped to reach 
this decision by a proper city ordi- 

As other superhighways are built, 
Le Corbusier's greater grid system 
may develop naturally with the 
greatest commercial sky habitations 
located at the intersections of such 
superhighways, where traffic can 
readily reach the building from any 
direction. In the end, the lower grid 
of present streets within the busi- 
ness district may gradually become 
almost the exclusive property of 
street railways or busses and slow 
moving commercial vehicles. 

When this stage approaches, it 
seems clear that buildings not con- 
nected to the elevated superhighway 
grid will depreciate in value, and 
when obsolete they may not be re- 
built. At reasonable cost, the city 
might then purchase such internal 

properties and begin the develop- 
ment of the ideal green city. 

Private enterprise works less spec- 
tacularly than planned economies, 
but it is continuously at work. One 
of its tests is approaching, for we 
can neither long forget nor even- 
tually fail to find an open way 
around the traffic quagmire which 
has become the gravest physical 
problem of metropolitan life. 

Augustus rebuilt Rome and the 
Napoleons Paris by imperial dic- 
tate. If capitalism is to rebuild Chi- 
cago and New York without govern- 
mental dictum, it must become sen- 
sitized not to economic law alone 
but also to the desires of society. 

The Field Building, Chicago. 



Multi Electrical Mfg. Co. 

4223-43 W. Lake St., Chicago 24, III. 

OCTOBER, 1947 


National Electronic 

November 3-5, Edgewater Beach Hotel, Chicac 

Monday, November 3 
9:00 A. M. Registration 

Edgewater Beach Hotel 

10:15 A.M. General Meeting 

Keynote Address by President George D. Stoddard, 

University of Illinois 
"Electronics Comes of Age" by L. V. Berkner, Joint 

Research and Development Board 

12:15 P. M. Luncheon Meeting 

Speaker : W. Evans, Vice President of Westinghouse 
Electric Corp. 

2:00 P. M. Technical Sessions 


(a) "Dynamic Noise Suppressor" by H. H 
Scott, Technology Instrument Corp. 

(b) "Intermodulation Method of Distortion 
Measurement" by W. J. Warren, Univ. of 
Santa Clara and Hewlett-Packard Co., 
and W. R. Hewlett, Hewlett-Packard Co. 

(c) "S/N Ratio in AM Receivers" by E. C. 
Fubini and D. C. Johnson, Airborne In- 
struments Lab., Inc. 

Id) "Corona Discharge at High Altitude and 
Low Temperature" by H. j. Dana, State 
College of Washington 

Chairman: M. F. Behar, Editor of Instruments 

(a) "Self Balancing Thermistor Bridge" by C. 
C. Bath and H. Goldberg, Bendix Radio 

(b) "Variable Ratio Inductance Bridges and 
Networks" by Paul Glass and Sylvia May 
Dushkes, Askania Regulator Co. 

(c) "A Miniature Gastro-manometer for 
Electrical Recording" by H. C. Roberts, 
University of Illinois 

(d) "Short-Time Oscillography" by Jean V. 
Lebacqz, Johns Hopkins University 

(e) "Luminescent Screens for Cathode-Ray 
Oscillography" by Carl Feldt, A. B. Du- 
Mont Labs., Inc. 


(a) "Bead Supported Coaxial Attenuator 

(4000 to 10,000 mc.l" by J. W. E. 
Griemsmann and H. J. Carlin, Microwave 
Research Institute, Polytechnic Institute 
of Brooklyn 

(b) "Wave Propagation in Beaded Lines" by 
R. E. Beam, Northwestern University 

(c) "Coaxial Elements and Connectors" by 
W. R. Thurston, General Radio Co. 

Id) "Broadband Matching of Impedances" 
by R. M. Fano, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 

(e) "Broadband Bolometer Type UHF Power 
Meters' by M. J. DiToro, Polytechnic In- 
stitute of Brooklyn 

Chairman: J. E. Hobson, Armour Research 

(a) "Organization and Management of Elec- 
tronic Research" by R. M. Bowie, Sylvania 
Electric Co. 
lb) "Electronic Research in the University" 

by L. T. DeVore, University of Illinois 
(c) "Electronic Research in the Research In- 
stitute" by G. E. Ziegler, Midwest Re- 
search Institute 
Id) "Electronic Research in the Government 
Service" by Archibald S. Brown, Wright 
7:00 P. M. Banquet — Marine Dining Room 

Edgewater Beach Floor Show and Dancing. (La- 
dies cordially invited, informal ) 

Tuesday, November 4 
9:00 A.M. Technical Sessions 


(a) "Higher Mode Techniques for Wave 
Guides" by M. W. Goodhue, Polytechnic 
Research and Development Co. 

(b) "Multiplex Transmission Through Wave 
Guides Using Higher Order Modes" by 
R. R. Buss, W. A. Hughes, H. D. Ross and 
A. B. Bronwell, Northwestern University 

(c) "Microwave Spectroscopy" by D. K. Coles 
and W. E. Good, Westinghouse Electric 

(d) "Noise Reduction in Radar and Com- 
munications" by S. Goldman, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology 

6. Joint session of National Electronics Confer- 
ence and AIEE, program arranged by the AIEE 


(a) "Electronic Computers" by J. W. Mauck- 

ly and J. P. Eckert, Jr., Electronic Control 

lb) "Storage of Numbers on Magnetic Tape" 

by J. M. Coombs, Engineering Research 

(c ) "Computers for Aeronautical Navigation" 

by Hugo Schuck, Minneapolis-Honeywell 


(a) "Cathode Tap, Cathode Follower Ampli- 
fiers" by B. B. Underhill, Penn State 

(b) "Low Power Frequency Multipliers" by 
R. J. Schwarz, Columbia University 

(c) "Series Mode Quartz Crystal Oscillator 
Circuit" by H. Goldberg and E. L. Crosby, 
Jr., Bendix Radio Corp. 

12:15 P.M. Luncheon Meeting 

Speaker: B. D. Hull, Chief Engineer, Southwestern 
Bell; President, AIEE; "An American Engineer- 
ing Association" 




2:00 P.M. Technical Sessions 


(a) "Ultrasonic Guidance of the Blind" by F. 
H. Slaymaker and W. F. Meeker, Strom- 

(b) "Heatless Preservation with Penetrating 
Electrons from the Capacitron" by W. 
Huber, Electronized Chemicals Corp. 

(c) "Citizens Radio Service" by R. E. Sam- 
uelson, Hallicrafters Co. 

(d) "General Trends in Foreign Electronic De- 
velopments" by A. H. Sullivan, Jr., Wright 


(a) "Electronic Half-tone Engraver" by John 
Boyajian, Fairchild Camera and Instru- 
ment Corp. 

(b) "Electronic Servomechanism Testing Ma- 
chine" by H. W. Katz, University of Il- 

(c) "Sealed Ignitrons for Radio Transmitter 
Power Supplies" by H. E. Zuvers, General 
Electric Co. 

(d) "Single Phase Controlled Rectifier and 
Inverter Circuits" by C. M. Wallis, Uni- 
versity of Missouri 


(a) "High Gain with Discone Antennas" by A. 
G. Kandoian, W. Sichak and R. A. Felsen- 
held, Federal Telecommunication Lab., 

(b) "Slot Antennas" by N. E. Lindenblad, 
Radio Corporation of America 

(c) "Measurement of Aircraft Antenna Pat- 
terns in Flight" by J. S. Prichard, Air- 
borne Instruments Lab., Inc. 

(d) "Transmission Frequencies for Line of 
Sight Systems" by L. S. Schwartz, Naval 
Research Lab. 


(a) "Mass Spectrometer Type Leak Detec- 
tor" by R. F. Wall, Texas A. & M. College 

(b) "Scintillation Counter" by J. W. Colt- 
man, Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

(c) "Precision Studies of Nuclear Reactions" 
by W. E. Shoupp, Westinghouse Electric 

Wednesday, November 5 
9:00 A. M. Technical Sessions 


(a) "Guided Missiles" by W. N. Brown, jr., 
Haller, Raymond and Brown 

(b) "Telemetry System for Guided Missiles" 
by L. J. Neelands and Walter Hausz, Gen- 
eral Electric Co. 

(c) "Foreign Developments in Infrared" by 
E. A. Underhill, Wright Field 

(d) "Foreign Vacuum Tubes and High Fre- 
quency Techniques" by B. L. Griffing, 
Wright Field 

OCTOBER, 1947 

A national forum on electronic research, 
development, and application, sponsored by- 
Illinois Institute of Technology, Northivestern 
University, the University of Illinois, the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
and the Institute of Radio Engineers, with 
the cooperation of the Chicago Technical 
Societies Council, 


(a) "Teleran, A Technical Progress Report" 
by R. W. K. Smith, D. H. Ewing and H. 
J. Schrader, Radio Corporation of Amer- 

(b) "Crystal Saver" by W. R. Hedeman, Jr., 
Bendix Radio Corp. 

(c ) "Pulse Count Modulation" by D. D. Grieg 
and S. Metzger, International Telephone 
and Telegraph Corp. 

(d) "Air Traffic Control" by W. D. White, 
Airborne Instruments Lab., Inc. 


(a) "Semi-Conductors" by K. Lark-Horovitz, 
Purdue University 

(b) "Dynamic Properties of the Infrared Ce- 
sium Arc" by J. M. Frank and W. S. Hux- 
ford, Northwestern University 

(c) "Supersonic Detection of Infrared Modu- 
lation" by F. J. Fry and W. J. Fry, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

(d) "Microwave Scattering" by R. T. Gabler, 
Westinghouse Electric Corp. 


(a) "High Frequency Operation of Fluores- 
cent Lamps" by J. H. Campbell and B. D. 
Bedford, General Electric Co. 

(b) "Magnetostriction Torquemeter" by C. 
M. Rifenberg and E. H. Schulz, Armour 
Research Foundation 

(c) "Saturable Core Magnetometer Applica- 
tions" by W. E. Tolles, Airborne Instru- 
ments Lab., Inc. 

2:00 P.M. Technical Sessions 


(a) "The Chromoscope, A New Color Televi- 
sion Viewing Tube" by A. B. Bronwell, 
Northwestern University 

(b) "Color in Television Cathode Ray Tubes" 
by E. B. Fehr, General Electric Co. 

(c) "A Modern Television Transmitter" by 
C. D. Kentner, Radio Corporation of 

(d) "Monitoring Equipment for Television 
Broadcast" by M. Silver, Federal Tele- 
communication Lab., Inc. 


(a) "High Resolving Power Infrared Record- 
ing Spectrometer" by R. C. Ne'son and 
W. R. Wilson, Northwestern University 

(b) "The Phase Meter" by E. O. Vandeven, 
General Electric Co. 

(c) "Accurate Measurement of Relative 
Phase" by R. Glaser, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology 


English . . . 

(continued from page 9) 

Tech. (It is not the custom of I.I.T.'s 
English department to be repre- 
sented.) This group gave its attention 
to several major educational issues, 
and gave a corporate answer and 
emphasis hardly to be found else- 
where in the profession of teaching 
English at the college level. 

Research or teaching? 

Every university teacher is con- 
fronted with the problem of striking 
a balance in his own practice between 
duties as a pedagogue and duties as 
a productive scholar. It is hardly a 
secret to anyone, unless possibly to 
the taxpayers and philanthropists, 
that the universities exalt research 
above class-room teaching. It is a rare 
man who gives himself generously 
and fruitfully both to the needs of 
the undergraduate students before 
him and to the demands of intensive 
personal investigation. Therefore, 
most universities do their best teach- 
ing at the graduate level, where re- 
search and teaching can function to- 

Teachers of undergraduates are 
characteristically apprentices work- 
ing on doctoral dissertations, or jour- 
neymen or masters primarily con- 
cerned with "their own work," schol- 
arly investigations which have little 
connection with their teaching but 
which are the principal, if not the 
only, means of winning the favor of 
administrators. They have a per- 
petual issue before them: How poor 
a job of undergraduate teaching will 
my department head or my con- 
science permit me to do? Often 
conscience gets little help from the 
department head or dean. 

With English teachers of the 
A.S.E.E., this question of research or 
teaching is not answered as it is in the 
universities' main-line English de- 
partments. The answer is, "Teaching 
above all, and what is research to 
us?" At the Minneapolis convention, 
people stood up in public and at- 
tacked the standard insistence upon 
the Ph.D., the course of study lead- 
ing to the Ph.D., and pressure for 

productivity in the learned journals. 
This would be unthinkable heresy in 
the Modern Language Association. 

Asking myself, "What manner of 
men are these?" I scanned faculty 
rosters. Whereas the proportion of 
Ph.D.'s among teachers of English of 
professorial rank is 70 per cent at 
Illinois Tech, it is only 40 per cent at 
Purdue and precisely zero per cent 
at Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology and at Rensselaer Polytech- 
nic. I tried in vain to associate these 
men's names with title pages. Many 
of them have not gone through the 
graduate school process, and few of 
them are under pressure from within 
or without to produce esoteric schol- 
arly works. Research is not their 
business. Teaching is. 

Detail or generalization? 

Many allegedly humanistic courses 
in the universities are hardly human- 
istic at all. The research scholar's 
passion for thoroughness, for facts in 
literary history, especially new facts, 
not infrequently results in a teaching 
method aimed at inculcating knowl- 
edge of facts — dates, sources, influ- 
ences, parallels, cognates — as well as, 
and sometimes instead of, the ideas 
and values asserted and the artistic 
effects achieved by classic authors. 
In contrast are teachers of English to 
engineers, acutely aware of the little 
time at their disposal and of the shell 
of indifference or antipathy they 
often have to overcome. They are not, 
in general, reseach men. 

At the A.S.E.E. convention, they 
spoke with zeal and fervor of the 
humanities as humanizing agents. 
They expressed the paramount de- 
sire to influence tomorrow's men of 
practical affairs towards benignity, 
tolerance, sympathy, ethical conduct, 
social idealism. I have never before 
felt so evangelical a spirit at any 
secular professional meeting. As one 
person said, sounding a note of cau- 
tion, "We seem to be attempting no 
less than the spiritual salvation of 
the engineering student, in less than 
20 hours!" 

Mention was made of the criticism 
of superficiality, which criticism most 
were disposed to brush aside. Ob- 
viously no thorough humanistic edu- 

cation can be accomplished in a tech- 
nical curriculum. A.S.E.E. English 
teachers are not disposed, for that 
reason, to restrict their aims to nar- 
row objectives. Cheerfully admitting 
superficiality in the students' learn- 
ing and occasional amateurishness 
in the facultyman's, they are setting 
about the task of inducing in stu- 
dents, not a thorough knowledge, but 
a humble awareness of the field of 
humane letters. 

Another emphasis, emanating from 
different quarters, was an extreme 
vocationalism, an alignment of every 
assignment with specifically practical 
situations, and a repudiation of much 
of any attempt at general or liberal 
education. This adaptation to utili- 
tarian objectives was, however, a 
minor theme at Minneapolis, and ad- 
vocated chiefly in connection with 
freshman composition. 

It should be stated that both the 
immediately utilitarian and the cul- 
tural functions of teachers of the 
humanities have been accorded 
hearty recognition by the A.S.E.E. 
Concern for humanistic teaching in 
engineering colleges is by no means 
confined to teachers of that subject 
matter, but appears to be general 
throughout the Society. 

How to use time given 
non-teehnical subjects? 

In the universities, the "human- 
istic-social" departments live quite 
independently of engineering stu- 
dents, and compete for liberal arts 
students. In most institutes of tech- 
nology, non-technical instruction is 
often concentrated in a very few de- 
partments with well defined but in- 



elusive boundaries. Seldom is there a 
situation favoring a collision of in- 
terests between literature on the one 
hand and the social sciences on the 

Repeatedly the point was made, 
and needs to be made in the future, 
that freshman English should not be 
charged against time reserved for 
humanistic study. As M.I.T.'s chair- 
man said, the attempt to make fresh- 
man English a humanistic course 
yields neither skill nor knowledge. 
It is a badly needed pair of courses 
in fundamental language skills, little 
more humanistic than freshman 

As stated above, more advanced 
non-technical courses in some schools 
have comprehensive aims little short 
of salvation. A California Tech 
spokesman asked M.I.T.'s chairman 
where he found the encyclopedic 
minds able to cope with the all- 
inclusive course sequences of the 
Massachusetts department of Eng- 
lish and history. Bravely and perhaps 
rashly, the teachers of English on the 
faculties of engineering schools are 
attempting great ends in the few 
hours allowed them. 

To secede or not to secede? 

The contrast between an English 
conference of the A.S.E.E. and a 
Modern Language Association con- 
vention is astounding. On the one 
hand : teaching, general wisdom, great 
breadth with little thoroughness; on 
the other hand: research, detailed 
knowledge (sometimes set before 
wisdom), great thoroughness and 
specialization. In view of this con- 
trast, some university men view 
teachers of English in engineering 
colleges as outcasts; and some of the 
latter advocate open secession from 
the main body of the profession of 
collegiate English professors. 

Many of the A.S.E.E. English 
teachers may be making a virtue of 
a necessity — the necessity of staying 
for life in technical schools and giving 
up all prospects and ambitions of 
teaching in liberal arts colleges and 
universities. This necessity is an al- 
most automatic function of having 
neither a doctorate nor a bibli- 

Recommendations for a new 
teacher-training program for engi- 
neering college English departments 
are being sought. Some time ago 
Harvard and M.I.T. planned a pro- 
gram of correlated graduate study 
and the teaching of engineers that 
would prepare men specifically for 
"engineering English." This program 
was a war casualty before inception, 
but it may well develop soon. 

The secessionists by no means 
comprise all the A.S.E.E. English 
personnel. There was no test of 
strength at Minneapolis between op- 
posing points of view, so I cannot 
hazard even a guess about propor- 
tions. But the secessionists are 
weighty in numbers and prestige. 

There can be no question that an 
unmodified university-type program 
and faculty in English cannot best 
serve the interests of the engineering 
student. The university-type program 
is too full and time-consuming to be 
admitted to engineering curricula. 
The university-type faculty is likely 
to have some members who are so 
preoccupied with publication and so 
little interested in under-class teach- 
ing that they will not establish very 
effective lines of communication with 
engineering freshmen. Repudiation 
of the university pattern in course 
work and faculty personnel is one 
possible policy. Modification is an- 
other, which LIT. has an unequaled 
opportunity to develop. 

I.I.T.'s unique opportunity 

LIT. has a dual organization — a 
division of engineering and a division 
of liberal studies. It is the heir of 
both Armour and Lewis, and it is 
dedicated in perpetuity to offer the 
public both engineering and liberal 
studies curricula. Its department of 
language, literature, and philosophy 
thus has a double function in Eng- 
lish: to serve the engineering stu- 
dents in two ways — utilitarian 
courses in language skills and liberal 
courses in the humanities; to serve 
the liberal arts students with every- 
thing from an occasional elective to 
a full major. At present, most of its 
students are engineering students, 
and our department's function in part 
is comparable to that of our co- 


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OCTOBER, 1947 


partners in creating 

K & E draft! 


it and 
«rs for 


products used by successfu 
K & E has played a part 
every American engineerin 

I. So extensively are these 
men, it is self-evident that 
the completion of nearly 
project of any magnitude. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

workers at M.I.T., Case, Cooper 
Union, etc., and not to that of English 
departments at Harvard, Chicago, 
Northwestern, Illinois, etc. But we 
face responsibilities and hold expec- 
tations in common with university 
staffs (other than "engineering Eng- 
lish" ones), and thus differ from 
English departments at every other 
institute of technology in the coun- 

We are called upon to achieve an 
educational synthesis, no less. 

Over a period of years the admin- 
istration of I.I.T. has endeavored to 
maintain an English staff that could 
compare qualitatively in professional 
standing with that of a first-class uni- 
versity. Professional standing is de- 
termined for the most part by degrees 
and publications; good teaching hard- 
ly ever wins more than local recog- 
nition, and not always that. Degrees 
mean research, as does academic 
publication, usually. Yet I.I.T.'s 
teaching load in English is far more 
than half a matter of teaching fresh- 
man English to engineers. This task, 
professionally considered humble, 

has been shared by all ranks. To be 
done with satisfaction to all con- 
cerned, such teaching needs to be 
done by persons of strong devotion 
to teaching as an end in itself. 

I.I.T.'s English department needs 
to retain and attract bcth scholars 
and teachers, preferably in the same 
persons, but better in different per- 
sons than not at all. More urgently 
than at other schools, the answer at 
I.I.T. needs to be research and teach- 
ing — more publication than in most 
technical schools, better undergrad- 
uate teaching than in many univer- 
sities. At technical schools the Eng- 
lish professor's research and teaching 
cannot often fuse, as at the graduate 
level, so attention and encourage- 
ment must be given both research 
and teaching, as separate considera- 

I.I.T.'s English courses must be 
sufficiently solid and factual to serve 
as a basis for graduate study in Eng- 
lish, yet at the same time they must 
be sufficiently popular and inspira- 
tional to stimulate and have meaning 
for the engineering student with little 

past and no future in collegiate Eng- 
lish studies. We cannot indulge with- 
out modification the university pro- 
fessor's single-hearted pursuit of 
depth. Our professional position calls 
on us to be both deep and wide, so 
far as is humanly possible. 

At I.I.T., the English professors 
need the engineers — and know it. 
That English literature is crowded 
out of the engineering curricula at 
Illinois occasions little thought or 
distress in the English department 
there. At I.I.T., this cannot be so. We 
can continue to offer a major and can 
maintain a strong department only 
if our non-engineering students are 
joined, in nearly all classes, by sub- 
stantial numbers of engineers. I.I.T.'s 
non-technical work is departmental- 
ized more fully than that of other 
institutes of technology, and those 
departments of slight vocational ap- 
peal (e.g., English) especially require 
the consideration of their colleagues 
in other departments. Also, we join 
other engineering educators in urg- 
ing our engineering and social science 
colleagues, and our students, not to 
think of our tool courses for fresh- 
men as comprising in any significant 
part the humanistic element essential 
to all respectable collegiate curricula. 

Especially, I.I.T. has a solution to 
the question of secession. I.I.T.'s Eng- 
lish staff cannot secede from the main 
professional pattern without a com- 
plete change of direction and an al- 
most total replacement of staff. At 
the same time, it has never been able 
to follow the conventional university 
custom of excusing the senior staff 
members from all, or nearly all, un- 
derclass and composition teaching. 
To speak in institutional symbols, 
our task is to demonstrate that men 
and women who are among their 
peers in the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation also have a significant contri- 
bution to make in the work confront- 
ing members of the American Society 
for Engineering Education. In suc- 
ceeding in this task, our department 
will be striking a balance between 
teaching and publication, between 
popular and esoteric functions, be- 
tween the diffusion and the increase 
of knowledge, such as will exist in all 
too few engineering or other colleges. 



Du Pont Digest 

Items of Interest to Students of Science and Engineering 

Fundamental Engineering Studies 

IN A company like Du Pont 
the diversity of chemical 
operations is great and the 
investment in equipment is 
high. In addition to the en- 
gineering work done in the 
ten industrial departments, 
the responsibility for design 
and construction of manu- 
facturing plants is under- 
taken by the central engi- 
neering department, which 
also maintains an engineer- 
ing research laboratory. 
This laboratory is staffed 
by chemical, metallurgical 
and mechanical engineers, 
and physicists, whose func- 
tion is to carry on funda- 
mental and pioneering-ap- 
plied research to develop " vu '"' 8 
new methods of processing B ° m c( ^ 
and equipment designs; im- 
prove equipment, materials 
of construction, and methods of meas- 
urement and control; and establish fun- 
damental relationships in unit opera- 
tions and unit processes. 

For example, a broad project was 
undertaken to study the fundamentals 
of rotary drying. A principal objective 
of the study was to learn the effect of 
the operating variables on the volu- 
metric heat transfer coefficient. Of the 
numerous variables that affect the dry- 
ing rate of such a dryer, the more im- 
portant ones studied were: (1) feed rate, 
(2) dryerrotation rate, (3) air rate, (4) air 
temperature, (5) number of flights, (6) 
direction of air flow, and (7) dryer slope. 

Studies on a Laboratory Scale 

Fundamental studies of heat transfer 
and mass transfer were made in a lab- 
oratory scale rotary dryer, 1 ft. in di- 
ameter by 6 ft. long. To determine the 
true heat transfer coefficient, special 
methods were devised to measure the 
material temperature along the length 
of the dryer and to measure continu- 
ously the temperature of the rotating 
shell. These determinations permitted 
an analysis of all the heat transfer ef- 
fects in the dryer; namely, from air to 
solid, from shell to solid, and from air 
to shell. 

From a knowledge of the material 

product development in an experimental rotary 
B. S. Chemical Engineering, Georgia Tech. '41; F. 
-nical Engineering, Penn State '40. 

temperature along the dryer, it was 
possible to calculate the air tempera- 
ture at each point in the dryer and 
thereby to determine point values of 
the heat transfer coefficient. This pro- 
cedure permits the calculation of a more 
accurate average temperature differ- 
ence, which gives more accurate heat 
transfer coefficients than can be ob- 
tained from terminal conditions only. 

During the course of the study, every 
opportunity was taken to obtain heat 
transfer data on large-scale plant dryers 
in order to establish scale-up factors. 
This procedure permitted the correla- 
tion of heat transfer coefficients from a 
1 ft. diameter dryer with those of full 
plant size. 

Paralleling the work on the funda- 
mentals of rotary drying operation, 
problems involved in product and proc- 
ess development received continuous 
attention. These usually require an in- 
vestigation of the important auxiliary 
problems of: (1) material handling to and 
from the dryer, (2) removal of dust from 
the air, (3) sealing the space between 
the rotating shell and stationary breech- 
ing, and (4) corrosion of the dryer shell. 

How the Results are Applied 

The findings of the effect of holdup on 
dryer capacity were applied to an 8 ft. 
standard rotary dryer producing 300 

Inspecting the interior of experi- 
mental spray dryer after a run. 
dryer. H. J. W. R. Marshall, Jr., Ph.D. Chem- 

A. Gluckert, i«"l Engineering, Wisconsin '41; 

R. L. Pigford, Ph.D. Chemical 
Engineering, Illinois '41. 

lb./hr. of granulated material. The in- 
formation obtained on this factor alone 
permitted an increase in capacity of 75 to 
100 %. This meant an increase of over a 
million pounds annually. Further, one 
dryer could now handle the load of two, 
releasing second dryer for other work. 
The information developed in such 
fundamental studies permits more ac- 
curate design of equipment for future 
operations resulting in lower cost of 
manufacture and lower investment. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 


All new employees receive on-the-job 
training. Men who are engaged in re- 
search, development or engineering 
have the opportunity to add continu- 
ally to their knowledge and experience 
in specific fields. This practical train- 
ing is supplemented at many Du Pont 
plants and laboratories by training 
courses and lectures. Write for booklet, 
"The Du Pont Company and the Col- 
lege Graduate," 2521 Nemours Build- 
ing, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 

More facte about Du Pont— Listen to "Cavalcade of America," Mondays, 8 P.M. EST, on NBC 

OCTOBER, 1947 





Automotive Clutches 

6558 S. Menard Ave. Chicago, III. 

Building Construction 

Telephone NeTida 6020 







Electrical Equipment 






Telephone BELmont 3360 

Casting . . . 

(continued from page 12) 

drains out of the mold into the ladle. 
After draining, the remaining casting 
is a cylinder with a wall thickness 
determined by the holding period. 
Because there is but one mold inter- 
face from which solidification begins, 
there can be no centerline porosity. 

The drain-back of the gates and 
runners can be used to advantage to 
increase the metal yield on light- 
section castings, in which the indi- 
vidual gates on the castings freeze 
before the heavy up-gate and runners 
solidify. The procedure usually fol- 
lowed on all counter-gravity castings 
is to hold the vacuum until the cast- 
ings have solidified and then allow 
the gate and runner metal to drain 
back into the ladle. 

The use of the drain-back pro- 
cedure would be of ultimate ad- 
vantage in a production line opera- 
tion, where the metal would be drawn 
from a heated holding ladle or fur- 
nace under the counter-gravity noz- 
zle. Such a procedure could produce 
yields as high as 80 percent for steel 
castings where extensive risers are 
not required. Extended holding time 
of metal in an induction furnace has 
shown no detrimental effects on the 
properties or soundness of several 
grades of steel. 

Examples of some of the large va- 
riety of castings poured by the 
counter-gravity method are railroad 
car couplers (weight approximately 
1C0 lbs.), aircraft landing gear scissor- 
castings (weight approximately 1 
lb.), oil well cross-cutters, landing 
gear cylinders, motor supports, tank 
track links, brake shoe-heads, core- 
less bushings, billets, cannon yoke, 
shells, and other miscellaneous parts. 

In most cases a large number of 
castings of the same design are cast 
from one common gate into dry sand 
molds. In fact, the process is best 
adapted to repetitive operation on 
large production runs of the same 
part, or to smaller quantities of spe- 
cial parts which are cast with diffi- 
culty and with resulting poor yields 
by gravity methods. 

A multiple runner system is gen- 
erally used for large quantities of 

Landing Gear Scissors successfully 
cast by means of the counter gravity 
casting method. 

small castings, each runner having 
many molds assembled above it and 
closely packed. As many as 112 land- 
ing gear scissor-castings have been 
poured in one mold assembly (see 
Figs. 3 and 4). The rather crude 
clamping set-up for the scissor-cast- 
ing molds shown in Fig. 4 would be 
replaced in production by a quick- 
acting, vacuum-applied clamping de- 

The pouring station in the general 
production shop is usually on a con- 
veyor line, or it sometimes covers a 
large floor area. With the counter- 
gravity pouring method, all pouring 
and metal handling operation can be 
located adjacent to the melting equip- 
ment; and a minimum of time and 
travel with molten metal will be re- 
quired. Only one man is required for 
the actual pouring operation. Molten 
metal hazards are at a minimum be- 
cause the pouring is done in a closed 
chamber, which eliminates the danger 
of run-outs, spill -overs, etc. The 
smoke and gases generated while 
pouring are evacuated and exhausted 
directly out-of-doors causing no un- 
pleasant odors or smoke. After cast- 
ing, the molds can be rolled directly 
into a shake-out station which is well 
ventilated. Such a foundry would 
really be "a good place to work." 



rwa march or sc/e/vce 











didn't get all the oiL...omy 


$E/VS/ir/0A//iL NEW 


Revolutionary solvent extraction 
machinery now separates soy bean oil, 





OCTOBER, 1947 


Marsh & McLennan 


Insurance Brokers 









Atomic . H . 

(confirmed from page 14) 
ity generated from coal at the mine 
(provided an adequate supply of 
condenser water is available). Al- 
most all generating stations of any 
size produce electricity at a cost be- 
low 9 mills. 

From these figures, it does not ap- 
pear that the "atomic revolution" is 
going to be a very sweeping revolu- 
tion after all, so long as atomic en- 
ergy is restricted to electric genera- 
tion. Of course, we can expect that 
a new technology will undergo a 
whole series of improvements, and 
that the cost of building an atomic 
plant now may be substantially high- 
er than it will be 15 years from now. 
It is idle to speculate how rapid such 
improvement will be, but the data 
now available do not give any 
grounds for believing that atomic 
electricity will be generated at a cost 
much below 4 mills per KWH in the 
visible future. 

Economic effects of cheap power 

Let us go one step further and as- 
sume that atomic power can actual- 
ly be produced at a cost several mills 
lower than the present cost of elec- 
tricity. How much would this mean 
to our economy? In 1944, about 280 
billion KWH of electricity were gen- 
erated in the United States, includ- 
ing electricity produced by indus- 
trial establishments for their own 
use. Each mill per KWH reduction 
in generating costs would therefore 
represent a saving of S280,000,000 
per year to the economy. The total 
national income in 1944 was $160,- 
000,000,000. Hence, the resources 
saved by each mill of cost reduction 
could, if applied to other uses, in- 
crease our national income by per- 
haps one-sixth of 1 per cent. 

Even an eight-mill reduction in 
cost — a very unlikely eventuality — 
would increase the national income 
by only 1 V2 per cent. Or, if we wished 
to consume this increased income in 
the form of leisure rather than prod- 

ucts, we could shorten our 40-hour 
week to a 39 1 /2-hour week, or take 
four days extra annual vacation. This 
is a very pleasant prospect, but hard- 
ly an economic revolution. 

It may be argued that we have not 
considered the possible indirect ef- 
fects of the availability of cheap 
power. If power were cheaper, it 
could be used more freely in indus- 
trial processes, with a consequent in- 
crease in the productivity of each 
worker. Moreover, products which, 
like aluminum, require a great deal 
of electricity for their production 
would become cheaper and could be 
substituted for more expensive prod- 
ucts (e. g. the light metals for iron 
and steel). 

The above argument is correct 
only when important qualifications 
are attached to it. It is true that there 
is a very close relation between the 
productivity of an economy and the 
amount of power consumed per 
worker; but mechanization involves 
(please turn to page 36) 




// t/ou can catch a leprechaun. 

A leprechaun, according to Irish legend, is a dwarf 
who keeps a pot of gold hidden away. 

If you can catch a leprechaun, your troubles are 

Because he keeps his gold just for rajnsom money. 
If you catch him, he'll quickly tell you where his 
gold is, so you let him go. 

The best place to look for a leprechaun is in the 
woods. They're green, and only about nine inches 
tall, so you'll have to — 

Or maybe you don't believe in leprechauns. 

Maybe it would be more practical to just keep 
working for your money. But you can learn one 
good lesson from these little fellows. A small pot of 
gold put to one side is a great. help when trouble 
catches you. 

And there's a much faster and easier way to get 

your pot of gold than by catching leprechauns. 
You can buy U. S. Savings Bonds through an auto- 
matic purchase plan. 

If you're employed you can sign up for the Pay- 
roll Savings Plan. If you have a bank account you 
can sign up for the Bond-A-Month Plan. Either way, 
your pot of gold just saves itself, painlessly and 

And your money increases one third every ten 
years. That would make a leprechaun turn even 
greener with envy. 

Saw the easy, automatic my~with U.S. Savings Bonds 

Contributed by this magazine in co-operation with the Magazine Publishers of America as a public service. 

OCTOBER, 1947 





rothing is guessed at, nothing is taken for granted 
by the engineers in charge of Okonite's cable proving 
ground. Buried in various types of chemically different 
and highly corrosive earth, pulled into conduit or in- 
stalled overhead, electrical cables are tested under con- 
trolled conditions of temperature, voltage and loading 
conditions duplicating those of actual operation. 

In use since 1936, carefully-recorded tests made in this 
"outdoor laboratory" have disclosed valuable trends. As 
facts accumulate, Okonite engineers apply their findings 
to the improvement of their electrical wires and cables. 
The Okonite Company, Passaic, N. J. 

6K0NBTE * 

insulated wires and cables 


Why? Because Thermoid 
trates on a restricted line of prod- 
ucts, related in manufacture and 
in use, and maintains those prod- 
ucts at top quality level. 
Thermoid, as a firm, is large enough to 
be thoroughly dependable, yet small 
enough to be sensitive to the day- 
to-day problems of its customers. 

Engineers depend on Thermoid to 
always furnish well made INDUS- 
If catalogs on any of these lines 
would be helpful in your studies, 
we'll be glad to furnish them. 



(confirmed from page 34) 
not merely a substitution of mechan- 
ical power for hand labor but a sub- 
stitution of mechanical power and 
power machinery for hand labor. 
The cost of the mechanized process 
is not merely the cost of the power 
consumed, but, in addition, the fixed 
and operating charges for the power 
machinery and other capital plant 

How far it is profitable to mech- 
anize depends on how large are these 
overall costs. Since in most manu- 
facturing processes fuel and power 
represent less than 5 per cent of the 
value of the product, it is not often 
that a moderate reduction in power 
costs will make mechanization prof- 
itable where it has not been before. 
Once power rates have reached a 
moderate level, the amount of cap- 
ital available in an economy for in- 
vestment in machinery will be far 
more important than the cost of pow- 
er in determining how much power 
will be consumed. 

Likewise, it is hard to find illus- 
trations of cases where a mere reduc- 

tion in power costs will cheapen the 
final product sufficiently to lead to 
large-scale substitution for other 
products. Even in the case of alumi- 
num, the cost of electricity probably 
represents only one-fifth of the cost 
of the product. A 50 per cent reduc- 
tion in power costs for this industry 
would permit only a 10 per cent re- 
duction in the price of the product. 

Atomic energy is 
available anywhere 

Thus far no mention has been 
made of one of the most important 
characteristics of electricity gener- 
ated in an atomic plant — it can be 
produced at about the same cost at 
virtually any place it is wanted. Hy- 
droelectric power must be used very 
near the damsite — or large charges 
must be incurred for transmitting it 
elsewhere. Power from coal stations 
must bear the cost of transporting 
the coal from the mine, hence it can 
be had at moderate cost only within 
a limited radius from coal fields. In 
the atomic plant, the fuel can be 
transported anywhere almost with- 

out cost. Only local differences in 
construction costs and differences in 
the availability of condenser water 
— if that is required by the plant — 
can lead to major differences in the 
cost of producing the power. 

The present location of industry 
in the United States and throughout 
the world is closely dependent upon 
the location of deposits of coal and 
iron and of developed water power 
sites. In some cases raw materials 
are carried long distances (e. g. 
alumina) in order to be processed 
where cheap power is available. 
Atomic power, because of its indif- 
ference to geography, might permit a 
far more flexible pattern for the lo- 
cation of industry and might permit 
industrialization in areas where this 
would not otherwise be feasible. 

Here again, caution is needed in 
assessing the possibilities. 

In the first place, atomic power 
will be "available everywhere" out- 
side the United States only if a work- 
able scheme of international control 
can be devised and if the individual 
(please turn to page 38) 



Ultrasensitive RCA Television eamera tube euts studio light requirements 

Television finds drama in the dark 

— with new RCA studio eamera 

Now television becomes even more 
exciting as lights are dimmed, and 
the camera reaches deep inside stu- 
dio shadows to capture action as dra- 
matic as any on stage or screen . . . 

A new studio television camera — 
developed by RCA scientists and en- 
gineers—needs only l/10th the usual 
amount of light. 

The super-sensitive eye of the new 
camera is an improved Image Orthi- 
con Tube ... of the type once used 
only outdoors. With it, studio broad- 
casts are sharper, clearer— and since 

OCTOBER, 1947 

so little illumination is needed, heat 
in the studio is sharply reduced. No 
more blazing lights! 

Such improvements come regu- 
larly from research at RCA Labora- 
tories, and apply to all branches of 
radio, television, electronics, and re- 
cording. These improvements are 
part of any product bearing the name 
RCA or RCA Victor. 

When in Radio City, New York, be sure to see the 
radio and electronic wonders at RCA Exhibition 
Hall, 36 West 49th St. Free admission. JWio 
Corporation of America, RCA Building, Radio 
City, New York 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor — one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Write today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 



(continued from page 36) 

nations are persuaded to accept it. 

In the second place, important 
segments of heavy industry would, in 
any case, continue to be attracted to 
the iron mining regions. 

In the third place, even now there 
are many important industries (e. g. 
textiles) in which power costs are 
relatively unimportant and which 
are often located in areas with fairly 
high power rates. 

In the fourth place, coal is used 
as a chemical as well as a fuel; and 
electricity could not be substituted 
for it, without other changes in tech- 
nology, in some of its uses. For ex- 
ample, it is highly problematical 
whether electrical reduction of iron 
ore could compete with blast fur- 
naces even if electricity were very 
cheap. Several theoretically possible 
methods of electrical reduction of ore 

Electrical Fixtures 



Triangle Electric Co. 

600 West Adams Street 

Jack B™-i Tel. HAYm.rket 6262 


"Caterpillar" Diesel Engines 


Electric Generator Sets 

Patten Tractor 
& Equipment Co. 

620 S. 25th Ave. Bellwood, Illinois 

(Chicago) Mansfield 1860 
(Long Distance) Bellwood 300 

to sponge iron are known, but their 
practicability has by no means been 

Industrialization of 
backward countries 

Almost all the "backward" coun- 
tries of the world today are looking 
to industrialization as the primary 
solution for their problems of pov- 
erty and over-population. But in 
most instances, the maximum rate at 
which this industrialization can pro- 
ceed will be limited more by the 
scarcity of skills and technological 
knowledge and of the capital needed 
to build factories and machinery 
than by the lack of power resources. 
China's coal supply would last at 
least 300 years, and India's 80 years, 
even at the American per capita rate 
of consumption, and their supplies 
will last far longer at the lower con- 
sumption rates that these countries 
ere likely to achieve. 

To be sure, there are exceptions. 
Even before the war, the expansion 
of Japanese industry was pressing 
against the limits of the coal supply, 
end the best hydroelectric sites had 
already been almost fully developed. 

Law School 





Founded 1887 
Independent — Endowed— Non-Sectarian 
Afternoon and Evening Classes. 
Tel. Dea. 6055. College BIdg.. 10 N. Franklin 

Photo Printing 


53 WEST 
WABASH 6743 


Management Engineers 


Established L 


n 1911 



Advice and technical assistance on problems of 

policy, organization, procedure, personnel, and finance 

Call E. O. Griffenhagen, senior partner, Randolph 3686 

South America is very deficient in 
coal; and, although there are great 
potentialities for hydroelectric devel- 
opment, the favorable waterpower 
sites are hundreds of miles from the 
principal areas of industrial develop- 
ment. Coal could be imported cheap- 
ly by water; but, since very large 
amounts of foreign exchange would 
be required to pay for this coal, a 
major industrialization based on im- 
ported coal appears beyond the 
financial reach of these countries. In 
India, although the aggregate coal 
supply is large, it is mostly concen- 
trated in the northeast, near Cal- 
cutta, and atomic power would very 
greatly facilitate the industrialization 
of the southern and western parts of 
the peninsula. 

These examples serve to indicate 
that the development of a practi- 
cable atomic power plant, even 
though unable to product electricity 
much below the cost at favorably lo- 
cated coal or waterpower stations, 
may be of considerable importance 
in the industrialization of areas of 
this kind. 

If these estimates of the signifi- 
cance of atomic power seem too con- 
servative, if we are convinced that 
a technological innovation of such a 
radical kind must of necessity bring 
about equally radical changes in our 
economy, we must remember that 
these predictions refer to a limited 
area of application — the use of the 
atomic pile to produce electricity. 

If effects of really revolutionary 
scope are to appear, they will most 
probably come about through the in- 
vention of entirely new applications 
of the atomic pile (just as the effects 
of the internal combustion engine 
and electricity were produced 
through such inventions as the auto- 
mobile and the radio) rather than 
simply through a cheapening of pow- 
er. Already, one of these applications 
has appeared on the scene — it ante- 
dated, in fact, the invention of the 
self-sustaining pile. I refer to the use 
of radioactive tracers in biological 
research and medicine. This appli- 
cation and others yet to be discov- 
ered seem far more likely to produce 
the Atomic Revolution than does the 
production of cheap electricity. 



IN THE HOME or tavern where 
Pabst Blue Ribbon is served the 
good taste of the host is reflected 
in the good taste of this truly great 

beer ... always full-flavor blended 
of never less than 33 fine brews 
. . . the one-and-only blended- 
splendid Pabst Blue Ribbon. 

It's Blended 



It's Splendid! 

Copr. 1947, Brewing C.irnpnny, 

OCTOBER, 1947 


A. A. A. S. Plans Chicago Convention 

THE 1 14th convention of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science will be held De- 
cember 26-31 in Chicago. General 
headquarters for the annual meeting 
will be the Sherman Hotel. Those 
who plan to attend may register now 
through the Washington, D. C. office 
of the association, 1515 Massachu- 
setts avenue. N. W. Registration fee 
is $2 for members and college stu- 
dents, S3 for non-members. 

General programs will be mailed 
December 1 to all who register be- 
fore that date. This will permit each 
registrant to study the contents and 
decide at leisure which of the several 
hundred sessions and special func- 
tions he may wish to attend. The 
name of each early registrant will be 
included in a special directory avail- 
able for inspection at headquarters 
hotels when the sessions begin. 

Lists of papers for the sections and 

Serson Hardware 
& Supply Co. 

EitablUhed 1907 


109-1 11 East Thirty-First Street 

Phono Victory J \™ 


Served exclusively 





















1206 Wrightwood Ave.. Chicago 


Class of '38 


Life Insurance 

Retirement Plans 

Accident & Health 

Juvenile Insurance 



1030 Field Bldg., 135 S. LaSalle St. 
Chicago 3, III. Randolph 5560 




Telephone Seeley 4400 

348 North Bell Avenue, Chicago 

societies meeting with the associa- 
tion, including time and place of 
each, will be included in the general 
program. It will also contain an- 
nouncements regarding general ses- 
sions, the International Science Ex- 
hibition, eating facilities, transporta- 
tion, mail and messenger service, and 
a directory of speakers and presiding 

Registration fees have been re- 
ceived since August 15; they will be 
accepted for mail distribution of the 
general program until December 10. 
Payments after that date will be 
placed on file December 26 at the 
main registration center in the Stev- 
ens hotel. Upon identification, these 
registrants will be given a copy of 
the general program and their cards 
placed in the visible directory. To 
avoid delay in receiving programs 
during the Christmas mailing rush, 
those who plan to attend are urged 
to mail the registration fee to the 
Washington office prior to December 




2301-2311 Prairie Avenue 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

lllacliiiie Products 

Clean precision work 

made exact to specifications. 

Capacity 1/16" to 2%". 

C A. Knuepfer - 16 W.^. Tarrant, '28 

President Vice-President 

Qeneral dngineeringWorh 

4707 W. Division Street ■ Chicago, ?/ 

Telephone Manslield 28e6 



This gt'rf can beat 50 
monks to a standstill 


i\ /ovvhere in the world are eleva- 

f Y tors as luxurious — efficient — and 
safe — as in America. Nowhere are such 
ingenious improvements made so con- 
sistently ... so rapidly. 

The ancestor of elevators — a crude 
basket attached to the end of frayed 
rope — still is in daily use — the only 
access to some monasteries in Greece. 
Powered by monks, fifty of whom 
could not do what a little slip of a 
girl does with one hand, these "ele- 

vators' 1 try the nerves of brave men. 

American ingenuity, born of in- 
dividual enterprise, and nurtured by 
free competition, not only gave us the 
world's best elevators, it gave us a 
great industry employing thousands of 
men and using the products of a score 
of other industries. 

The wire rope industry is not among 
the least of these. 

Roebling engineers have kept pace 
with the designers of "lifts" ever since 

the first American elevator was in- 
stalled with a Roebling elevator rope 
— back in the early 1860's. 

Today, Roebling Special Traction 
Steel Elevator Rope enjoys the well- 
earned confidence of hoisting engineers 
the world over. 



Branches and Warehouses in Principal Citiei 



OCTOBER, 1947 


Era® MOMLS lor Every Job 

• Two Lipped Spiral 
End Mills - 

Small Helix Angb 

• Two Lipped Spiral 
End Mills 

• Long Spiral End Mills 

• Long Two Lipped 
Spiral End Mills 


"PROM the extensive Brown & Sharpe line select the 
A end mill that meets your particular needs — a fast, 
free cutting end mill that will give you maximum 
production. There's a style and size for every job. 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., Providence 1, R. 1. 


3%" X 23/6" X 13/ 6 " ; Weight 3y 2 oz. 

Lindemann Electrometer 

This instrument was originally designed for use in 
connection with photo-electric measurements of light in 
astronomical work. It is now used extensively for the 
determination of radioactive emission. Compact and 
stable, it has high sensitivity, stable zero, and does not 
require levelling. The capacitance of the instrument is less 
than 2 cm. For general use, the instrument is placed upon 
a microscope stand and the upper end of the needle ob- 
served, illumination being obtained in the usual way 
through a window in the electrometer case. 

Write (or descriptive literature 


Pioneer Manufacturers of Precision Instruments 
3756 Grand Central Terminal, New York 17 

pH Meters and Recorders, Galvanometers, Gas Analyzers, Fluxmeters, Exhaust 
Use in Science, Industry and Medicine 


(continued from page 17) 

bon and goes into solution in the 


An example of this is afforded by 
the stainless cutlery stee'.s. The prime 
requisites of a good knife are high 
hardness and good abrasion resist- 
ance. In simple carbon steels this is 
obtained by using carbon up to 1 V2 
per cent (and, of course, quenching 
and slightly tempering). To impart 
resistance to attack by food acids, 
chromium must be added. If the 
minimum amount of chromium is to 
be added to produce this property 
for economy reasons, the carbon 
must be very low, less than 0.1 per 
cent. The only way any degree of 
hardness can be given to this steel is 
by cold working. Such knives are 
blanked out of cold rolled strip. 

These were the first stainless 
knives given to the public in large 
quantities and were responsible for 
the widely held opinion that stainless 
knives are worthless as cutting im- 
plements. Knives can be made real- 

ly stainless and with very sharp 
edges, but they are necessarily much 
more expensive. Hardness must come 
from high carbon, over 1 per cent. 
To have the required chromium in 
solution for corrosion resistance, the 
chromium content must be over 18 
per cent. Furthermore, the steel must 
be solution-treated at a high temper- 

The iron-chromium-carbon alloys 
are ferritic, that is, the iron and chro- 
mium atoms are arranged to form 
the corners and at the centers of 
cubes. While these alloys can have 
good corrosion resistance if the chro- 
mium is sufficiently high, their struc- 
ture does not permit much strength- 
ening by cold working; furthermore, 
they are welded with considerable 

When nickel is added to these al- 
loys, the structure of the alloy 
changes to the austenitic, or face- 
centered cubic structure, wherein the 
iron, chromium, and nickel atoms are 
arranged to form the corners and 
faces of cubes. Such a structure work 
hardens very readily. The steel con- 

taining about 18 per cent chromium 
and 8 per cent nickel (18-8) has ex- 
cellent corrosion resistance and can 
be drawn to wire having rupture 
strength exceeding 300,000 lbs. per 
square inch. 

The ubiquitous carbon can exert 
a deleterious effect on this type of 
steel. When the steel is held in the 
range of 1250° F. for a few minutes, 
the carbon and chromium come out 
of their solution in the cubic struc- 
ture and form their own union, the 
carbide structure. Since one atom of 
carbon takes out four atoms of chro- 
mium along with it, not much carbon 
is needed to deplete the steel of chro- 
mium in solution from the sites 
where the precipitation is occuring. 

Such a phenomenon, called inter- 
granular precipitation because of its 
locale, leaves the steel in a condition 
readily susceptible to acid attack. A 
strip of this steel in such condition 
can be crumbled in the fingers after 
it has been exposed a few hours to a 
dilute boiling solution of copper sul- 
fate and sulfuric acid. Fortunately, 
(please turn to page 44) 



\ Hi AIM 

2. The tower was timber-cribbed and floated, towed 
up New York Harbor and the Hudson Ri 
New York State by canal. A tug took over the 
ing job through Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, 
riding out a storm en route. Then the tower 
loaded on a barge to complete its journey via the 
Illinois, Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. This win- 
ter at Sugar Creek, the cat cracker of which this 
tower is part goes on stream, joining similar units 
already operating at other Standard refineries. It 
has a charging capacity of 25,000 barrels a day! 

3. Like our Burton Stills in 1913 and continuous 
units of 1932, catalytic crackers are milestones in 
petroleum progress. Today at Standard, the indus- 
try's ablest engineers and research men are develop- 
ing new . . . and better processes and products. Men 
of the same type arc coming from leading colleges of 
science and engineering to start work at Standard. 
Here they find unexcelled technical facilities for re- 
search and design. If you want a career with splen- 
did opportunities to advance and make real contri- 
butions, you should get to know Standard better. 

Standard Oil Company 




OCTOBER, 1947 



Design — 

Administration — 

Revision — 
Pension and Profit-Sharing 

Corporation And Personal Life 
Insurance Programs 

Paul A. Hazard, Jr., C.L.U. 

105 .West Adams St. 
Chicago 3, III. 

Member — Chicago Ass'n of Commerce 

Life Member — Million Dollar Round 



To business correspondents who do not 
know you personally, or who have not 
seen your place of business, your letter- 
head reflects the personality of your firm 

FRANK W. DlQCk & Company 

432 South Dearborn • Chicago 
JPeiierLad cfiylisis 


6911 South Chicago Avenue 

Telephone MIDway 2100 



Real Estate 


(continued from page 42) 
specifics for this ailment are known. 
The most effective is a carbide sta- 
bilizing element, such as columbium, 
which has a greater attraction for 
carbon than has chromium. 

Although 18-8 steels are normally 
austenitic and non-magnetic in their 
soft condition, severe cold working, 
such as wire drawing, produces a par- 
tial transformation to the ferritic 
state, which is magnetic. Advantage 
is taken of this phenomenon in pro- 
ducing wire for the wire recorder. 
The finely drawn 18-8 wire has ex- 
cellent corrosion resistance, high 
strength, and good magnetic prop- 

An interesting application of aus- 
tenitic stainless steels (principally 
25 chromium and 20 nickel) is in the 
welding of hardenable steels. The 
rapid cool from the high welding 
heat will produce the hardening 
transformation in low alloy steels 
such as used for armor plate. The 
high stresses resulting yield a weld 
of low impact properties. If the weld 
rod used is of the austenitic type, the 
stresses are evenly distributed 
throughout the soft, but tough weld. 

Closely allied to resistance to 
chemical attack is resistance to heat. 
Under the classification of heat-re- 
sisting steels are those steels pri- 
marily used for oxidation resistance, 
or freedom from scaling at high tem- 
peratures, and those steels primarily 
used for high strength at elevated 

Resistance to scaling increases as 




An economical reproduction process for Office 
Forms, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Specifica- 
tions, Testimonials, House-Organ Magazines, 
Bulletins, Maps and many other items. 

No Run Too Long 

No Run Too Short 

Estimates will not obligate you 
in any way. WRITE OR CALL 



the iron content decreases. A widely 
used steel for this purpose contains 
about 30 per cent chromium, balance 
iron, with 0.25 per cent carbon. The 
conditions in the combustion cham- 
ber of a household oil burner are 
such that a steel with 18 per cent 
chromium will suffice, while a car- 
burizing box to operate many hours 
at 1700 F. is made from an alloy 
containing 70 per cent nickel, 18 per 
cent chromium and only 12 per cent 
iron. Whether the alloy is ferritic or 
austenitic does not seem to make 
much difference for scale resistance. 

All of the alloy steels for high 
strength at high temperatures are of 
the austenitic type. Just as the addi- 
tion of tungsten or of molybdenum 
to carbon steels increases the reten- 
tion of hardness at elevated tempera- 
tures, likewise the addition of tungs- 
ten or of molybdenum to an 18-8 
base stainless steel increases the re- 
tention of strength at elevated tem- 
peratures. In these alloys, moreover, 
the high strengths must be main- 
tained over long periods of times, up 
to 100,000 hours. 

The success of the jet plane de- 
pended on the discovery of these 
alloys, and the further development 
of jet propulsion is directly depend- 
ent upon furthering the ranges of the 
present steels. As the cutting tools 
of the future will contain little, if 
any, iron, so will the high tempera- 
ture alloys of the future. These al- 
loys will be principally made up of 
cobalt, chromium, nickel, tungsten, 
molybdenum, and columbium. 

We have seen how types of spe- 
cial steels have been developed for 
the special purposes of our present- 
day civilization. The age of atomic 
power into which we are moving will 
see the development of new steels 
containing elements which only a 
few years ago were too rare even to 
be laboratory curiosities, such as gal- 
lium, and elements which did not 
even exist, such as plutonium. 

Man has demonstrated his ability 
to control and adapt nature to fit his 
advancing physical needs. Let us 
pray that he can soon learn to de- 
velop the same abilities to satisfy his 
spiritual and social needs. 








When you need heat for drying, for metal-melting, 
for process steam, for any of the production-line 
heating requirements you need GAS and modern 
Gas Equipment. 

And for proof of the many successful applications 
of the productive flames of GAS in modern in- 
dustrial practice you need only look at the experi- 
ence records of A. C. Gilbert Company, famed 
producer of miniature trains, scientific toys, motor- 
driven appliances. 

In its modern New Haven, Connecticut, plant 
the company's production engineers have applied 
GAS to heating processes such as: 

• Pre-melting furnaces for metal used in 


• Molten-metal reservoirs of die-casting machines 

• Remelt furnaces for reclaiming scrap metal 

• Salt bath for gear hardening 

• Boilers supplying steam for bakelite 


• Continuous cycle and convection drying and 

enameling ovens 

Some popular items in the list of A. C. Gilbert Company products 

These varied examples demonstrate the applica- 
bility of GAS to the widest range of production-line 
processes. The growing use of GAS in modern pro- 
ductioneering is a constant challenge to engineers 
and manufacturers of heat treating equipment. 


NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 

Gas-fired boilers supply steam 
to the bakelite molding presses 

OCTOBER, 1947 




four color printing 

office supplies 






5th and Ferry Sts. Phone 4085 



(continued from page 20) 

(1) A study of the steam-carbon- 
oxygen reactions, to develop a better 
understanding of the fundamentals 
which control the processes of gas 

(2) A study of catalysts for the 
decomposition of hydrocarbons of 
low molecular weight as carrier gases 
for subsequent enrichment, consist- 
ing of a laboratory study of sulfur- 
resistant catalysts and a pilot plant 
study of the steam-air-hydrocarbon 
ratios, temperatures, and space ve- 
locities upon operating efficiencies. 

(3) A study of the adaptation of 
the fluid and thermofor catalytic 
cracking processes to the gasification 
of oil and/or coal. 

A study of the equipment neces- 
sary to evaluate oil for gasification has 
resulted in an appropriation of $10,- 
000 by the American Gas Associa- 
tion, through the Gas Production Re- 
search Committee, to establish the 
necessary facilities at the Institute 
(please turn to page 48) 



Roster of Students 
School and Degree 

Entered — 1946 

Fellow School and Degree Entered From 

Chapin, Douglas S., Kansas Stale College, B.S. Chem. 1/29/44 U. S. Army, T/4 Medical Depl. 

Cook, Richard H., Syracuse University, B.S.Ch.E. 12/1943 _.U. S. Navy, Lt. (jg) Communications and Electronics 

Dow, Willard Mall*. Colorado School of Mines, B.S., Pet. Eng. 1942; M.S., IGT, 1945..._ _ U. S. Navy, Lt. (jg) 

Halvorsen, Wm. J., Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Ch.E., 6/1942 

Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) Baton Rouge, La., Chem. Engineer 
Kelly, James H., Louisiana Polytechnic Inst., B.S.Ch.E., 5/1943 

Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) Baton Rouge, La., Chei 

Luntey, Eugene H„ University of Idaho, B.S.Ch.E., 1943 _ 

Selph. John W., Jr., Vanderbilt University, B.E., 1942; M.S.. IGT 1947. .._.. 


U. S. Navy, Lt. (jg) Radar 

..U. S. Navy, Lt. (jg) Eletronics 

Felloic School and Degree 

Brooks, Robert, Purdue. B.S.Ch.E., 1947 

Coley, Francis, Virginia Polytechnic Inst., B.S.Ch.E., 1943 
Ellington, Rex E. Jr., Univ. of Colorado. B.S.Ch.E.. 1143 
Carver. John, Univ. of Wis., B.S.Ch.E.; M.S.. 1947 

Helbling. Don, 111. Inst. Tech., B.S.Ch.E., 1947 

Owen, Henry Jr., Teas A. & M., B.S.Ch.E.. 1942 

Peres, Ernest, Tulane Univ. of La., BE. Ch.E.. 1947 

in a Parallel Flow. 


Entered From 

„ _ Tenn. Eastman Corp. 

..Mass. Inst, of Tech.. Operations Evaluations Group 

Univ. of Wis. 

U. S. Navy, Ensign 

- ^ Celanese Corp. America 


Roster of Graduates 

Doctor of Philosophy 

Name Ye 

Dn, Henry E., 1941-1946, Par 

Dissertation Present Location 

istribution by Beaker Type Centrifugal Sedimentation 

Armour Research Foundation 

Masters of Science 

Dow, Willard M„ 1942-1944, Heal Transfer from a Surface to Air in a Parallel Flow I.G.T., Ph.D. Candidate 

Newhall, Robert M., 1941-1944, Oxidation of Quinoline _ Standard Oil Devel. Co. 

Pelican, Thomas L., 1942-1944, Dehydrogenation of Propane by Means of Chromia-Alumina Catalyst 

Nat. Gas Pipe Line Co. of America 

Savory. Leonard E., 1942-1944, Gas Jet Radiation Generator 

Selph, John W. Jr., 1942-44, 1946-47, Porous Plug Viscometer for Gases . 
Strong, Erwin R., 1942-1945, Composition of Propane Hydrate.- _ 


..Eastern Gas and Fuel Associates 
_I.G.T. Staff 


*...„ t 

When you admire a beauty ... or visit a farm 

Vf« s »t.-t 

ride on a ferry or order some coke . 

swallow an aspirin . . 

the chances are, you are coming in contact 
with Koppers engineering or chemical skills. 

1. Koppers chemicals for use in cosmetics. 2. Farm 
made of lumber pressure-treated by Koppers for long life. 3. Koppers 
American Hammered Piston Rings for marine engines. 4. Coke from 
Koppers-built ovens. 5. Koppers chemicals for use in medicines. 
6. Koppers Fast's self-aligning couplings, widely used in power 
plants. All these are Koppers products ... as well as scores of others 
that help to increase our comfort, guard our health, enrich our lives. 
All bear the Koppers trade-mark, the symbol of a many-sided service 
...and of high quality. Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 

or turn on the light . 



OCTOBER, 1947 








andling the high temperatures useJ 
by modern industry is a tough job 

-.• i; i. 

res materials 


J ■>!- 

physical and thermal properties. 
Norton has such materials in Alundum 
and Crystolon abrasives. Their creation 
in electric furnaces at temperatures of 
3700° and 4000° Fahrenheit gives them 
valuable refractory properties as well 
as abrasive qualities. And supplement- 
ingthese two materials there areseveral 
Norton electric furnace products which 
are produced especially for their unique 
refractory properties. 

These various refractory materials are 
put to effective use in Norton cements, 
tubes, bricks, plates, tiles and other 
shapes for 



There's also a line of Alundum refrac- 
tory laboratory ware such as crucibles, 
cones, dishes, discs, thimbles and com- 
bustion boats for ignition, incineration 
and filtration. 


('continued from page 46) 
for evaluating oil for cracking and 
for determining the composition of 
the residual tar. This laboratory, 
which will be an integral part of the 
facilities for hydrocarbon identifica- 
tion, is under process of development 
at this time and will materially im- 
prove the facilities available at the 

It has been the considered opinion 
of the Institute's executive commit- 
tee that the research facilities and 
activities could be most intelligently 
expanded if the present problems 
confronting the Gas Industry were 
presented by those who were most 
actively engaged in their successful 

Two committees of the American 
Gas Association — the Gas Produc- 
tion Research Committee and the 
Technical Advisory Committee — are 
composed of men outstanding in their 
field and keenly aware of the re- 
search needs of their industry. Be- 
cause of the close relationships exist- 
ing between this association and the 
Institute, these committees have been 
of inestimable service to the Institute 
by keeping the director and his staff 
apprised of the direction of their 
thinking and of the probable course 
of future developments. 

A great need has been demon- 
strated for research in natural gas 
and ancillary fields. The formation of 
the technical and research advisory 
committee was considered a neces- 
sary step in the development of such 
research. A preliminary organization 
meeting May 1 in Chicago was at- 
tended by many leaders in this field. 
As a result, Eastern, Southwestern, 
and Pacific Coast sub-committees 
were formed so that needs specific to 
an area, as well as those applicable 
to the industry as a whole might be 
considered carefully. Subsequent 
meetings of the sub-committees here 
resulted in the presentation of a large 
number of excellently-conceived and 
extremely pertinent problems for re- 

These and further activities of the 
committees will serve to guide the 
purchase of research equipment and 
to indicate the direction in which the 
Institute's studies should proceed. 



*7* Si€s / l/~&<rt££ 

tcCtf c<yi 

T^ryL&LcCcovi X5<>* 


There is a handsome electric percolator coming on the 
market in increasing numbers. It wins sales by its beauty 
and by the name of its maker. What the people who buy 
it do not know about it is that Revere collaborated closely 
with the manufacturer in working out ways and means of 
speeding production and lowering costs. 

The base metal is Red-Brass, 80%, supplied in sheet 
form. Forming the tall and graceful design requires a num- 
ber of draws to increasing depth. Yet only one anneal is 
required, after the first two draws and 
before a reverse draw. In the latter the 
annealed shell is turned completely 
inside out, giving additional depth and 
at the same time producing the pres- 
sure-pad flange required for subse- 
quent operations. 

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Germany . . . 

(continued from page 22) 
This unchanging passivity led Wiech- 
ert to victory. In one of his recent 
letters to me he wrote that on his lec- 
ture tour of Switzerland this year 
people everywhere were showering 
love, and nothing but love, upon him. 
"All this", he added joyfully, and with 
a certain sadness, "all this after all 
those years." 

About the time of the publication 
of Wiechert's Forest of The Dead, 
several other books came out which 
tried to interpret or clarify the events 
of the recent past. They were all writ- 
ten some time after the occurrence 
of the events, and because of this in- 
terval they manifest greater discip- 
line and a somewhat broader survey. 
The president of the University of 
Marburg, Julius Ebbinghaus, in his 
book, Fare Turns to Germany", is the 
first to deal with the question of guilt. 
Interest in this question has been con- 
tinued in a more philosophical and 
legally accurate way by Professor 
Karl Jasper in his book, The Ques- 
tion of Guilt'. The main theme in 
these and other works is the definite 
acceptance of the idea that Germany 
is to blame. These authors make no 
attempt to refute it. After admitting 
this guilt, the whole problem appears 
to be projected in a way which seems 
more favorable to the Germans than 
if they had denied guilt a priori. 

While President Ebbinghaus tries 
to illuminate this particular problem, 
two others, Wilhelm Hoffmann, li- 
brarian of the Swabian State Library, 
and the Gottingen professor, Fried- 
rich Meinecke, explore the past in 
order to gain a better survey of the 
whole situation that led to the final 
catastrophe. Wilhelm Hoffmann, in 
his book, After the Catastrophe*, con- 
tributes something to the solution of 
the problem of guilt by character- 
izing the various classes of the people 
and their attitude toward the war. 
"There was no common enjoyment", 
he says. "The soldier was separated 
from the people. 'It is not our war' 
was definitely the feeling of the popu- 

The octogenarian Professor Fried- 
(please turn to page 52) 


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(continued from page 50J 
rich Meinecke interprets the recent 
events in his book, The German 
Catastrophe', from a far more schol- 
arly viewpoint. He traces the two 
great ideals which have motivated 
the German political community dur- 
ing the last two centuries — national- 
ism and socialism. In addition, his 
contributions are of importance in 
dealing with the question of guilt; he 
emphasizes fate, which has played 
such a stunning role in German his- 
tory. Of course, it could be suspected 
that Germany's leading historian 
would like to make it easy for his 
nation by introducing the element of 
fate. It must, however, be stressed 
that he, like all the other afore- 
mentioned authors, is emphasizing 
the fact that he writes as a German 
to the Germans and not to foreigners 
to win their sympathy. 

All of these authors speak of the 
guilt of Germany. Everywhere the 
desire to clarify and interpret past 
events is evident. But they do not 
stop there. In them all there burns 
the great question: Now what? There 

is a will one can sense — a very strong 
will, indeed — to continue from some- 
where, and as a starting point for this 
new continuity, they all have chosen 
the same thing: Goethe's individual- 
ity. Exactly there, where the great 
abyss began — the abyss which 
formed two different camps, the one 
nationalistic and the other socialistic 
— they wish to start anew. This new 
way was almost systematically set 
forth by Professor Ernst Beutler in 
his magnificent little book. The Re- 

In it he maintains that the German 
youth after Goethe did no want to 
know anymore about "thinking and 
wanting", but about "wanting" alone, 
"until at last in the streets of disaster 
we could hear that tragic sigh: 'we 
must not think about it,' which was 
the result of that spiritual attitude". 
The interpretation of Faust also 
ought to be changed, according to 
Beutler. Faust was never considered 
by Goethe as a model character, a 
hero, and the word "faustisch", often 
employed by the Germans for their 
own characterization, had never been 

used by Goethe himself. Faust always 
has been too much a man of mere 
wishing, not wishing and thinking. 
He ought to become a warning to the 
German nation rather than its model 

In addition to those works which 
attempt to report events and those 
which try to interpret them, there is 
now appearing a still modest but 
important group of books which tries 
to pour recent experiences into some 
literary form. We can divide such 
works into those which merely report 
events in some literary form and 
those which go beyond and try to 
come to some solution. 

The quite well-known The Good 
Rights' 1 , by Edschmidt, reports 
events in the form of a novel. It deals 
with the worries of a German author 
during the last years of the war. There 
also has recently appeared a book of 
poems, Gedichte v -, by young Erich 
Sanders, who writes, prays, com- 
plains, and warns. But he makes no 
attempt to interpret or to arrive at 
(please turn to page 54) 



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(continued from page 52) 
some answer. 

Ernst Wiechert seems to be the 
only one thus far who goes beyond 
literary report into the realm of striv- 
ing for clarification, if not solution. 
In his Requiem 13 he recalls the hope- 
less situation of the Hitler years, and 
he expresses his belief that life can 
be mastered only by those who can 
take on sufferings with kind and will- 
ing hearts. All classes o c the German 
nation were affecte- by their cruel 
rulers; only the others won the 
struggle, since -they had taken on the 
burden with pure and willing hearts. 
"We did not bear hate, we did not 
bear anger, we bore only love and the 

seed and the fruit." Perhaps the very 
widely known Stalingrad, by Pliv- 
ier 14 , should be grouped here, too, but 
its "solution" seems to be merely an 
exaggerated presentation of the event 
which brought forth the great suc- 
cess of that book. 

Though still very small, of course, 
perhaps the most important group of 
literature is pure literature, or belles- 
lettres — works uninfluenced by re- 
cent events. Probably no such writ- 
ing is possible in present-day Ger- 
many, or even in present-day Europe, 
because recent political events de- 
termine or influence almost any ar- 
tistic creation, and they especially 
influence writing. I refer here merely 

to those works in which the events 
of the last few years are not used as 
a motif, milieu, or as background 
philosophy. Such independent books 
exist only in a small number. Even 
as great a woman as Ricarda Huch 
not yet has been able to create any 
important work which escapes the 
influence of recent experiences, al- 
though even long ago she had tried 
to isolate herself from this possibility 
by escaping into past centuries. Hans 
Carossa, also, is still too bewildered 
to be strong enough to create a purely 
literary work. In order to re-orient 
himself, he is writing his life story at 

Werner Bergengruen, author of 
the famous Tyran, seems to be more 
successful because of his interest in 
the Catholic Church and the Middle 
Ages, and his recent works are pure 
creations of literary art. The Three 
Falcons^' is a novelette unspoiled by 
references to the events of the last 
decade. The only writer other than 
Bergengruen who seems to be con- 
tinuing his work logically without 
being paralyzed too completely by 
the last 15 years is Ernst Wiechert. 
It is a little harder for him, since his 
novels take place in the Germany 
of about 1900 and later. Shortly after 
the end of hostilities, his Children of 
Jeromin 16 , a book without political 
tendencies and a piece of purest z-t, 
was published in Munich. It is a work 
of reflection, rumination, and con- 

Almost all motives of his former 
great novels are being used again; 
they are, however, not merely re- 
peated, but are combined in various 
ways to achieve something new. This 
last novel of Wiechert's ends as all 
recent works of this author, by prais- 
ing the daily labor through which a 
man obtains endurance and ability to 
suffer. It contains, as does no previous 
work by the same poet, many refer- 
ences to Goethe, whose influence can 
also be seen in the recent works of 
Bergengruen, Carossa, and many oth- 
ers. Similes, symbols and motives are 
borrowed from that great German 

Thus, through the works of Wiech- 
ert and other authors, it becomes 
(please turn to page 56) 





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Conference . . . 

'Continued from page 27) 

Id) "A Null Method for Determination of 
Impedance in the 1 00-400 mc. Range" by 
J. F. Byrne, Airborne Instruments Lab., 

(el "New Cathode-Ray Oscillographs and Ap- 
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Labs., Inc. 


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Higgins, Illinois Institute of Technology 

(continued from page 54) 
abundantly clear that present-day 
publications in German-speaking 
countries reach back to established 
works, particularly to those of Goethe. 
There has been, until now, no gen- 
eral investigation of the subject of 
recent German publications, with the 
exception of an article by Thomas 
Mann's son. Klaus Mann. In his 
article Mann states that present-day 
literary Germany is nothing but a- 
vacuum in which a few old forces 
are still lingering but gradually wan- 
ing: Ricarda Huch, who is too old 
to go on with he; work; Ernst Junger, 
who worked for National Socialism; 
Walter von Molo, who does not 
count; Herman Hesae, who has be- 
come a Swiss citizen. Wiechert is "all 
right," Mann says, but not good 
enough. Mann feels that Wi aiert is 
too foggy and too teutonic, that he 
is a nationalist and a mystic, and that 
he is terribly vain (this from Klaus 
Mann!). Hence, a vacuum, Klaus 
Mann believes, which could be filled 
artificially by importing literature by 

the refugees (Mann, Werfel, etc.). 
This possibility, unfortunately, is too 
limited by military government reg- 

To me, the situation appears dif- 
ferent. It reminds me of Stefan 
George's verses in his New Reich, in 
which he almost prophetically tells 
about the tortured lute player who 
destroyed his instrument because he 
could not equal his admired partner, 
and who in his knowledge of his own 
insufficiency turned disciple and 
herald of the greater one whose 
heights he could not reach: 
"Heb mich aui deine Hdh 
Giptel — doch sturze mich nicht! 

Nur was im schutzenden Schlaf 
Wo noch kein Taster es spurt 
Lang in tiefinnerstem Schacht 
Weihlicher Erde noch ruht — 
Wunder undeutbar fur heut 
Geschick wird des kommenden 


1. Walter Widrr 
Verlag. Zurich, 1946. 

und Isolde, Cla 

stliche Dichtung. Vom Dauernden in der 
sit, Werner Classen Verlag. Zurich. 
3. Ulnch von Hassell. Vom Andren Deutsch- 

lend, Atlantis Verlag. Zurich, 1946. 

4. Fabian von Schlabrendorff. Offiziere gegzn 
Hitler. Europa Verlag, Zurich, 1946. 

5. Ernst Wiechert, Der Totenwald. Rascher 
Verlag, Zurich, 1946; in English: Forest of the 
Dead, Greenberg Publishers, New York, 1947. 

6. Julius Ebbinghaus, Zu Deu tsc hi and s 
Sch/c/tsa/swende. Vittoria Klostermann Verlag. 
Frankfurt a. M., 1946. 

7. Karl Jasper. Die Schuldfrage. Artemis Ver- 
lag, Zurich, 1946. 

8. Wilhelm Hoffmann. Nach der Katatroph?, 
Ramer Wunderlich Verlag, Tubingen, 1946. 

9. Friedrick Meinecke, Die Deutsche Katss- 
trophe, E. Brockhaus Verlag. Wiesbaden, 1946. 

10. Ernst Beutler, Besinnung, Dieterichsche 
Verlagsbunchhandlung, Wiesbaden, 1946. 

11. Kasimir Edschmidt, Das gute Recht, Kep- 
pler Verlag. Baden, 1946. 

12. Erich Sanders. Cedichte, Privatdruck 1946. 

13. Ernst Wiechert. Torenmesse, Rascher Ver- 
lag. Zurich, 1946. 

14. Theodor Plivier, Stalingrad, Verlag. 1946. 

15. Werner Bergengruen, Die Frei Falken. Ver- 
lag dor Arche, Miinchen, 1945. 

16. Ernst Wiechert. Die Jeromin-Kinder, Zin- 
nen-Verlag, Miinchen. 1945. 

17. Klaus Mann, The Literary Scene in Ger- 
many in Tomorrow. March, 1947. 




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Contributors . . . 

(confinued from page 4) 

Elmore Shaw Pettyjohn is the 

director of the Institute of Gas Tech- 
nology, an affiliate of Illinois Tech. 
He received his B.A., B.S.E., and 
M.S.E. degrees at the University of 
Michigan. In addition to several 
years of industrial experience as con- 
sultant to numerous gas companies, 
Mr. Pettyjohn completed research 
projects on the use of bituminous 
cokes, evaporation, and heat trans- 
fer. He was an associate professor of 
chemical engineering at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan when he joined the 
United States Navy in 1940. Mr. 
Pettyjohn was promoted to the rank 
of captain shortly before he returned 
to civilian life in 1945. He accepted 
his present post in April, 1945. 

Fried rick K. Richter, associate 
professor of foreign language and 
literature at Illinois Tech, spent his 
early life in Germany and received 
the degree of doctor of philosophy at 
Breslau university, Bonn, Germany. 
Dr. Richter came to this country in 
1937 and in 1941 joined the Illinois 
Tech staff. He is also a painter, and 
a number of his works have been 
exhibited in the United States and 
Europe. He has worked in the field 
of race relations, and in 1944 he re- 
ceived the distinguished interracial 
cooperation service award. At one 
time Dr. Richter served as assistant 
editor of ETC.: A Review of General 

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Contributors . . . 

John T. Rettaliata is professor and 
director of the department of me- 
chanical engineering at Illinois Tech. 
He received his bachelor's degree in 
1932 and his doctorate in 1936, both 
at Johns Hopkins university. He 
taught mathematics and engineering 
at Baltimore College Center while 
engaged in his graduate study. In 
1936 he took charge of the calcula- 
tion and development division of 
Allis-Chalmers steam turbine depart- 
ment, and later was appointed man- 
ager of the research and gas turbine 
division. In 1941 he was awarded 
the junior award of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers for 
his paper on the "Combustion Gas 
Turbine" and in 1942 he received 
the Pi Tau Sigma Gold Medal 
Award for outstanding achievement 
in mechanical engineering. During 
the war he traveled to Europe on 
two special missions, involving jet 
propulsion aircraft and enemy tech- 
nical developments, for the United 
States government. He joined the 
Illinois Tech staff in 1945. He has 
published numerous papers in his 

Linton E. Grinter, research pro- 
fessor of civil engineering and me- 
chanics at Illinois Tech, has published 
five books on structural analysis and 
design and has written numerous 
articles on indeterminate structures. 
His essays, "The Education of Engi- 
neers for Latin America" and "When 
Will Skyscrapers Rise Again" ap- 
peared in the March, 1947, and Oc- 
tober, 1947, issues of this magazine, 
respectively. A short biographical 
sketch of Dr. Grinter can be found in 
the October, 1947, issue. 

Benjamin Lease is instructor in 
English at Illinois Tech. After receiv- 
ing his bachelor's degree at Indiana 
university in 1939, Mr. Lease did 
publicity and newspaper work in 
Wisconsin for several years. He en- 
tered the University of Chicago for 
graduate study in 1942 and received 
his master's degree the following 
(Please turn to page 4) 


Stanfield, graduate student in archi- 
tecture, works on skyscraper models 
in the architecture laboratory. 






Jsn this isiue 


By John T. Rettaliata 



By Linton E. Grinter 


By Benjamin Lease 


By Henry T. Heald 


By James W. Armsey 


By Mentor L. Williams 

THELMA L. COLEMAN, Business Manager 

Associate Editors 

Student Staff 




Published October, December, March and May. 

Subscription rates, $1.50 per year. 

Editorial and Business Office, Illinois Institute of 7ecfino/ogy, 

3300 Federal St., Chicogo 16, Illinois. 


PROBLEM — You're designing a taxi-cab meter. You have worked out 
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Out o$ t4»tcUcM A AAA 1«d u«9ite( SttenpUM* 

(Continued from page 3) 
year. He taught humanities and Eng- 
lish at the University of Chicago for 
three years before joining the staff 
of Illinois Tech in 1946. 

Henry T. Heald is president of 
Illinois Institute of Technology, Ar- 
mour Research Foundation of Illi- 
nois Institute of Technology, and the 
Institute of Gas Technology. He re- 
ceived his bachelor's degree in engi- 
neering at the age of 18 at Washing- 
ton State college and two years later, 
in 1925, was awarded his master's at 
the University of Illinois. From 1925 
to 1927 he was a practicing engineer 
in Pullman, Wash., and in Chicago. 
He joined the staff of Armour Insti- 
tute of Technology as assistant pro- 
fessor of civil engineering in 1927. 
In 1931 he became an associate pro- 
fessor and in 1934 he was made pro- 
fessor. Dr. Heald became acting 
president of Armour Tech in Octo- 
ber, 1937, and seven months later he 
was named president. He became 
president of Illinois Tech in July, 
1940, when Armour Tech and Lewis 
Institute merged to form the present 
institute. In 1940 the National Jun- 
ior Association of Commerce named 
him one of the "Ten Outstanding 
Young Men in America" and in the 
same year he won the distinguished 
service awards of both the Chicago 
and Illinois Junior Association of 
Commerce. He received an honorary 
doctor of engineering degree from 
Rose Polytechnic Institute and an 
honorary doctor of laws degree from 
Northwestern university in 1942. He 
served in numerous capacities dur- 
ing the war, and in 1945 won the 
Navy Award for Distinguished Civil- 
ian Service. Dr. Heald also engages 
extensively in civic work. 

James W. Armsey, director of 
public relations at Illinois Tech, ob- 
tained his bachelor's degree in jour- 
nalism and his master's in political 
science, both at the University of Illi- 
nois. During the war, he was an 
Army public relations officer in 
Washington, D. C, Camp Kohler, 
Calif., Fort Douglas, Utah, and the 
India-Burma theater. In India, he 
was assistant PRO of the theater. 
(Please turn to page 54) 


Chemistry gives lumber 
longer life . • • 

If nod specimen-, ichieh slimr the excellent preservative 
i/mdilies of 1'iiiliitltl'ii /ilie/ml. 1 he tun pieces on the 
right nere iniprcgniitetl tilth this protection against 
decay, --ill four pieces tcere buried underground for 
six years in a Dow test plot. 

Growing trees can fight their own battles against many common 
destructive forces. Nature has seen to that. But power poles, fence 
posts and structural lumber are dead wood and suffer greatly from 
insect attack and the conditions that create decav. Here's where the 
chemist steps in and takes over nature's job to give lumber longer life. 

During the past decade, notable progress has been made in developing 
preservative treatments for the protection of wood. Studies under- 
taken by Dow technicians have resulted in a new preservative known 
as Pentachlorphenol which is being used successfully without the 
attendant disadvantages of the older commonly used materials. 
Pentachlorphenol gives every assurance of greatly extending the 
usefid life of lumber. 

Development of chemicals for treating lumber is only one phase of 
the work that is constantly underway at Dow. Our interests range 
from ultra-light magnesium to chemicals that promote the health of 
the Nation and the progress of every industry. 

The scientific mind and method are of first importance to Dow. 


Cleveland • Detroit 
Los Angeles • Seattle 

Chemical of Ca 

• Washington 
San Francisco < 
i. Limited, Toronto, Ontario 




Gas Turbines 


Jet Propulsion 


/■^ combustion type of gas turbine 
is receiving much publicity both in 
the United States and abroad. Such 
recent attention may cause it to be 
erroneously considered as an inven- 
tion of modern times, whereas, in re- 
ality, the first patents were taken out 
for one during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. Even at that 
early date inventors appreciated the 
advantages of a prime mover with 
purely rotary motion and, also, of one 
devoid of the complexities existing in 
a steam plant. With a background of 
so many years, it is natural to inquire 
why the cycle has not found practical 
application before now. 

In the early days, the main difficul- 
ties with the gas turbine were the lack 
of available materials to withstand 
the high temperatures needed to pro- 
duce good overall thermal efficiency 
and a compressor of adequate effi- 
ciency that would make the cycle 
feasible. Only in recent years have 
these two obstacles been overcome: 
today's better materials enable ele- 
vated temperatures, up to 1600 F in 
the case of aircraft gas turbine super- 
charges, to be used; and an axial com- 
pressor, upon which years of aerody- 
namical research have been spent, 
affords the necessary high-efficiency 
compressor element. 

The subject of gas turbines is ex- 
ceptionally comprehensive and space 
will limit the scope of this paper. The 
first part of the paper will deal with 
design features of construction of a 

modern combustion type of gas tur- 
bine, the second with cycle perform- 
ance characteristics, and the third 
with some suitable applications, in- 
cluding, in particular, jet propulsion. 

Design features 

A gas turbine operating on the 
basic cycle is shown in Fig. 1. The gas 
turbine at the left is connected to an 
axial compressor in the center which, 
in turn, is connected to a generator on 
the right. Air from the atmosphere 
enters the intake of the compressor, 
and traverses the axial flow blading 
where it is compressed to a pressure 
of approximately 45 psig. It leaves 
the compressor and part of it flows to 
the internal part of the fuel burner 
where it is used for combustion pur- 
poses. The remaining and larger por- 
tion flows through the annular space 
between the inner and outer burner 

shells and then mixes with the prod- 
ucts of combustion, cooling them to a 
satisfactory turbine inlet tempera- 
ture. The heated gases then pass 
through the turbine and are ex- 
hausted to atmosphere. The power re- 
quired by the compressor is less than 
that developed by the turbine so the 
excess is furnished to the generator. 
The unit is started by means of the 
starting device shown at the left. 

A partially completed gas turbine, 
in course of shop erection, is shown in 
Fig. 2. The axial compressor is shown 
at the right directly coupled, through 
the solid coupling, to the reaction 
type of gas turbine shown on the left. 
Air from the atmosphere enters at the 
center, flows to the right through the 
compressor, and is discharged at the 
high pressure and to a combustion 
chamber, not shown in this view. 
Heated gases from the chamber then 
enter the turbine through the passage 
shown at the left, pass through the 
turbine and are discharged to atmos- 

The majority of the gas turbines 
built by Allis-Chalmers to date have 
been used in the Houdry catalytic 
cracking process in the manufacture 
of high octane gasoline. In this par- 
ticular application the oil refinery is 
interested in obtaining large volumes 
of compressed air to reactivate a ca- 
talyst in the process. Accordingly, no 
combustion chambers are used on 
this type of gas turbine as the process 

* Professor and directo 


of mechani- 

cal engineering, Illinois 

te o 


This article is a condens 

a paper presented 

by Dr. Rettaliata before 

the An 

n Institute of 



Mexico, Au- 

gust 28. 1947. 

Fig. 1. The gas turbine axial blower unit. 


Fig. 2. A 23,000 cfm gas turbine axial blower unit with the top half of the casing removed. 

itself acts in this capacity. The unit 
of Fig. 2 is one of the Houdry tur- 
bines. It is rated in accordance with 
its compressor capacity which is 23, 
000 cfm, referred to standard condi- 
tions at the compressor intake. 

The turbine blades, of unit con- 
struction, are milled from solid stain- 
less steel bar stock so that the highly 
desirable integral roots result. Lacing 
wires are inserted in the spindle 
blades for stiffening purposes, in or- 
der to reduce bending stresses and in- 
crease the natural frequency of the 

The axial flow cylinder and spindle 
compressor blading has separate 
spacer pieces, and the blades are held 
in place by their alternate insertion 
with spacers in grooves in the casing 
and spindle. In order to approach the 
ultimate in efficiency the blades have 
airfoil sections, and the change in mo- 
mentum of the motive fluid per stage 
is less than in the turbine. 

In the fuel oil burner element, 
some of the air discharged from the 
compressor enters the louvers and 
passes to the internal portion, furnish- 
ing air for combustion of the fuel. The 
remaining and larger portion of the 


air flows through the annular space 
defined by the outer surface of the 
burner shell and the internal surface 
of the combustion chamber. This air 
is given a whirl by means of deflec- 
tors, which causes it to be more inti- 
mately mixed with the products of 
combustion leaving the central pas- 
sage. The louvers adjusting the 
amount of air entering the internal 
portion are regulated by means of an 
external lever. 

Performance characteristics 

The performance characteristics of 
a gas turbine are determined princi- 
pally by the maximum temperature 
of the cycle, the ratio of the maximum 

Fig. 3. The regenerative cycle with 
reheating and intercooling. 

and minimum pressures existing si- 
multaneously and the nature of the 
components comprising the cycle. 
There are a multitude of possible 
cycle arrangements, and the adoption 
of a particular cycle is influenced by 
the type of application involved. 

If it is desired to improve thermal 
efficiency, a regenerative cycle may 
be employed, wherein the turbine ex- 
haust gas, before discharging to the 
atmosphere, is used in a heat ex- 
changer to preheat the compressor 
discharge air prior to the entry of the 
latter into the combustion chamber. 

Further increases in thermal effi- 
ciency may be achieved by adopting 
a reheat feature where, before it 
reaches the exhaust pressure, the ex- 
panding motive fluid in the turbine is 
withdrawn at an intermediate point 
and reheated, usually to the same 
temperature which it possessed at the 
turbine inlet. After the reheating op- 
eration, the high temperature gas 
then re-enters the turbine and con- 
tinues its expansion to the exhaust 
pressure. Reheating increases the 
positive work of the cycle by increas- 
ing the amount of energy liberated by 
the expansion of a given quantity of 

gas through a prescribed pressure 

Improvements over the straight re- 
generative cycle may also be realized 
by employing intercooling in the 
compressor. This operation may be 
considered as the reverse of turbine 
reheat, in that air is extracted at an 
intermediate point in the compres- 
sion process and cooled in a heat ex- 
changer. The coolant is usually water. 
The air leaving the intercooler at re- 
duced temperature and volume is in- 
troduced into the high-pressure side 
of the compressor and compressed to 
the final pressure. The intercooling 
feature reduces the negative work of 
the cycle by decreasing the amount of 
energy required to compress a given 
quantity of air through a stipulated 
pressure ratio. 

As may be expected, thermal effi- 
ciency may be enhanced still further 
by a combination cycle, Fig. 3, com- 
prising all of the features listed in the 
paragraphs above. It should be under- 
stood that the foregoing cycle analy- 
ses are by no means exhaustive, for 

..!«... t....C«T VS T t„.I 












: " 


1 " 



-:r. :::"::::: :r. 






Fig. 4. The effect of temperature 
upon the maximum thermal effi- 
ciency of the various cycles. 

the number of conceivable cycle ar- 
rangements is literally limitless. How- 
ever, regardless of the cycle adopted, 
it should contain some or all of the 
components previously discussed. 
These are representative of elements 
which have been used in existing 

The thermal efficiency of a cycle 

at a given turbine inlet temperature 
will vary with pressure ratio, attain- 
ing a maximum at a particular value 
of the latter. So that a comparison of 
the various cycles can be made, their 
maximum efficiencies as a function 
of temperature are plotted in Fig. 4. 
The effect of elevated temperatures 
on increasing thermal efficiency is 
evident. Because of the improve- 
ments associated with the use of 
higher temperatures, real incentives 
exist for metallurgical advances in de- 
veloping alloys suitable for operation 
in the upper temperature regions. 

In Fig. 4, the performance data are 
based on a turbine efficiency of 86 
percent, a compressor efficiency of 84 
percent, a combustion efficiency of 98 
percent, a compressor intake temper- 
ature of 60 F, and mechanical losses 
of 0.5 percent in the turbine and also 
in the compressor. In the cycles em- 
ploying regeneration, the heat ex- 
changer surface is 5 sq ft per coupling 
hp, and the overall heat transfer co- 
efficient from gas-to-air is 10 Btu per 
(Please turn to page 22) 

Fir>. 5 A 60,000 cfm axial compressor gas turbine unit, the largest in the world 



Relative Values In 
European and American Systems of 

Engineering Education 


IT MAY appear strange for an 
American who has never studied 
in a European university to attempt 
to compare the results of engineering 
educational procedures used on the 
two continents. However, American 
engineering educators have had an 
unusual opportunity during the dec- 
ade of the dictators to observe the 
strengths and the weaknesses of 
European educational methods 
through the medium of those students 
who have come to the United States 
to complete their undergraduate edu- 
cation or to enter our graduate 

We therefore may be able to offer 
a critical comparison of the relative 
values of these two systems of engi- 
neering education. European teach- 
ers have had an even better oppor- 
tunity to observe American teaching 
methods by their appointments as 
teachers in our colleges. It becomes 
clearer each year that their criticisms 
and suggestions have gradually been 
reshaping the American pattern of 
higher education. Such interchange 
of ideas and of criticism always re- 
sults in improvements. 

In the limited field of engineering 
education it is perhaps safe to com- 
pare European and American edu- 
cational objectives without consider- 
ing the many variations that exist in 
the two hundred institutions in- 

* Research professor of civil engineering and me- 
chanics, Illinois Institute of Technology. This 
article was prepared for presentation at the In- 
ternational Congress for Engineering Education at 
Darmstadt, Germany, by invitation from the Rec- 
tor of the Technische Hochsehule Darmstardt, 
Professor Dr. Richard Vieweg, and was delivered 
in absentia, August 6, 1947. 

volved. It seems fair to say that 
European procedures at the univer- 
sity level have had as an objective 
the education of exceptional students. 
It also seems fair to say that Amer- 
ican universities have directed their 
principal attention toward the aver- 
age student. 

The result is that Europe has hand- 
polished a limited number, or, in fact, 
a small number of engineering sci- 
entists, while America has mass- 
produced a large number of practical 
engineers. Fortunately, both con- 
tinents have had some schools which 
countered the basic trend, but the 
emphasis has been as indicated. 

It is only necessary to note that 
about 2 2 5,000 baccalaureate stu- 
dents were enrolled in the engineer- 
ing colleges of the United States in 
the fall of 1946, while perhaps no 
more than 5,000 were similarly en- 
rolled in England, to understand the 
results of this great difference in edu- 
cational philosophy. It is also possible 
to evaluate the results in terms of dif- 
ferences in industrial production. 

The older continent has surpassed 
in fine workmanship; the newer in 
volume production. We now realize 
that America has depended to an un- 
wise extent upon scientific ideas from 
Europe while Europe has, with equal 
lack of vision, been slow to accept the 
American invention of mass produc- 
tion. Each must adopt certain fea- 
tures of the educational plan of the 
other if each is to progress as it 

In the United States there is great 
need for deeper educational oppor- 
tunities for exceptional engineering 
students. The principal weakness of 
our educational program in the uni- 
versities stems from the philosophy 
of mass education at the high school 

Since public education must con- 
sider the average student rather than 
the exceptional student, our univer- 
sity system of education has natural- 
ly granted opportunities to the result- 
ing large numbers of high school grad- 
uates. Such numbers preclude the 
possibility of special attention to the 
unique educational problems of the 
exceptional student. 

It remains for those colleges of 
engineering under private control to 
lead the way in providing exceptional 
students with a more scientific educa- 
tion in the engineering field — an edu- 
cation leading to a career in research 
and the scientific phases of design, or 
in teaching. We have the graduate 
schools where such studies may be 
conducted at the post-graduate level, 
but it is equally important that there 
be early stimulation of the gifted stu- 
dent in his undergraduate program. 

It is self-evident that our present 
group of 225,000 engineering stu- 
dents cannot all be profitably trained 
for the more scientific accomplish- 
ments. Hence, two paths of engineer- 
ing education will be required in 
place of the single path or curriculum 
that exists in America today. 


In Europe students have always 
been treated as mature individuals 
who were expected to understand the 
necessity for unguided study. Excep- 
tional students react favorably to 
such instruction, but more direct 
guidance is necessary for students of 
average ability. We know this to be 
true because European teachers in 
America have not, in general, ob- 
tained good results in their first years 
of teaching American students. 

After a period of experience in an 
American univers'ty, the European 
teacher learns to assign problems to 
be turned in for grading and other- 
wise to set tasks essential to the un- 
derstanding of the subject which 
those students who are not excep- 
tional will perform. 

If Europe is to reconstruct itself 
and rebuild its leadership of the past, 
it will be forced to train engineers in 
much larger numbers than hereto- 
fore. The scientific developments of 
the war years, and those that are now 
reaching the production stage in in- 
dustry, require large numbers of sci- 
entists, engineers and technicians for 
construction, production and main- 
tenance, in addition to those needed 
for research and design. 

We realize that Europe has not 
depended upon schools of engineer- 
ing for all of its technical personnel. 
Fortunately there have been more 
and better technician training schools 
in Europe than in America; also, ap- 
prenticeship training has been effec- 
tive. However, there are jobs for a 
much larger number of real engineers 
than can ever be supplied from the 
limited number of young men (and 
women) who are in the exceptional 
group. And it seems doubtful that 
technicians trained in a two-year or 
three-year period can serve as ade- 
quate substitutes. 

Our experience with shortened pe- 
riods of training during the war years 
does not recommend that that pro- 
cedure become universal. In our 
opinion, in America a rather large 
number of young men of only aver- 
age ability (for university students) 
are needed with full four-year engi- 
neering training. Apparently it will 
require considerable change in the 
program of European higher educa- 

tion before this need can be fulfilled. 

As a contribution to the usefulness 
of young engineers who are expected 
to hold positions in construction, pro- 
duction, operation and maintenance, 
rather than research and the higher 
phases of design. European institu- 
tions will need to place greater em- 
phasis upon laboratory and practical 
design courses. We have observed 
that European students who come to 
America are commonly proficient in 
the use of mathematics but deficient 
in the skill of handling laboratory 

If this interest in the theoretical 
side of engineering education is as 
common to those students who re- 
main in Europe as to those who have 
migrated to America, it is clear that 
there must be dark bands in the 
spectrum of European education cor- 
responding to the fields of laboratory 
and pilot plant experimentation and 
practical design studies. It will there- 
fore be necessary to expand labora- 
tory facilities and, of course, to mod- 
ernize all educational laboratories in 
step with recent technological ad- 
vances. Much equipment in Amer- 
ican institutions is far from modern, 
but when revised to demonstrate 
modern usages, it remains service- 

The writer's visit to European edu- 
cational institutions in 1946 con- 
firmed the natural assumption that 
European education, like American 
education, is due to undergo major 
changes in the reconstruction period. 
Everywhere our youth are demand- 
ing the opportunity of higher educa- 
tion, and nothing is more certain than 

that youth, in this regard, will have 
to be served. 

In England the question of wheth- 
er Cambridge and Oxford Universi- 
ties should accept larger numbers of 
students was reaching the stage of 
national discussion in the summer of 
1946. The mere fact that the matter 
was on the front page of London 
newspapers for several days is an 
indication that the issue was consid- 
ered no minor one. 

It is at least fortunate that the 
demand of youth for a university edu- 
cation in the technical field coincides 
with the cry of industry for more and 
more engineers. Perhaps we shall 
prove again the experience of past 
decades that more engineers always 
produce more jobs for engineers. 

Is it not possible that the number 
of persons of engineering training 
that can be used economically by in- 
dustry may eventually reach or per- 
haps exceed the number of persons 
whose interests and abilities make 
them proper recipients of education 
in this field? 

It has seemed clear for some years 
that we are never likely to stimulate 
as many persons to surmount the dif- 
ficulties involved in achieving the 
level of the doctorate in engineering 
as industry and education would de- 
sire. Perhaps we shall find that the 
same situation exists at the level of 
the first baccalaureate degree in the 
engineering field. 

It would be comforting to know 
that our visions of overproduction of 
engineers were merely phantoms. At 
least in Europe, there can be no prob- 
ability of overproduction of engi- 
neers until reconstruction and the 
natural expansion occasioned by 
adoption of new technical ideas has 
reached its peak a decade from now. 
If national economics can match 
technical accomplishments, no wan- 
ing of industrial activity need occur. 

When we consider the engineering 
aptitudes of mathematical ability, 
visual perspective, a practical sense 
of values and capacity for making 
decisions, it seems clear that the 
world as a whole is not likely soon to 
be over supplied with engineering 
leaders, nor perhaps with those who 
follow these leaders. 





stood or appreciated until he 
has stopped being one; in due time, 
people start hunting for his grave and 
erect a monument at the most likely 
spot. A genius has only himself to 
blame, for he is, by nature, too far 
ahead of the present to be there when 
the future discovers him. His mes- 
sage is not for his own time but for all 
time; and his contemporaries are like 
the customers in the front row at the 
movies: too close to get a good look. 

This is to say that the history of a 
people is not the same as the history 
of great men. Certainly, the genius 
has his roots in his own time, but the 
student of history is likely — and un- 
derstandably so — to be diverted by 
the infinite spreading branches. The 
historian may frequently learn more 
about what the past is like from lesser 
men, from men who have not sur- 
vived their own times. Hawthorne 
and Emerson and Whitman and Mel- 
ville and Thoreau were closer to pro- 
found and electrical ideas than to the 
men about them. They observed the 
world in which they lived but they 
saw with the transforming eyes of the 
seer. The diary of a day-laborer of 
the 1840's would be far more valu- 
able to the American social historian 
than all the journals of Emerson. 

This is not to say that the history 
of a people is the same as a history of 
mediocre men. Many extraordinary 
men are forgotten shortly after the 
last obituary is filed. They are for- 
gotten because their contributions, 
startling and influential though they 
may be, are primarily timely rather 
than timeless. 

stitute of Tee 

Such a man was John Neal. There 
is probably no more remarkable and 
colorful figure in the history of Amer- 
ican letters. His life span — extending 
from 1793 to 1876 — roughly paral- 
lels the first century of America's ex- 
istence as a political entity. (Shortly 
before his death he negotiated for the 
publication of a "centennial" edition 
of his early novel of the Revolution, 

He was not a genius; but more than 
the giants of the American literary 
renaissance, Neal embodied many of 
the transitional traits of the young 
Republic: strident assertiveness, tre- 
mendous energy, dogged courage and 
honesty, self-conscious national pride, 
excessive impatience with tradition 
and any new discipline necessary to 
take its place. 

Self-reliance was his birthright. His 
father, a Quaker schoolmaster in the 
district of Maine, died when John and 
his twin sister were a month old. His 
mother thereupon opened a private 
school and supported her family to 
the best of her ability. Neal's formal 
schooling was over when he was 
twelve. During the next decade he 
ran the gauntlet through a number of 
jobs from shopkeeper's apprentice to 
itinerant portrait artist. If audacity, 
versatility and shrewdness are the 
identifying marks of the Yankee 
character, Neal was its walking em- 
bodiment. As a dry-goods clerk he 
learned about the shrewdness of the 
Yankee trader: 

"It was an established principle with us, 
no matter what was wanted, always to show 
the poorest first, thereby enhancing the 
best by comparison; to keep the windows 
and doorways so dark, partly by hanging 
shawls and other showy goods both inside 
and out, and partly by painting the back 

windows, that people were often astonished 
at their bargains, after they had got back 
to their houses; not only the quality, but 
the very color of their purchases, under- 
going a change for the worse." 

Too restless to stay long in one place, 
Neal gave up clerking and became, in 
turn, a writing master, a schoolmas- 
ter, and a portrait sketcher. During 
the War of 1812 he was actively and 
profitably engaged in a variety of 
speculative ventures up and down the 
coast from Boston to Baltimore. To- 
ward the end of the war, Neal entered 
into a partnership in Baltimore with 
John Pierpont. The post-war reces- 
sion wiped out their business. 

It was the turning point in Neal's 
life. At twenty-three, penniless, and 
with less than a grammar school edu- 
cation, Neal determined to study law 
in a city noted for distinguished law- 
yers and rigorous bar requirements. 
And to finance his studies, he deter- 
mined to do that which no American 
writer had hitherto succeeded in do- 
ing — earn his living by his pen: No 
one audacious enough to embark 
upon such a venture could possibly 

Neal was encouraged in his literary 
efforts by his membership in the Del- 
phian Club, a genteel literary society. 
He promptly displayed a fund of 
crude and inexhaustible energy that 

A rare, previously - unpublished 
photograph of John Neal. 


m The mm 
miious, thai 

The undersigned, (1) having entered into 
some correspondence with the reputed author of 
"Randolph;" who is. or is not. (2) sufficiently 
described as John Neal, a gentleman by in- 
dulgent courtesy: — inform- honourable men. that 
he has found him unpossessed (3) of courage 
to make satisfaction for the insolence of his 
folly. (4) 

Stating thus much, the undersigned commits 
this Craven (5) to his infamy. (6) 


Baltimore, Oct. ll, lb23. 

!e<si?nnl — quite diplomatic!:. (?) That is— I have challenged John Neat, who a, or is 
of Handolph — bec.uts* tic ts. f3) Kcaulifnlly expressed. How much mere beautiful, and 
to s»v— J found him -.ciihont courage, or de&itutc of courage. (i> To be read either 

ic^ of his fully"— or -folly of his insolence." (.., Craven- Hlackstone- The >oung 
read law, to irreat advantage. \0J Awful, to be SUN — what will become of poor Mr. 

t dnomimj; or cvnsirnm'nr, rather. — V ". 

A facsimile of the handbill in which Edward Pinkney charges Neal with 
cowardice. Neal added the comments beneath and published the handbill 
as an appendix to his novel Errata (1823). 

amazed and almost terrified the re- 
fined Delphians. Between 1816 and 
1823, Neal poured forth five novels 1 
(each in two volumes); a book of 
poetry; a five-act tragedy; hundreds 
of articles for the magazines and 
newspapers; and two huge literary 
hack-jobs: he collaborated in the 
ghost-writing of Allen's History of the 
American Revolution, and compiled 
a General Index to the First Twelve 
Volumes of Niles' Weekly Register. 
And by 1823, he had secured admis- 
sion to the Maryland bar and estab- 
lished a flourishing practice. 

Naturalness and originality 

In all of Neal's criticism, his central 
dictum was: Be Yourself! At a time 
when most American writers were 
well-mannered and imitative, Neal 
stormed for naturalness and original- 
ity. His ultra-nationalism was no 
bumptious chauvinism but a logical 
extension of this central concern. A 
great literature could be achieved 
only when writers rejected literary 
models and followed the dictates of 
their own observations and emotions. 
Neal exhorted writers to observe 
those objects which move us in na- 
ture, to note how vastly different they 
were from the ordinary productions 
of authors: 

"Nature is direct. — Her eloquence is of 

the blood — the crowded sky — the thought 
breaks upon you, clap after clap, till your 
whole nature is disordered. Call up a moth- 
er, who has just lost her infant — bid her tell 
her story — look at her — study her. There is 
no wearying preparation. She repeats the 
same thing, over and over again, a hundred 
times. — There is no poetry; no play of the 
imagination, in what she says. There is not 
even the simplest observance of rule — her 
sentences are short — broken — exclamatory 
— familiar — colloquial — vulgar, it may be, 
and ungrammatical. But your tears follow 
— and your heart heaves to it. Can you im- 
prove it? Take it home — dress it up into an 
oration — dramatize it — and lo! the essence, 
that volatile and penetrating spirit, which, 
from the broken hearted mother, set all 
ycur arteries weeping, that has escaped!" 

It was this vein of natural self-ex- 
pression that Neal attempted in his 
novels. Many young people — includ- 
ing Longfellow and Hawthorne — 
were greatly captivated by the result. 
But many more were convinced that 
these formless, chaotic productions 
were the work of a madman. For, ac- 
cording to one critic, Neal's pen 

"mingles with any thing and every thing. 
It preaches; it prays; it reviews; it criti- 
cizes; it travels and romances; it talks Eng- 
lish, an Indian, and New-England yankee. 
it is now divine, anon a braggart; now in 
the wilderness, with savages and beasts, 
anon in churches and temples; now here, 
anon in Europe; ambitious everywhere, ec- 
centric every where, full of furious and fiery 

emotions, without distinguishing time or 
place, or the fitness of things, or dignity of 

It was inevitable that such free- 
talking, outspoken writing would get 
Neal into trouble. Neal incorporated 
into his novel, Randolph, an eight 
page caustic commentary on the 
statesman, William Pinkney; Pink- 
ney retaliated by dying shortly before 
the book was published. But Neal, 
with characteristic stubborness, re- 
fused to alter his criticism, heaping 
coal upon the fire by stating his rea- 
sons in a footnote. Challenged to a 
duel by Pinkney's son, Neal, consist- 
ent with the anti-duelling views ex- 
pressed in his first novel (Keep 
Cool), rejected the offer. He was 
promptly posted for cowardice. 
Thereupon, Neal, with his usual au- 
dacity, published his entire corre- 
spondence with Pinkney — including 
the hand-bill branding him a coward 
— as an appendix in his next novel, 

!i \< in i. dyer: 



The title page of John Neal's Rachel 
Dyer, "the first novel to develop the 
tragic implications of the Salem 
witchcraft trials of 1692 as more 
than a background for sentimental 



John Neal in England 

Late in 1823, Neal left Baltimore 
for England to enter upon the most 
extraordinary chapter in an extra- 
ordinary career. His novels had cre- 
ated a flurry, and he was hopeful of 
extending his reputation over-seas. 
Logan and Seventy-Six had been re- 
published in England and received 
favorable notices; Neal thought he 
could negotiate the republication of 
his other novels. And, in addition, 
Neal was determined to puncture the 
prevailing pompous attitude of cul- 
tered Britain toward American litera- 
ture — an attitude epitomized by Syd- 
ney Smith's scornful query: "Who 
reads an American book?" 

Neal's invasion of England was 
phenomenally successful. True, he 
failed in his republication venture 
and published only one new novel 
during his three and a half year visit. 
(The novel was Brother Jonathan, in 
three volumes totalling 1,322 pages; 
one British critic conjectured that its 
author must have employed u both his 
hands at the same time, one on one 
volume, and the other on the other." ) 
But Neal did succeed in flooding the 
British magazines with aggressive ar- 
ticles defining American institutions, 
literature, and character. 

His most amazing performance 
was a series of articles in Blackwood's 
Magazine which may be regarded as 
the first history of American litera- 
ture. Writing in the guise of an Eng- 
lishman, Neal presented in alphabeti- 
cal sequence, commentaries on 137 
American authors — including John 
Neal. In his criticism, Neal patron- 
ized neither his countrymen nor his 
hosts. He valued writers according to 
how they measured up to his central 
criterion: the character of the author, 
as reflected by his work. Bryant's 
temperament was too cool for poetry; 
Washington Irving lacked original- 
ity; Fenimore Cooper was too timid 
— his characters talk too well and are 
too much alike because, otherwise, 
the author might be charged with 
their crudity. Neal, on the other hand, 
according to Neal, was guilty of the 
more commendable evil of excess, or 
"prodigality" : 

"Neal is altogether too much of a poet. 
He overdoes everything — pumps the light- 

A view of the Broadway Tabernacle in New York where John Neal lectured 
on the "Rights of Women", January 24, 1843. 

ning into you, till HE is out of breath, and 
YOU, in a blaze. — In his lucid intervals, 
he appears to be a very sensible fellow; but, 
in his paroxysms — there is not a page of 
his, that wouldn't take fire, in a high wind. 
He writes volume after volume, to the tune 
of three or four a-month; hardly one of 
which it is possible to read through; and 
yet, we could hardly open at a passage, 
without finding some evidence of extra- 
ordinary power — prodigious energy — or 
acute thinking." 

British customs and institutions 
did not escape Neal's caustic pen. 
Here are his observations, written 
after his return, on a first visit to 
hallowed Westminster Abbey: 

"I saw too a crowd of people, with their 
hands in their pockets, running after a guide, 
all bare-headed and most of them with lips 
blue and teeth chattering — perhaps with 
awe — perhaps with cold. I saw moreover 
a marble countess on her way up to a 
marble sky — with a chair of state placed 
for her in the clouds, and a marble cherub, 
who occupied another chair, waiting for her 
to arrive. I saw men of a warlike shape 
armed cap-a-pie, with wigs on. I saw the 
figure of death, a skeleton such as we see 
in our picture-books, or in our sleep when 
we are naughty, issuing out of a marble safe 
with iron doors and aiming a serf of spear at 
a marble woman, which a marble man was 
upholding, if I do not mistake, with his 
right arm in the air. I saw a party of sober 
people, who had come to the show and paid 
their six pences a little too late, galloping 
after the guide, just near enough to be al- 
ways a little too late for whatever he had 

to say; so that while he was describing the 
achievements of Edward the Black-Prince, 
they were looking at Queen Elizabeth; and 
all the notice he took of them was to order 
their hats off, 'by order of the Dean,' 
though we were shivering with cold, and 
they hot with exercise." 

The return to Portland 

Neal returned to his native Port- 
land in 1827, opened a law-office, es- 
tablished a literary weekly, The 
Yankee, and gave lessons in fencing 
and sparring on the side. As editor 
and publisher, Neal encouraged the 
early literary efforts of Whittier, 
Dana, Hawthorne and Poe. He filled 
the magazine with his own contribu- 
tions, the most notable of which was 
a series of articles on the theory of 
drama; in it, he called for a new, col- 
loquial, domestic American drama in 
place of the versified, artificial, high- 
flown tragedies of the period. 

He continued his campaign for nat- 
ural eloquence in all of his writings — 
and they were voluminous and varied 
— to the end of his life, almost half a 
century later. In three novels be- 
tween 1828 and 1833, he applied his 
critical principles with striking varia- 

Rachel Dyer (1828) was the first 
(Please turn to page 38) 


Cooperation Between 

Industry and Education 


close cooperation with the uni- 
versities and research laboratories of 
the nation; your equipment is in the 
forefront of scientific development. 
Because I think it will be of interest 
to you, I shall begin with a brief re- 
sume of the work of colleges and uni- 
versities in this post-war period. 

College enrollments increased 
steadily from less than 250,000 stu- 
dents in 1900 to nearly 1,500,000 stu- 
dents in 1940. In only one year — 
1933, the middle of the depression, as 
you will recall — was there a decrease. 
Part of this increase resulted from the 
rapid growth in population. Even so, 
the percentage of youths in the 18- 
through-2 1 age bracket attending col- 
leges rose from 4 per cent in 1900 to 
more than 15 per cent in 1940. Be- 
cause of the war, enrollment dropped 
substantially after 1940. By autumn 
1945, total college attendance was 
less than one million. 

The end of the war brought a tre- 
mendous upswing. The flood of vet- 
erans reached the colleges by the fall 
of 1946, and enrollment soared to an 
all-time high of nearly 2,100,000. 
More than half were veterans. Total 
enrollment this fall promises to ex- 
ceed last year's figure — perhaps by 
15 per cent. Future college enroll- 
ment is a subject for all kinds of pre- 

The Veterans Administration re- 
ports that 40 per cent of all veterans 
have already applied for certificates 
of eligibility for education and train- 
ing under the GI Bill of Rights. Un- 
doubtedly, many will not be used; 
others will take on-the-job and voca- 

* President, Illinois Institute of Technology; pres- 
ident, Armour Research Foundation of Illinois In- 
stitute of Technology; president. Institute of Gas 
Technology. This article is a condensation of Dr. 

Henry T. Heald 

tional training. The U. S. Office of Ed- 
ucation estimates that, in addition to 
the more than one million veterans 
enrolled in 1946, another one and 
two-thirds million eventually will 
seek education at the college level. 
Veterans have nine years after the 
end of the war, or after their discharge 
from service — whichever is later — to 
complete their education. For all but 
a small fraction, this means nine years 
from 1947. 

However, I believe that a high per- 
centage of veterans who plan to at- 
tend institutions of higher learning on 
a full-time basis already have taken 
steps to begin. Indications are that 
the veterans' enrollment peak will be 
passed before 1950. This does not 
necessarily mean a decrease in total 
college population. If long-term 
trends continue — if educational facil- 
ities are readily available — and if 
economic factors do not interfere — 
college enrollments may well be 
maintained permanently at a figure 
in excess of three million. 

To provide for the tremendous in- 
crease in students last year, colleges 

have had a difficult task. Institutions 
in almost every category have served 
more students than ever before. 
Classroom space, instructors, and liv- 
ing quarters have been inadequate 
in many cases. But on the whole, a 
pretty satisfactory job has been done. 
It has been made easier by the serious 
attitude of the veterans; they have 
given an excellent account of them- 
selves. The veteran usually has done 
better work than the non-veteran stu- 
dent; he has demonstrated a sincer- 
ity, a staying power, and a capacity 
for work which augur well for the fu- 
ture of the nation; he has not devel- 
oped some of the undesirable char- 
acteristics which a few college admin- 
istrators predicted. Most of the ex- 
pected problems of veterans' adjust- 
ments simply failed to occur. 

Because of their war experience 
and because of war-time develop- 
ments in science and technology, vet- 
erans in large numbers have selected 
engineering courses. Before the war, 
enrollment in engineering constituted 
about 6 per cent of the total. Today 
the figure exceeds 10 per cent. This 
increase promises to reduce, more 
rapidly than expected, the shortage of 
engineering personnel — a shortage 
caused by war-time interruptions in 
education. However, in my opinion, 
this increase does not presage any 
surplus of engineers and scientists in 
the foreseeable future. In our modern 
technological world, the percentage 
of engineers and scientists in our em- 
ployed population inevitably will 
continue to rise. 

Many persons believe that a large 
number of veterans were unable to 
enter college last year. Contrary to 
this popular opinion, there is no evi- 
dence that any substantial number of 
veterans — or high school graduates 



— were denied admission if they seri- 
ously sought to enter college and pos- 
sessed reasonable qualifications. It is 
true that many could not enter the 
college of their choice. For example, 
many engineering students enrolled 
in junior colleges and emergency col- 
leges whose curricula includes only 
the first two years of engineering 
work. Because of space limitations, 
these men are finding considerable 
difficulty transferring to the upper 
classes in other institutions. 

Many colleges are somewhat more 
selective in admissions than in pre- 
war days. In so far as this insures edu- 
cation for the more able students, the 
trend seems desirable. 

Freshmen who will enter college 
this fall are finding space more read- 
ily available than a year ago. At Illi- 
nois Institute of Technology, the 
freshman enrollment this year is 44 
per cent veterans, compared with 63 
per cent last year. 

But despite the provisions for 
steadily increasing enrollments, there 
is no assurance that higher education 
is making its maximum contribution 
to the future of America. There are 
as many well-qualified young people 
who do not attend college as there are 
who do. Some of those who do not at- 
tend possess the potentialities for fu- 
ture leadership in science, in industry, 
in education, and in government. 

I wonder if we can continue to af- 
ford this waste. 

All veterans have been given an 
opportunity for an education for serv- 
ice already performed. Should we 
not be equally alert to see that our 
ablest youths have an opportunity for 
an education because of the service 
they will be able to perform? I refer, 
of course, to the problem of breaking 
down economic barriers in order that 
bright youth — whatever the condi- 
tion of his parents' bank account — 

may not be denied the chance to de- 
velop his fullest potentialities. No 
geographical area, no economic class, 
no race or creed has any monopoly on 
intelligence. Equal opportunities 
should be available to all segments of 

Support of American higher educa- 
tion traditionally has been the re- 
sponsibility of the states and of pri- 
vate philanthropy. Both public and 
private universities have made im- 
portant contributions to the educa- 
tion of the people; both are stronger 
because of their widely differing 
sources of support. In recent years, 
however, there has been a growing 
tendency to shift more of the respon- 
sibility for the support of college stu- 
dents — and, indeed, the universities 
themselves — to the Federal govern- 

I wonder if, by doing this, we are 
not taking the easy way. After all, 
Federal funds come from the people. 
The recent Congress demonstrated 
how difficult it is to reduce a bureauc- 
racy once it is well-entrenched. Much 
of the same support now provided for 
education by the Federal government 
could be made available through in- 
dependent action by individuals, cor- 
porations, and local taxing units. Such 
a procedure would place the respon- 
sibility where it logically belongs. 
And it would forestall the growing 
tendency toward bureaucratic con- 
trol of higher education. 

Industry, education, and 
government in research 

President Truman, in a statement 
issued August 27 in conjunction with 
the release of his scientific advisory 
board's report, said: 

"We must constantly enlarge the boun- 
daries of scientific knowledge in order to 
continue to provide the benefits of full pro- 
duction and full employment, and in order 

to protect our democracy from the dangers 
it faces in an uneasy world." 

I think most of us agree that the ex- 
tension of scientific knowledge is a 
major factor in national survival. 
War-time experience demonstrated 
— with awe and foreboding — how 
much we could achieve in applied sci- 
ence in a short span of time — with 
strong motivation and adequate 
funds. Fortunately, many of the tools 
for applied research were already 
available in the form of fundamental 
knowledge developed in the research 
laboratories of universities, founda- 
tions, and industry. Private enter- 
prise and our American system of ed- 
ucation were equal to the emergency; 
and the freedom of inquiry so essen- 
tial to scientific accomplishment bore 
fruit in the applications which as- 
sured our survival. 

The scope of American research 
has expanded enormously in recent 
years, but in spite of this rapid ad- 
vance, less than 15 per cent of all 
firms with more than $500,000 in 
gross annual sales are doing any re- 

I do not think that I need to argue 
the case for industrial research. It is 
estimated that as much as half of the 
total employment in the United 
States today results directly from the 
production and distribution of prod- 
ucts developed in research labora- 
tories. Industrial research will con- 
tinue to increase in the years ahead. 
But this increase hinges on two major 
factors, both of vital concern to uni- 

1. The availability of an ade- 
quate number of qualified research 
workers. I am sure every man well 
qualified for research work is now em- 
ployed. Yet personnel is insufficient. 
Nor will this deficiency be remedied 
rapidly. The modern research man 
needs six or seven years of college 
training; and the output of the uni- 
versities, practically non-existent dur- 
ing the war, will not be adequate for 
years to come — even with expanded 

2. The growing need for the de- 
velopment of basic knowledge in all 
fields of science. Before the war, 

(Please turn to page 42) 



inois Tech Builds 

The new Chemistry Building (left background) and the Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering Building 
(right foreground) under construction. These buildings are now in partial use. They will be completely ready 
for occupancy in January. 

midwestern technological institution 
and at the same time to take the lead 
in redeveloping the entire south side 

Dr. Henry T. Heald, president of 
Illinois Tech, stated the case suc- 
cinctly when he said: 

"Chicago has 15,000 acres of blighted 
or near-blighted land. For the fourth larg- 
est city in the world, this is intolerable. 
If the citizens of Chicago do not act now, 
the malignant slum growth will shortly de- 
stroy the city's civic vitality. I consider 
slum clearance and rehabilitation the city's 
most pressing problem." 

Illinois Tech had hardly come into 
existence before the physical de- 
velopment program got underway. 
The new modern campus — to be 
built over a period of years — would 
cover a 100-acre tract. But no sooner 
had the initial plans been made than 
the nation was thrust into World 
War II. 

The new institution forsook its own 
program and plunged into an accele- 
rated war training program. Through 
its doors went 60,000 trained special- 
ists who pooled their skills to aid in- 
dustry and the armed services in 


SIX YEARS AGO, the trustees of 
Illinois Institute of Technology 
were confronted with a far-reaching 

Armour Institute of Technology 
and Lewis Institute, each with nearly 
half a century of service to education, 
had been consolidated to form the 
new Illinois Tech. A major immedi- 
ate problem was the location of the 
new institution. Should it be de- 
veloped at the site of one of the 
former schools? Or should it be built 
anew in other surroundings? 

The Lewis campus encompassed 
an area too small to develop a college 
of the size envisioned by the trustees. 
The Armour campus offered more op- 

portunity for expansion, but it had 
one extreme disadvantage. It had 
been established in one of the city's 
most desirable residential areas, but 
the passing years had seen its envir- 
ons swallowed up by the largest con- 
tiguous slum area in any American 

On the other hand, Armour's hold- 
ings on the near south side consti- 
tuted a major investment in land, 
buildings, and equipment. Further- 
more, the new college's service to the 
community rested in large measure 
upon a central location, readily ac- 
cessible to the bulk of the population 
and close to the great industrial em- 
pire centered in Chicago. 

Rather than flee from the en- 
croaching blight, the trustees decided 
to stand and fight — to build a great 


bringing a successful end to the great 

Development program moves 
into high gear 

With war's end, the long-delayed 
but carefully-planned building pro- 
gram moved into high gear. Work was 
started on two more classroom and 
laboratory buildings included in the 
master plan of Ludwig Mies van der 
Rohe, internationally famous archi- 
tect who heads Illinois Tech's depart- 
ment of architecture. 

Illinois Tech's notable strides in 
attaining its dual objectives of edu- 
cation and research last year were 
furthered by tangible progress in the 
physical development of the campus 
despite the many difficulties which 
currently beset all types of construc- 

Completion of two new permanent 
buildings, the addition of five tempo- 
rary war-surplus structures, and other 
miscellaneous construction during the 
past year will add close to 250,000 
sq. ft. of floor space for educational 
purposes — approximately doubling 
that in use a year ago. 

This will bring to nearly a half mil- 
lion square feet the total floor space 
in use for undergraduate and grad- 
uate education and research on the 
campus — all exclusive of the build- 
ings in full and continuous use by the 
Research Foundation. 

The new Chemistry Building, with 
modern facilities for teaching and re- 
search in the expanded chemistry de- 
partment, is now in use. It is a three- 
story structure with 65,000 sq. ft. of 
floor space, located at 33rd and State 
streets, built at a cost of $740,000. 

The building to house the metal- 
lurgical and chemical engineering de- 
partments has been delayed in con- 
struction and probably will not be 
fully in use until sometime after the 
start of the second semester. It is a 
two-story structure with 108,000 sq. 
ft. of floor space, located at 32nd and 
State streets, built at a cost of approx- 
imately $960,000. 

These two additions and Alumni 
Memorial Hall, opened in 1945, will 
complete one section of the new 
campus. They provide splendid per- 
manent quarters for an important 

part of the Institute's program. Space 
vacated in Main Building and Ma- 
chinery Hall will permit expansion of 
the departments of electrical engi- 
neering, technical drawing, and me- 
chanical engineering. 

Equipment valued at a half-million 
dollars will be installed in the two 
new structures. About two-fifths of 
this is new; the remainder is war- 
surplus equipment assembled from 
war-time installations and furnished 
by the federal government at a small 
cost to the college. 

Metallurgical engineering equip- 
ment — ovens, welding apparatus, 
heat treating equipment, machine 
tools, blowers, polishing wheels, 
quenching and testing equipment, etc. 
— is valued at $300,000. Chemistry 
laboratories and tables are valued at 
$175,000. The remaining $25,000 is 
the evaluation of auditorium seating, 
classroom chairs, and miscellaneous 


An additional 67,000 sq. ft. of floor 
space is included in five temporary 
buildings supplied and installed by 
the Federal Works Agency, operating 
under a congressional act to provide 
educational facilities for veterans. 
The buildings were furnished without 
charge, but Illinois Tech paid for 
landscaping and installing utilities, 
walks, etc. 

Illinois Tech was the first educa- 
tional institution to request buildings 
under the federal act, and one of its 
five was the first moved and com- 
pleted. The five, all one-story high, 

Temporary No. 1, a classroom and 
laboratory building on the west side 
of Federal street between 32nd and 
33rd streets, contains 18,400 sq. ft. It 
houses the greatly expanded business 
and economics department, mechan- 
ics department laboratories, drafting 

James D. Cunningham, chairman of the board of trustees (left), and 
President Henry T. Heald break ground for one of the two dormitories 
now under construction. The ceremony took place October 7 at 32nd 
street and Michigan avenue. 



Temporary Building No. 1, on Federal street between 32nd and 33rd streets, was one of the five war surplus 
buildings given to the Institute by the Federal Works Agency. This building houses offices and classrooms. 

rooms, classrooms, and instructional 
staff offices. 

Temporary No. 2, a classroom and 
laboratory building on the west side 
of Federal street between 34th and 
35th streets, contains 9,600 sq. ft. It 
provides quarters for the depart- 
ments of industrial engineering and 
psychology and education, laborator- 
ies of these two departments, class- 
rooms, drafting rooms, and instruc- 
tional staff offices. 

Temporary No. 3, a library annex 
on the east side of Federal street be- 
tween 34th and 35th streets, contains 
6,000 sq. ft. It has enabled the library 
staff to bring together for the first 
time all of Illinois Tech's libraries. In 
addition to 4,000 lineal feet of shelv- 
ing for stacks, it contains a large read- 
ing room for students. 

Temporary No. 4, the South Stu- 
dent Union, located on the north side 
of 34th street between Federal and 
Dearborn streets, contains 12,800 sq. 
ft. It contains a cafeteria capable of 
seating 300, student supply and book 
store, study hall and lounge, and offi- 
ces for the student staffs of the college 
newspaper, yearbook, and student 
association. The cafeteria 

kitchen was completely furnished 
with war surplus equipment. 

Temporary No. 5, a gymnasium lo- 
cated at 32nd and Dearborn streets, 
contains 17,500 sq. ft. This structure, 
largest of the five, provides Illinois 
Tech with a complete gymnasium for 

the first time. It houses the depart- 
ment of physical education, including 
offices, supplies and equipment stor- 
age space, facilities for both men's 
and women's athletics, space for in- 
(Please turn to page 32) 

The floor plan for the two new dormitories. 


technology is, rightly or wrongly, 
the measure of contemporary prog- 
ress; few realize that progress, even 
in this limited sense, is as ancient as 
man himself. Fewer still give thought 
to analyzing and understanding the 
impact of technology upon our civili- 
zation — its organization, its institu- 
tions, and its mores. It is a shameful 
fact that if one talks to an engineer or 
an engineering student born after 
1900, one will discover that the 
world's Dark Age came to an end with 
the advent of Marconi, Edison, and 
the Wright Brothers. Nothing of sig- 
nificance to the technological world 
had its existence before the World's 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 
1893. A feeling for the past, for his- 
toricity, is notably absent among 
those who develop and direct the 
technical achievements of today. 

There are several reasons that can 
be advanced to explain this regret- 
table situation. History, as generally 
taught, lays emphasis on political and 
military fact. Only more recently has 
it begun to examine broader institu- 
tional patterns; social history has 
tried to make us aware of how people 
behaved at a given time; economic 
history has helped to clarify some of 
the more barren areas of the past. As 
yet, however, the average student still 
thinks of history as a matter of reigns 
and campaigns, with a few side trips 
into theology, art, and literature. 
Technology, if mentioned at all, is 
largely a recital of inventions. Not 
until after 1920 did historians "dis- 
cover" the principle of interchange- 
ability of parts — the basis of modern 
mechanization and mass production. 
Furthermore, the swift advance of 
technology and the rapid outmoding 
of materials, techniques, and proc- 
esses give rise to the belief that the 
past is irretrievably dead and of 
little value in an atomic age. Let the 
dead past bury its dead; we make the 
future. Truly an heroic sentiment, 
albeit a banal and stupid one. History 
is not "bunk," a great technologist to 
the contrary. His achievements might 
have been more impressive had he 
understood the history of technology 

Technology's Heritage 


better and not tried to build his great 
industry on technical skill and in- 

Recent studies in engineering edu- 
cation have made some practical sug- 
gestions about the social content of 
the engineering curricula. Recogniz- 
ing that with all our engineering skill 
and know-how we still have misery, 
poverty, disease, slums, filth, smog, 
and bad transportation systems, the 
curriculum makers have recom- 
mended more attention to economics, 
political science, sociology, and his- 
tory. This is as it should be and the 
more success to them. But a planned 
presentation of the social significance 
of technology in the history of man's 
development is still lacking in the re- 
vised program of studies. Some of the 
larger universities have sensibly in- 
troduced history of science courses; 
occasionally an agricultural or medi- 
cal division offers an elective in the 
history of agriculture or of medicine 
(seldom advancing beyond descrip- 
tion, however); but engineering 
schools have yet to develop an inter- 
pretative course in the history of tech- 

At this point, the impatient listener 
wants to know why such a course 
should be developed and what good 
it would do: "Engineers are service 
people and deal with practical prob- 
lems in a sensible way." Just so. But 

they are also citizens in a society 
where all the people are concerned 
with the world of tomorrow, a world 
that involves more than devices of 
construction and destruction. It is a 
world that involves leisure and the 
use of leisure, government and gov- 
ernmental controls, labor and the re- 
lation of labor to productivity, the 
family and economic consumption. 
The list can be extended endlessly. 
Upon all these areas the engineer 
knowingly or unknowingly exerts an 
influence. As a citizen it is his duty to 
know what that influence is likely to 
be. Through the history of technology 
he can discover what that influence 
has been. By the study of history he 
can see what he has done and what he 
is doing to society. It ought not be left 
to the sociologist alone to write and 
study the Middletowns of tomorrow. 
Perspective, perspective, perspec- 
tive. If anyone should know the 
meaning of that term, it is the technol- 
ogist. He cannot approach the solu- 
tion of any of his "practical problems" 
without perspective. In a broader 
sense, he cannot have a perspective 
of the present (the present in which 
his "practical problems" have their 
existence) unless he has an under- 
standing of the technological past. It 
is not necessary that the technologist 
study the slowly developing processes 
and adaptations that have marked 
the growth of a particular machine 
or structure before he adds his adap- 
tations to it, any more than it is nec- 
essary for the physician to learn 
Galen's "humors" or the chemist to 
learn alchemy. That would be foolish 
and time consuming. It is desirable, 
however, that he know something of 
the stages of technological growth 
through the ages, something of the 
phases or periods through which tech- 
nics has passed. He should have more 
than the elementary school view of 
the stages of civilization: stone age, 



bronze age, iron age, age of steel — 
these afford only the slightest insight 
into the relation between man and his 
tools. And that other classification — 
a hunting stage, a pastoral stage, an 
agricultural stage, a commercial 
stage, and an industrial stage — has 
the virtue of hiding more about man's 
culture than it reveals, for it implies 
that real development in technology 
began only when steam power and 
automatic machinery were utilized in 
the textile industry. It is a naive view 
that the inventiveness of English ar- 
tificers suddenly ushered in the Ma- 
chine Age in the eighteenth century; 
it is even more naive to refer to the 
period since 1850 as the Age of Mech- 
anization. The machine, simple or 
complex, has been in existence for 
thousands of years and the mere ap- 
plication of speed and efficiency to its 
operation means nothing in itself. 
Speed and efficiency are manifesta- 
tions of psychological and social 
changes more than of physical 
changes. Behind the machine lie psy- 
chic and social unrest. 

Most of the important tools, de- 
vices, and instruments upon which 
modern mechanization depends were 
known to the cultures of the past: 
clock, compass, water wheel; presses, 
pumps, screws, levers, hoists; loom, 
lathe, gunpowder, paper, mathemat- 
ics. Engineering techniques, de- 
scribed by Vitruvius (one of Caesar's 
military engineers) in Ten Books ot 
Architecture, were studied by French 
and Italian engineers of the fifteenth 
century. These engineers, in turn, 
took them to England; the French en- 
gineer, Lebelye, built the second Lon- 
don Bridge in 1738-1750. Newton 
translated Vitruvius in 1771. English 
experiments in the steam engine in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
tury were directly inspired by six- 
teenth century translations of the 
Mechanics of Heron of Alexandria 
(first century A.D.). The internal 
combustion engine has its origin in 
the gun; the earliest experiments in 
internal combustion were undertaken 
with gunpowder; the latest experi- 
ments in internal combustion have 
utilized coal dust. As Alfred Leger 
(Public Works in Roman Times) has 
well said: "the new theories have 

most often but confirmed the old 
practice; we have improved the de- 
tails without changing the prin- 
ciples." New materials, refined oper- 
ations, mathematical analysis; it is 
these that modern technology has de- 
veloped. And the reason for the phe- 
nomenal growth in these accurate, 
efficient refinements lies in the his- 
tory of man, not in the history of 
machines. For machines follow needs. 

"Necessity mothers invention" is a 
truism, but its full meaning is seldom 
understood. Perspective will help the 
engineer evaluate needs, and deter- 
mine the difference between chaos 
and equilibrium, permanence and 
change. The history of technology 
provides him with a text. 

To understand the role of technol- 
ogy in that social complex of ideas 
called "progress," the engineer must 
have a knowledge of the past develop- 
ments in technics. Progress is more 
than the multiplication of means by 
which man masters the material 
world. It is not to be measured solely 
by the numbers of telephones or auto- 
mobiles possessed, by the passenger 
miles flown in 1947, or by the kilo- 
watt hours produced by the world's 
hydroelectric systems. Progress is not 
dependent upon the machine alone, 
nor upon the tool before the machine. 
In many respects the world of today 
is more barbaric, more primitive, 
more ugly than it was a thousand 
years ago. Some assert that the rea- 
son for this unpleasant fact is the ma- 
chine and the failure of the engineer 
to make the machine function in 
terms of a whole and unified culture. 
The engineer ought not and cannot 

be blamed for what has happened; he 
can, however, act more intelligently 
if he understands what has happened. 
When science and technology shod 
the horse in the ninth century and 
made horse power, in a literal sense, 
a source of energy; when they cov- 
ered the European lowlands with 
windmills and placed water mills on 
the banks of the rivers in the twelfth 
century; when they constructed 
pleasant villages and well-kept fields 
and gardens; when they produced 
durable goods and works of art in the 
period of the Hansa towns, — the aim 
was not mere control of environment 
but the enrichment and intensifica- 
tion of life itself. (See Lewis Mum- 
ford, Technics and Civilization, Chap. 
III.) In order that there may be real 
progress man must have fuller and 
greater opportunity to act rationally, 
to utilize the capacities that lie dor- 
mant within him. A later technology 
has lost sight of this basic fact in its 
desire to multiply energy and the 
products of that energy through more 
efficient machinery. Because we can 
throw things, including human be- 
ings, on the scrap heap more quickly, 
because we can wear things out more 
readily, this does not mean that we 
have reached the millennium. 

If he is to have a conscious part in 
directing those forces that will create 
tomorrow's society, the engineer must 
know technology's past. The cultures 
of Greece and Egypt flourished be- 
cause they captured and inherited the 
skills developed by earlier civiliza- 
tions. Rome's greatness, in turn, was 
based on an uncanny ability to adapt 
and utilize the rich technical prizes 
that the conquest of Greece and Alex- 
andria brought her. All roads led to 
Rome; all roads led, with equal truth, 
away from Rome. What happened 
when the Roman engineers applied 
their skill to road and bridge con- 
struction throughout Europe? What 
happened when Roman technologists 
developed blowers, pumps, and hoist- 
ing systems in the mines of Rome's 
heyday? What happened when Ro- 
man town planners laid out the right- 
angled streets, installed water and 
sewerage systems, baths and foun- 
tains in the colonial towns of the Em- 
(Please turn to page 48) 




for Engineers 

Faster way to dry cable ^ 

Before getting its protective lead sheath, telephone 
cable must have every bit of moisture removed from 
pulp insulation and paper covering. To gain greater 
efficiency than the horizontal steam drying method, 
which used to take 24 hours, Western Electric en- 
gineers designed a battery of cylindrical vacuum 
ovens which are lowered over reels of cable. Electric 
current is then passed directly through the wires of 
the cable, heating it to 270°F. As much as 6 gallons 
of water is driven out of the insulation, in just an 
hour and a half! 

ISpeedway for new telephones 

Here you see the "wind-up" of nearly two miles of 
overhead conveyor lines designed by Western Electric 
engineers for their vast new telephone-making shop 
in Chicago. As finished telephone sets near the end of 
the assembly and inspection line, an electronic 
selector unerringly sorts out six different types, 
directs each type down the right one of the six differ- 
ent chutes for packing and shipping. Not one second 
is wasted. This conveyor system is capable ot han- 
dling 20,000 telephones per day. 

Engineering problems are many and varied at Western Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to devise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Electric 

*72 X X A UNIT OF THE BELL SYSTEM SINCE 1882 2» 2? 2? 

DECEMBER, 1947 21 

A model of a 10,000 kw gas turbine unit 

Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion 

(Continued from page 8) 
hour per square foot per deg F. The 
surface of the intercooler is 1.5 square 
foot per coupling hp, and an overall 
water-to-air coefficient of heat trans- 
fer of 20 Btu per hour per square foot 
per deg F is taken. The performance 
calculations for all of the cycles ac- 
count for the pressure drops occur- 
ring in the various elements. 

In all cases the thermal efficiency 
is defined as the ratio of the useful 
output at the coupling to the energy 
required from the fuel, each ex- 
pressed in appropriate units. 


While the gas turbine has had 
many years of historical background, 
it has come into practical significance 
only during the last decade. The pre- 
viously mentioned Houdry installa- 
tions represented the first relatively 
large-scale use of the gas turbine. At 
the present time the gas turbine is 
being used in greatest numbers in air- 
craft applications, embodying princi- 
pally the jet propulsion of military 
aircraft. Due to its many advantages 
however, the gas turbine is ideally 
suited to numerous uses in land, 
marine, rail, and aircraft fields, and 
these will be discussed individually. 

The first gas turbine of prime- 
mover type in the United States was 

placed in service in 1936 as a part 
of the aforementioned Houdry proc- 
ess. At present there are about 28 gas 
turbines of this type in the United 
States. Of these, Brown-Boveri has 
built six, and the remaining 22 have 
been built by Allis-Chalmers, orig- 
inally a licensee of Brown-Boveri. 
Allis-Chalmers has also built 10 for 

foreign operation. An installation 
view of a 60,000 cfm, Allis-Chalmers, 
Houdry unit, the largest in the world, 
is shown in Fig. 5. From left to right 
may be seen the gas turbine, axial 
compressor, reduction gear, gener- 
ator, and a steam turbine for starting 

In 1940, a 4000 kw Brown-Boveri 
electric generating unit was installed 
in an underground stand-by power 
plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland. 
Tests on this unit, operating on the 
basic cycle, indicated a coupling ther- 
mal efficiency of approximately 18 
percent with a turbine inlet tempera- 
ture of 1000 F. No regeneration was 
justified in this instance due to the 
restricted and intermittent nature of 
the operation. 

A model of a 10,000 kw gas turbine 
unit proposed by Allis-Chalmers for 
utility service is shown in Fig. 6. The 
diagram of its regenerative cycle with 
reheating and intercooling may also 
be observed. The 10,000 kw gener- 
ator is driven by a separate, double- 
flow, low pressure turbine, while the 
high pressure turbine, on another 
shaft, drives the compressors. A cou- 
pling thermal efficiency of 30 percent 
is expected with an inlet temperature 
(Please turn to page 24) 

Fig. 7. A 3,500 hp, 1,500 F, gas turbine on the test floor of the United 
States Naval Engineering Experiment Station at Annapolis, Md. 




Because photography can be so inexpensive 

AS these youngsters can tell you ... as you yourself 
J\_ know ... it doesn't cost much to take pictures for 
pleasure. Only a few cents for a snapshot . . . 

It costs even less— much less — to take many of the 
"pictures" business and industry want, because in 
these functional applications photography is often- 
times almost entirely automatic. 

Good example of this inexpensiveness is Recordak. 
Reproducing automatically ... on economically mi- 
nute areas of microfilm ... it copies checks, waybills, 
and other similar documents for a fraction of a cent 

Second example . . . photographic recordings. Auto- 

matically made, they reduce to a minimum the cost 
of "reading" the fluctuations of gauges, instruments, 
production control equipment. 

Third example . . . Transfax Process . . . inexpensive 
in another way, since, unlike any other process, it 
reproduces complex drawings, charts, layouts with 
photographic accuracy and completeness directly on 
metal in a matter of minutes. 

, These are only three of the ways in which photog- 
raphy can save time and money. In our new booklet— 
"Functional Photography"— you'll find others. Write 
for your free copy. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 


Functional Photography 

\ / 



















Fig. 8. The effect of plane speed 
upon the propulsive efficiency of 
jet and of a typical propeller. 

(Continued from page 22) 
of 1300 F to both turbines, and effec- 
tivenesses of intercooler and regen- 
erator equivalent to 85 and 75 per- 
cent, respectively. 

For naval and maritime duty the 
small space and weight requirements 
of the gas turbine render it particu- 
larly suitable. Electric drive or the 
use of a variable pitch propeller 
would mitigate the reversing prob- 
lem, which is more acute with gas 
turbines because the minimum pres- 
sure in the cycle is atmospheric. If a 
conventional type of astern turbine, 
as used in steam practice, were ro- 
tated in such an atmosphere, the 
windage losses would be prohibitive. 

A 3500 hp, 1500 F, gas turbine, 
built by Allis-Chalmers for the bu- 
reau of ships of the U. S. Navy, is 
shown in Fig. 7 on the test floor of 
the U. S. Naval Engineering Experi- 
ment Station at Annapolis, Mary- 
land. This unit is the largest gas tur- 
bine in the world for this tempera- 
ture. It operates on a cycle compris- 
ing an axial-flow compressor driven 
by a turbine, while the second tur- 
bine operating in parallel on another 
shaft furnishes the useful output. Air 
discharged from the compressor tra- 
verses a regenerator where it is 
heated indirectly by the combined 
exhaust gas from both turbines. The 
preheated air next divides itself be- 

tween two combustion chambers 
where fuel is added, furnishing the 
high temperature motive fluid to the 

In the lower left corner of Fig. 7 
one may see the axial compressor 
connected to its driving turbine. The 
power turbine is on the upper right 
in line with the other rotating ele- 
ments. Connected to the power tur- 
bine is a water brake dynamometer 
(not visible). The regenerator in the 
upper left has three large pipes 
(white insulation) entering it, which, 
from left to right, are the compressor 
discharge, compressor turbine ex- 
haust, and power turbine exhaust. Di- 
rectly under the regenerator are lo- 
cated the two combustion chambers 
from which one may see emerging 
the turbine inlet connections. The 
compressor intake air is supplied 
through the lower pipe in the figure. 

While the gas turbine has certain 
distinct advantages for each of its 
respective fields of application, it 
would appear that its greatest useful- 
ness would be in the heavy traction 
field, in all probability the most de- 
sirable application. Of particular in- 
terest for railway locomotive use are 
various features of the gas turbine 
such as its freedom from water re- 
quirements, its purely rotary motion, 
its low lubrication costs, its unique 
ability to utilize dynamic braking by 
absorbing energy in the main com- 
pressor, its good thermal efficiency. 

Fig. 9. The effect of plane speed 
upon the propulsive thrust of a gas 
turbine jet engine and a reciprocat- 
ing engine-propeller combination. 

and the possibility of its using solid 

Up to the present time one gas 
turbine locomotive has been built. 
This 2200 hp, oil-fired, Brown-Boveri 
unit was completed in 1941 for the 
Swiss Federal Railways. The gas tur- 
bine operates on a regenerative cycle 
with a maximum thermal efficiency 
of 18 percent at the coupling. The 70 
mph locomotive has a DC electrical 
transmission, and a specific service 
weight, including fuel, of 92 lb per 

In order to develop a coal-burning 
locomotive which would compare 
favorably with the diesel locomotive, 
a Locomotive Development Commit- 
tee, consisting of nine railroads and 
four coal companies, was established 
in 1944 in the United States as an 
agency of Bituminous Coal Research, 
Inc. The gas turbine has been se- 
lected as the prime mover which best 
adapts itself to the requirements in- 
volved. The research work of the 
committee is under the direction of 
J. I. Yellott. The committee has pur- 
chased two gas turbine locomotives 
which are scheduled to be on the 
rails in 1948. Allis-Chalmers is fur- 
nishing a 3750 hp gas turbine elec- 
tric power plant with controls for one 
of the locomotives. The plant will 
consist of a six-stage reaction turbine 
driving a 20-stage axial compressor. 

The coal handling and combustion 
phases of the project are undergoing 
intensified development at the pres- 
ent time in various laboratories 
throughout the United States. The 
proposed arrangement of the equip- 
ment on the locomotive is such that 
the coal will pass from a bunker to a 
crusher and then to pressurized tanks. 
Pulverization of the crushed coal is 
accomplished by expanding it with 
air through a nozzle so that the sud- 
den release of pressure causes the 
coal to disintegrate into fine particles. 
The powdered coal is then burned in 
a combustion chamber and the re- 
sulting hot gas, before entering the 
turbine, passes through an ash sep- 
arator which removes most of the 
solid particles that might otherwise 
damage the turbine blading. 

Gas turbine development under- 
(Please turn to page 26) 



Development of dyes requires 
both physical and organic chemistry 

ducibility and storage stability. A sig- 
nificant Du Pont contribution to the 
production of vat dyes in optimum 
physical form is called "turbulent flow 
drowning." In this procedure, the color 
is dissolved in strong FLSOj and then 
diluted by a large volume of water in a 
constricted tube. High turbulence is 
maintained during dilution and pro- 
duces uniform dye particles. 

In this development the work of 
physical chemists and physicists, aided 
by electron microscopy, ultra-centri- 
fuging, infrared and ultra-violet spec- 
trometry and other modern techniques, 
was of major importance. 

The synthesis of a new dye in the labo- 
ratory or even the development of a 
manufacturing process from that syn- 
thesis may still be a long way from the 
realization of the full potentialities of 
the new compound as a coloring mate- 
rial. This is illustrated by the commer- 
cial history of the exceedingly fast 
bright blue dye indanthrone and its 
halogen derivatives. 

Indanthrone was the first known an- 
thraquinone vat dye and has led ton- 
nage sales of vat dyes in the U.S. since 
its introduction, despite the commer- 
cial use of well over 200 types. In 1901, 
Bohn first synthesized indanthrone by 
KOH fusion of 2-aminoanthraquinone, 
but the yields obtained were in the 
range of only 25-30 per cent. Because 
of the industrial importance of indan- 
throne, and the low commercial yields 
obtained by the original fusion pro- 
cedure, a great deal of research time 
has been spent in its study. 

Several U.S. patents record the fact 
that Du Pont organic chemists have 
made outstanding contributions in this 

field, particularly by developing the 
intercondensation of 2 moles of 1,3-di- 
bromo-2-aminoanthraquinone and re- 
placing the bromine by chlorination to 
give 3:3'-dichloroindanthrone ("Pon- 


This fixes the chlorine in the desired 
positions to give a product with greater 
bleach-fastness than indanthrone and 
minimizes extraneous substitution that 
always accompanies direct chlorination 
of indanthrone. The commercial yields 
of 3:3'-dichloroindanthrone now being 
obtained by Du Pont are markedly 
greater than those obtained by Bohn 
and his workers. 

It is just as important, however, that 
a water-soluble dye be made in a phys- 
ical form that gives optimum shade and 
working qualities, such as perfect dis- 
persion, freedom from specks, rapid re- 




t^ jj 


^ 4 


t^ 3 r 

\ A 

W. R. Remington, Ph.D., University of Chico 
1945, working on a dye research problem. 


One of the three wings of the Jackson Labora- 
tory, where a large portion of the basic research 
on dyes is carried on. The new $1,000,000 ad- 
dition on the right is nearing completion. 

The conversion of laboratory findings 
to a plant operation often presents 
unique and difficult problems that re- 
quire unusual ingenuity on the part of 
chemists, chemical, mechanical and 
electrical engineers. The work on the 
indanthrones was no exception. The 
outstanding commercial success of 
"Ponsol" vat colors, typified by "Pon- 
sol" Blue is one example of the results 
achieved through cooperation of Du 
Pont scientists. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 


The organization of Du Pont is unique in 
that each of its ten manufacturing depart- 
ments and two technical staff departments 
is responsible for its own operation. Further- 
more, new chemists and engineers work in 
small groups under experienced supervisors. 
Du Pont's group system assures men of in- 
teresting and friendly working conditions 
plus the broad avenues of promotion that go 
with size. Write for the new booklet, "The 
Du Pont Company and the College Gradu- 
ate," 2521 Nemours Building, Wilmington 
98, Delaware. 

S. N. Boyd, Ph.D., University of Illinois, 



(Continued from page 24) 
went major advances during World 
War II, principally because of the 
military potentialities involved. 
Many millions of horsepower of air- 
craft gas turbine superchargers were 
manufactured for use in such planes 
as the B-17, B-24, and P-38. During 
the later stages of the war research on 
aircraft gas turbine jet propulsion en- 
gines was being accelerated at a rapid 
rate, and production was in process 
when hostilities ceased. 

Owing to the termination of the 
war, and also to the fact that the 
trend for military aircraft is away 
from reciprocating engines and to- 
ward gas- turbine power plants, pro- 
duction of turbo-superchargers has 
been tremendously curtailed. On the 
other hand, development and pro- 
duction of aircraft gas turbine power 
plants have progressed steadily and 
are being rapidly augmented by the 
entry of additional companies into 
the field. 

One may ask why the gas turbine 
has had such recent widespread adop- 

tion in the aeronautical field, particu- 
larly for the jet propulsion of mili- 
tary planes. Some of the natural ad- 
vantages of this type of prime mover, 
as already stated, are partially re- 
sponsible; but, in addition, the aero- 
dynamic limitations of propellers in 
the highest speed ranges have dic- 
tated the transition to the other meth- 
od of propulsion. Reference to Fig. 8 
will furnish a comparison between 
the propulsion efficiencies of a typical 
propeller and jet, as a function of 
plane speed. In the high speed range, 
beyond 500 mph, the efficiency of 
the propeller is diminishing rapidly, 
while that of the jet is improving al- 
most linearly. It is understood that 
recent propeller designs have indi- 
cated the possibility of maintaining 
acceptable efficiencies at higher 
speeds, but it is expected that they 
will still exhibit a drooping charac- 
teristic which would render them in- 
ferior to the jet in the highest speed 

A comparison of propulsive thrust 
at a given altitude as a function of 

plane speed for a reciprocating en- 
gine-propeller combination and a gas 
turbine jet engine may be obtained 
from Fig. 9. The figure has been 
somewhat simplified for illustrative 
purposes in that the jet engine is 
indicated as a constant thrust device, 
which is essentially correct except 
that a slight decrease in thrust will 
occur with increase in plane speed. 
The excellent thrust characteristics 
of the engine-propeller arrangement 
are readily apparent at the lower 
speeds; however, the continuing dec- 
lination in propeller thrust causes it 
to become less than that of the jet 
engine, so that the latter is more suit- 
able for high speed flight. In Fig. 9 
the reciprocating engine and the jet 
engine have been arbitrarily selected 
so that each produces 2000 thrust 
horsepower at 375 mph. 

In a supercharged engine-propeller 
arrangement the brake horsepower 
will be essentially constant with plane 
speed. The useful or thrust horse- 
power will be equivalent to the prod- 
(Please turn to page 28) 


Svery kind of weather but fair is manufactured in this 
Weatherometer which is used regularly in testing sections 
of Okonite Cable. For example, repeated cycles of water 
spray and ultra violet light are combined with freezing in a 
refrigerator. The result: a rapid succession of violently con- 
trasting effects which tests the cable more drastically than 
could years of actual exposure. 

This is one of a series of continuing tests in which Okonite 
puts modern equipment and engineering personnel to work 
pre-testing and establishing the life expectancy of its electrical 
wires and cables. The Okonite Company, Passaic, N. J. 


insulated wires and cables 


Radio parts must be accurate. Speed, to provide 
economy, is essential, too. "Behind'' the radio you will 
find a Littell Feed which has supplied a stamping press 
with strip metal, properly straightened and precisely 
indexed, at a speed which contributes importantly 
toward low cost of the final product. 







J-Jeating a piece of metal 
by open flame, blow-torch 
or furnace is relatively slow 
apt to leave scale... its hard to 






n Amazing production tool rectifies ordinary 60- 

duce heat within the metal with incredible swiftness. 
Big benefits: complete, selective control 
of heat penetration . . . exact uniformity. . . 
greatly increased production.' 




tlECTROMIC? HEATER is one more example of how 







(Continued from page 26) 
uct of the brake horsepower and the 
propeller efficiency. The shape of the 
thrust horsepower curve will be simi- 
lar to that of the propeller efficiency 
curve, and will tend to fall off at high 
speeds. Since the thrust of the gas 
turbine jet engine is depicted as con- 
stant, its thrust horsepower will vary 
linearly with plane speed. Superim- 
posing a curve depicting the power 
required for a typical plane, it is in- 
dicated that the maximum speed of 
the jet plane would be 600 mph, com- 
pared with approximately 485 for 
the plane with a propeller. On the 
other hand, the respective minimum 
flying speeds would be approximate- 
ly 125 and 90 mph, so that the jet 
plane would require a longer runway 
for landing and take-off operations. 
From a fuel economy standpoint, 
the engine-propeller arrangement is 
vastly superior at the lower plane 
speeds, but loses its advantage be- 
yond approximately 530 mph. The 
propeller engine has a maximum 
overall thermal efficiency of about 

22 percent at 350 mph, which is more 
than double that of the jet engine 
for the same speed. The jet engine 
thermal efficiency gradually increases 
with plane speed, however, until at 
530 mph it equals that of the conven- 
tional engine, and reaches about 14 
percent at 600 mph. The specific fuel 
consumptions of the two types of 
power plants will vary inversely as 
their respective thermal efficiencies, 
as shown in the figure. Fuel costs will 
not be proportional to these latter 
curves since the reciprocating engine 
uses high octane gasoline, whereas 
the jet engine burns kerosene, a much 
cheaper fuel. 

The gas turbine jet propulsion en- 
gine consists of the same basic ele- 
ments as those of the gas turbine 
power unit shown in Fig. 1. Instead 
of furnishing excess power which 
would drive a device such as the 
generator of Fig. 1, however, the tur- 
bine of the jet engine only develops 
sufficient power to drive the com- 
pressor, and the excess energy is in 
the high velocity exit jet which pro- 

partners in creating 





Chicago • 

St. Louis • Detroit 

San Francisco • 

Los Angeles • 


pels the plane. Variations of pres- 
sure, temperature, and axial velocity 
throughout the engine should also be 
noted. The axial velocity of the mo- 
tive fluid is greater at exit than at 
inlet; thus the gas turbine engine 
contributes to the creation of a 
change in momentum in the fluid, by 
virtue of which the propulsive thrust 
is produced. 

One of the gas turbine jet propul- 
sion units built by Allis-Chalmers 
during the recent war, under license 
agreement with the de Havilland En- 
gine Co. Ltd., of England, employs a 
one stage centrifugal compressor, 
with single-sided entry of air, driven 
by a single-stage turbine. The unit 
develops a static sea level thrust of 
3000 pounds when rotating at 10,500 
rpm with a turbine inlet temperature 
of 1500 F. The complete weight with 
all auxiliaries is 1500 pounds, result- 
ing in a specific weight of 0.5 pounds 
per pound static thrust. The fuel 
consumption is approximately 1.2 
pounds per hour per pound static 
thrust. The maximum overall diam- 
eter is 50 inches. The air discharged 
from the compressor is led to 16 indi- 
vidual combustion chambers and, 
after addition of fuel in each, enters 
as a hot gas the common nozzle ring 
supplying the turbine wheel. The 
residual kinetic energy of the gas 
leaving the turbine enhanced by a 
subsequent expansion provides the 
propulsive jet for propelling the air- 

The jet-propelled Lockheed Shoot- 
ing Star, the P-80, a military fighter 
plane, was powered by a similar de 
Havilland engine in its early stages. 
In June, 1947, the latest version of 
this plane, the P-80R, with an Allison 
Model 400 jet engine, established a 
world's speed record of 623.8 mph at 
sea level. The engine, weighing 1735 
pounds, is rated at 4600 pounds static 
thrust, and is believed to have deliv- 
ered close to 7000 pounds thrust dur- 
ing bursts with alcohol-water injec- 
tion. In August, 1947, a new world's 
speed record of 650.6 mph was set by 
the Douglas D-588 Skystreak, a jet- 
propelled transonic research plane. 

The characteristics of jet engines 
are not readily comparable with those 
(Please turn to page 30) 



Exploration of ocean depths is made possible by RCA Image Orthicon television camera. 

The ocean is a "goldfish bowl" 

to RCA Television! 

Another "first" for RCA Laboratories, 
undersea television cameras equipped 
with the sensitive RCA Image Orthi- 
con tube were used to study effects of 
the atom blast at Rikini . . . 

There may come a day when fisher- 
men will be able to drop a television 
eye over the side to locate schools of 
fish and oyster beds . . . Explorers will 
scan marine life and the geology of the 
ocean floor . . . Undersea wrecks will 
be observed from the decks of ships 
without endangering divers. 

With the new television camera, 
long-hidden mysteries of the ocean 

depths may soon be as easy to observe 
as a goldfish bowl— in armchair com- 
fort and perfect safety. 

Exciting as something out of Jules 
Verne, this new application of tele- 
vision is typical of research at RCA 
Laboratories. Advanced scientific 
thinking is part of any product bear- 
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• Development and design of radio re- 
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equipment, relay systems. 

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(Continued from page 28) 
of conventional engines with pro- 
pellers, since the former are rated on 
a thrust basis, and the latter on 
horsepower. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that the specific weight of a jet 
engine will be considerably less than 
that of a reciprocating engine includ- 
ing propeller. Since the thrust horse- 
power of a jet engine continually in- 
creases with plane speed, the basis of 
comparison with a conventional en- 
gine is not obvious. As a means of 
establishing an example, however, let 
it be assumed that a comparison will 
be made at 400 mph. At this speed, at 
a given altitude, the thrust horse- 
power of a jet engine is approximate- 
ly numerically equivalent to its static 
thrust. Thus the specific weight of a 
jet engine at 400 mph would be about 
0.4 to 0.5 pounds per thrust horse- 

Assuming that a reciprocating en- 
gine weighs 1.1 pounds per brake 
horsepower, when the propeller, a 
necessary feature to complete the 
power plant, is included, the total 

specific weight will approach 1.6 
pounds per brake horsepower, for 
modern high speed propellers. With 
a propeller efficiency of 85 percent, 
the specific weight becomes about 1.9 
pounds per thrust horsepower, which 
is approximately four times the corre- 
sponding figure for the jet engine. It 
should also be recognized that this 
ratio enlarges with speed, since the 
thrust horsepower of a conventional 
engine decreases, and that of a jet 
engine increases, with plane speed. 

The present discussion on jet pro- 
pulsion has been confined to jet en- 
gines of the pure jet type — that is, 
where all of the propulsive energy is 
in the form of a high velocity jet. 
This type is best suited for the maxi- 
mum speed range. For intermediate 
speeds, however, modifications re- 
ferred to as prop-jet engines are 
more applicable. This latter type con- 
sists of a gas turbine engine where ap- 
proximately 80 percent of the output 
is delivered to a propeller, and the 
remainder is represented by the ex- 
haust jet. Engines of this type have 

better fuel economy than pure jet de- 
signs under 500 mph. 


This paper has attempted to pre- 
sent, in rather brief form, some de- 
sign features, performance character- 
istics, and applications of gas tur- 
bines. The aircraft application, par- 
ticularly with reference to its jet pro- 
pulsion phase, has been dwelt upon 
at some length. There appeared to be 
sufficient justification for discussing 
it in comparative detail, since it is the 
application of the gas turbine which 
has the greatest magnitude and pop- 
ular appeal at the present time. 

It is desired to emphasize that, not- 
withstanding its many advantages 
and attractive potentialities, the gas 
turbine is not regarded as a panacea 
for all power problems, for its limi- 
tations are also well recognized. It 
is believed, however, that there are 
many applications for which the gas 
turbine is ideally suited, and it is to- 
ward such ends that its present devel- 
opment is being directed. 


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Her compact passed 
65 screen tests 

Ve it made of gold, silver or 
C^ "brass", a compact has to pass 
a lot of "screen tests" on its way 
from the earth to its user. 

Ore is screened a score of times 
before it becomes metal. Silica goes 
through a battery of screens to be- 
come a mirror. And talcum is 
forced through a long series of fine- 
mesh screens before it acquires that 
caressing smoothness that is de- 

manded by our exacting fair sex. 

Yet, because this is America, 
compacts, which are beyond the 
means of women living in countries 
that decry our free enterprise sys- 
tem, are sold in dime stores, avail- 
able to millions. 

Roebling products play a leading 
part in this mass production. 
Roebling wire screens meet all ma- 
terials under all conditions. In one 

case they pass rocks as big as 
melons. In another they reject dust 
as fine as pollen. 

Made of steel rods as thick as 
your thumb, or woven of stainless 
as fine as hair, Roebling screens 
serve industry in a hundred ways — 
on a thousand jobs. 


Branches and Warehouses in Principal Cities 




inois Tech Builds 

A model of the two four-story dormitory units now under construction on the Illinois Tech campus at 32nd 
street and Michigan avenue and 33rd street and Michigan avenue. 

stages of planning the campus devel- 
opment, it became apparent that the 
future of the Institute and its program 
was inevitably tied in with the de- 
velopment of the whole south side of 

In the congested city of Chicago, a 
scheme of sensible city planning was 
needed — not only to provide hous- 
ing, but to clear the teeming slum 
areas. The South Side Planning 
Board, with President Heald as chair- 
man, took the lead in planning the 
(Please turn to page 34) 

(Continued from page 18) 
door baseball, an area large enough to 
accommodate two simultaneous bas- 
ketball games, and 600 lockers. 

Increased physical facilities on the 
Illinois Tech campus permit central- 
ization of instruction not possible be- 
fore. This fall, for the first time, the 
architecture department is housed 
completely on the campus — in 
Alumni Memorial Hall, first class- 
room building completed in the mas- 
ter program. 

Illinois Tech's NROTC unit, 
termed by the Navy "the best 
equipped in the nation," will continue 
to occupy quarters in the building. 

Eventually all activities of the In- 
stitute will center on the south side 
campus. With the moves this fall, the 
only units remaining downtown are 
the department of home economics, 
the Institute for Psychological Serv- 
ices, and certain classes conducted by 
the Evening Division. 

Major rehabilitation of existing 
buildings has added to their useful- 
ness and attractiveness. The student 
lounge in the North Student Union 
has been entirely refurnished, the 
main cafeteria rearranged, a new con- 
ference and dining room provided in 
the space formerly occupied by the 
book store. A small permanent build- 
ing to handle the central power dis- 
tribution system was constructed dur- 
ing the year. 

Illinois Tech's over-all develop- 
ment extends over a 100-acre tract 

from 31st to 35th street and from 
Michigan avenue to the New York 
Central railroad tracks. The east sec- 
tion of this area, extending the full 
length north and south between State 
street and Michigan avenue, will be 
devoted to housing. 

Of necessity, the Institute's interest 
must extend far beyond the limits of 
its own campus in providing housing 
for its students and staff. In the early 

Students walk from classes in Alumni Memorial Hall, the first building 
completed in the Institute's huge post-war construction program. 



"Our Safety Is Our Speed" 

World War II proved the truth of Emer- 
son's words; post-war America will not 
forget them. Millions of dollars and man- 
hours spent in research are providing the 
groundwork to keep us first in the air. 

The picture above was taken in a Stand- 
ard Oil laboratory devoted entirely to 
experiments with combustion in jet en- 
gines. New fuels are tested, their per- 
formances analyzed. These experiments 
will provide information that will help 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson 

Standard contribute to the vast develop- 
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resulted in speeds greater than those of 
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(Continued from page 32) 
redevolpment of the seven-square- 
mile blighted area on Chicago's south 

Illinois Tech later joined forces 
with the South Side Planning Board 
and four other private and public or- 
ganizations to frame an over-all plan 
of urban redevelopment. The four 

Michael Reese Hospital, whose 
board decided in 1945 to "stand and 
fight," just as Illinois Tech had pre- 
viously determined to do; the Met- 
ropolitan Housing Council; the Chi- 
cago Housing Authority, and the ar- 
chitectural firm of Pace Associates. 

Illinois Tech's share in the devel- 
opment of the seven-square-mile 
blighted area which surrounds it is 
two-fold: 1) its educational and re- 
search campus, and 2) its adjoining 
housing program. This will include 
12 dormitories, each housing 109 stu- 
dents; three 10-story elevator apart- 
ments, each with 120 apartments of 
one- and no-bedroom type; three 3- 
story walk-up apartments, each with 
36 apartments of the two-bedroom, 
one-living room type; row houses for 
faculty, and a community building 
and central dining hall with nearby 

An historic ceremony October 7 at 
32nd street and Michigan avenue 
marked the first step in the housing 
redevelopment of Chicago's near 
south side. Ground was broken for 
the first of two dormitories now un- 
der construction for Illinois Tech. 
President Heald and James D. Cun- 
ningham, chairman of the board of 
trustees, turned the first soil in exca- 
vating for the foundation. 

Scheduled for completion next 
summer and use next fall, the dormi- 
tories (the second is one block south 
at 33rd and Michigan) are being 
built by W. E. Schweitzer and Com- 
pany, Chicago contractors. Architects 
for the housing units are Skidmore, 
Owings, and Merrill, who have de- 
signed them to coincide with the 
classroom buildings of Mies van der 

Each of the four-story walk-up dor- 
mitories will house 109 out-of-town 
students. Cost of each is expected to 
approximate $275,000, including 


land and improvements. Quarters in 
each will consist of 5 1 double rooms, 
7 single rooms, and a matron's suite. 
A separate wing, originally planned 
to contain a cafeteria and lounge for 
each, will not be built now. 

The buildings will be fully fire- 
proof. Flooring will be asphalt tile, 
ceilings will be painted concrete slab, 
and walls will be painted plaster. 
Heat will be furnished by hot water 
radiators from central oil heating 
plants and boilers in each building. 
A shower room will be included on 
each floor. 

The dormitories are being built on 
opposite ends of Illinois Tech's pres- 
ent fraternity row along Michigan av- 
enue. Five fraternity houses and the 
the only present dormitory, housing 
92 students, are located in the 3200 
block along the west side of Michigan 
avenue in a section once renowned as 
one of the finest residential areas in 
the city. 

Illinois Tech looks 
to the future 

At no time since the formation of 
Illinois Tech in 1940 has there been 
such tangible evidence of physical 
advancement. The casual visitor to 
the campus cannot help but be im- 
pressed by the rising structures, the 
buzzing activity, the feeling of growth 
and advancement which permeates 
the atmosphere as Illinois Tech 

But the building is not an end in 
itself. As President Heald has put it: 

"We have two distinct services to otter 
— education and research. We want to pro- 
vide the best possible professional and cul- 
tural education for our students. We want 
at the same time to contribute through re- 
search to mankind's knowledge of the world 
in which we live so that the lives of all of us 
may be enriched and made more enjoyable. 

"These, then, are our objectives. We are 
striving endlessly to achieve them and to 
discharge our obligations to our students, to 
ourselves, and to the society which sup- 
ports us." 

Illinois Tech is building more than 
structures of steel and concrete and 
brick. It is building a foundation for 
the reclamation of human dignity in 
a slum area. And it is building a great 
technological institution to fulfill its 
destiny in the great Middle West. 


// (joa can catch a leprechaun... 

A leprechaun, according to Irish legend, is a dwarf 
who keeps a pot of gold hidden away. 

If you can catch a leprechaun, your troubles 

Because he keeps his gold just for ransom money. 
If you catch him, he'll quickly tell you where his 
gold is, so you let him go. 

The best place to look for a leprechaun is in the 
woods. They're green, and only about nine inches 
tall, so you'll have to — 

Or maybe you don't believe in leprechauns. 

Maybe it would be more practical to just keep 
working for your money. But you can learn one 
good lesson from these little fellows. A small pot of 
gold put to one side is a great help when trouble 
catches you. 

And there's a much faster and easier way to get 

your pot of gold than by catching leprechauns. 
You can buy U. S. Savings Bonds through an auto- 
matic purchase plan. 

If you're employed you can sign up for the Pay- 
roll Savings Plan. If you have a bank account you 
can sign up for the Bond-A-Month Plan. Either way, 
your pot of gold just saves itself, painlessly and 

And your money increases one third every ten 
years. That would make a leprechaun turn even 
greener with envy. 

Sm the easy, automatic vtay-with U.S. Savings Bonds 

Contributed by this magazine in co-operation with the Magazine Publishers of America as a public service. 



Tenth Annual 

Midwest Power Conference 

of the Midwest Power Conference 
will be held at the Sheraton Hotel 
(formerly Hotel Continental), 505 
North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, on 
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. 
April 7, 8, 9, 1948. 

The Midwest Power Conference 
was revived and reorganized in 1938. 
At that time it was placed under the 
sponsorship of Armour Institute of 
Technology and was operated with 
the cooperation of other midwestern 
universities and local and national 
engineering societies. Upon the con- 
solidation, in 1941, of Armour Insti- 
tute of Technology and Lewis Insti- 
tute into Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy, the sponsorship was automati- 
cally assumed by the latter. 

Conferences have been held each 
year with the exception of 1945, when 
the meeting was cancelled because of 

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Phone Victory { J I' J 

wartime restrictions on travel. 
Throughout the last ten years, the list 
of cooperating institutions has grown 
steadily, until at present it includes 
the Universities of Iowa, Illinois, 
Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, 
Iowa State College, Michigan State 
College, Northwestern University, 
Purdue University, the local sections 
of the American Institute of Chemi- 
cal Engineers, American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, American Insti- 
tute of Mining and Metallurgical En- 
gineers, American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers, American Soci- 
ety of Civil Engineers, American So- 
ciety of Heating and Ventilating En- 
gineers, the Western Society of Engi- 
neers, the Engineers' Society of Mil- 
waukee, and the National Association 
of Power Engineers. Success of the 
conference has been due to the coop- 
eration of all of these institutions. 

The preliminary program of the 
1948 meeting is being formulated by 
Stanton E. Winston, conference direc- 
tor, and Edwin R. Whitehead, confer- 
ence secretary, with the collaboration 
of representatives of the cooperating 
institutions and the following mem- 
bers of the staff of Illinois Tech and 
Armour Research Foundation: Pro- 
fessors Roland A. Budenholzer, Wil- 
liam Goodman, William A. Lewis, 


Served exclusively 




John T. Rettaliata, Otto Zmeskal, 
Jesse E. Hobson, K. W. Miller, and 
E. H. Schulz. 

In addition to the popular opening 
meeting and four electrical sessions, 
it is anticipated that the program will 
include sessions on central station 
practice, developments in heating 
and air conditioning, diesel power, 
hydro power, fuels and combustion, 
small steam power plants, electronics 
in industry, metallurgy of power 
plants, feedwater treatment, civic re- 
sponsibilities of the engineer, atomic 
power, the gas turbine, and locomo- 
tive power. From six to eight sessions 
will be held on each of the three days 
of the conference. The program will 
again feature joint luncheons with the 
American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, and the West- 
ern Society of Engineers as well as 
the main event, the All-Engineers 

The preliminary program will be 
ready for distribution early in Febru- 
ary, and will be printed in full in the 
March issue of this magazine. 

Officials of the conference have ex- 
tended an invitation to all who are in- 
terested in the field of power, and in 
the nation's power problems. Hotel 
reservations should be made as 
quickly as possible. 

All inquiries concerning the confer- 
ence may be addressed to Edwin R. 
Whitehead, conference secretary, c/o 
Illinois Institute of Technology, Chi- 
cago 16, Illinois. 




Telephone Seeley 4400 

348 North Bell Avenue, Chicago 




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Joliii JNeal 

(Continued from page 13) 
novel to develop the tragic implica- 
tions of the Salem witchcraft trials of 
1692 as more than a background for 
sentimental romance. In this descrip- 
tion of the execution of a helpless, 
harmless old woman we have an ex- 
cellent example of Neal's "natural," 
flowing style and of his theory of na- 
tural eloquence — the repetitious, 
broken, unimaginative exclamations 
of an old woman confronted with 
death. George Burroughs, the central 
character, has just departed after de- 
livering a final vain plea for clem- 

"She could not believe it . . . she would 
not believe it — she did not — such was her 
perfect simplicity, till the chief judge came 
to her and assured her with tears in his eyes, 
over and over again, that it must be so. 

Ah me! said poor Martha, looking out 
toward the quarter of the sky where the 
horseman had so hastily disappeared, and 
where she had seen the last of the fire- 
light struck from his path; Ah me, bending 
her head to listen, and holding up her 
finger as if she could hear him on his way 
back. Ah me! — ah me — and that was 
all she said in reply to her judges, and all 
she said when they drove her up to the 
place of her death, decked out in all her 
tattered finery, as if it were not so much 
for the grave, as for a bridal that she was 

Ah me, said poor Martha when they 


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put the rope about her neck ... Ah me! — 
and she died while she was playing with her 
little withered fingers, and blowing the 
loose grey hair from about her mouth, as 
it strayed away from her tawdy cap . . . say- 
ing over the words of a child in the voice 
of a child, Ah me — ah me — with her last 
breath — " 

In Authorship (1830) the collo- 
quial style is employed for a very dif- 
ferent emotional effect. The narrator 
of the story (Neal in thin disguise) 
relates his experiences as a New Eng- 
lander visiting Britain. He is a man 
of extreme sensibility, acidulous in 
his observations of British customs 
and institutions, and ludicrous in his 
excessive susceptibility to minor mis- 
haps and discomfitures: he devotes 
an entire chapter to his ordeal in get- 
ting a breakfast egg in a British inn. 
And he is extremely susceptible to the 
charms of a mysterious young lady: 
he devotes almost an entire chapter 
to holding her hand, though he is not 
at all aware of that fact until her hus- 
band enters. It is all done with a 
deftly controlled casualness, largely 
managed through a series of "natural" 
conversations, and has much of the 
nuance and charm of Sterne's A Sen- 
timental Journey. 

Neal's continuous preoccupation 
with the real speech of real people is 
best illustrated by his representation 
of Yankee speech and character in 
The Down-Easters (1833). Neal de- 
lights most in telling how the ludi- 
crous but shrewd Yankee invariably 
gets the better of his dignified neigh- 
bors who have the educated habit of 
not saying what they mean. 

In one instance, a pompous old 
gentleman offers his fork to his fel- 
low-diner, a Yankee, requesting him 
with grave dignity to put his fork into 
a potato. The Yankee takes the prof- 
fered implement, thrusts it into a po- 
tato, and leaves it there. The pomp- 
ous gentleman stares and then with a 
bow and a compassionate smile tells 
the Yankee he'd be obliged to him for 
his fork. Whereupon the Yankee, 
with a literal innocent air, bows in re- 
ply, pulls out the fork, and returns it 
across the table. 

On another occasion, a Yankee 
peddler, upon encountering a gentle- 
man suffering from severely chapped 
(Please turn to page 40) 




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swallow an aspirin 

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the chances are, you are coming in contact 
with Koppers engineering or chemical skills. 

1. Koppers chemicals for use in cosmetics. 2. Farm structures 
made of lumber pressure-treated by Koppers for long life. 3. Koppers 
American Hammered Piston Rings for marine engines. 4. Coke from 
Koppers-built ovens. 5. Koppers chemicals for use in medicines. 
6. Koppers Fast's self-aligning couplings, widely used in power 
plants. All these are Koppers products ... as well as scores of others 
that help to increase our comfort, guard our health, enrich our lives. 
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(Continued from page 38) 
lips, attempts to sell him some infalli- 
ble ointment. When his prospective 
customer turns him off with great 
rudeness, the Yankee holds up his 
ointment jar and says: 

"Frind! — I meant no offence, an' I'm 
sorry for it; but if you'll allow me to express 
my opinion, I should say that a LEETLE o' 
that are — a very LEETLE — scooping out as 
much as he could with his thumb-nail, and 
holding it up — not more 'an you'd want to 
soap a griss-mill with — jess slicked over 
your lips, INSIDE AN' OUT, you'd be a 
much easier man for the rest o' the day; an' 
talk more to other people's satisfaction." 

It was to be expected that Neal, 
with his great interest in natural ex- 
pression, would show great interest in 
children and in the eloquence of chil- 
dren. He felt that they were a link to 
nature — "the cryptogamia of another 
world" — and that their speech re- 
flected the true, natural function of 

"You CHOKE my hand, said a little fel- 
low once, when I was holding him by it. — 
His father laughed ... his mother shamed 
him. I felt proud of him. — Faver — said 
another, in my presence — there's an old 
man, Sir— he's been SHAVING the wall. On 
inquiry, we found that he had been white- 
washing the wall. The boy had seen his 
father's face covered with soap and lather 
when he shaved. . . . Will you persuade me 
that either of those children did not FEEL 
the analogy and propriety of language?" 

And so Neal collected the sayings of 
children, and attacked as adult be- 
trayals the absurdity and artificiality 
of the children's stories of the period, 
and wrote several stories himself that 
reflected his own theory as to what a 
child's story should be like. 

Neal campaigns for rights 
of women 

After his return to Portland, Neal 
devoted more and more of his time 
and energy to non-literary activities. 
He had become attracted to Jeremy 
Bentham's philosophy during his visit 
to England and translated his Prin- 
ciples of Legislation shortly after his 
return. He plunged into local affairs 
and played a vociferous part in fur- 
thering civic improvements ("our 
streets were impassable at certain 
seasons of the year . . . and if you saw 
an aged man poking about in the 


mud, with a cane, you were tempted 
to ask if anybody was missing"). He 
lectured on gymnastics and founded 
several gymnasia; but he quit this ac- 
tivity after being enraged by the hy- 
pocrisy of his abolitionist class-lead- 
ers who rejected flatly the member- 
ship applications of several Negro 
youths ("for what was bodily train- 
ing, compared with spiritual training? 
what a system of gymnastics, 
weighed against humanity and con- 
sistency?"). He lectured and wrote 
extensively on education and the dig- 
nity of labor (ivory-tower intellec- 
tuals were useless and the only true 
system of education was self-educa- 
tion). He wrote extensively on Amer- 
ican art and artists demanding of 
them, as he did of writers, vigor and 
independence in place of the slavish 
imitativeness so much in vogue. He 
was an authority and prolific writer 
on phrenology, then a fashionable 
and respectable science. 

One of his most vigorous and per- 
sistent campaigns was waged to lib- 
erate American women from what he 
considered to be a medieval slave 
status. At a time when such views 
were fantastic — as early as 1831 — - 
Neal lectured for the right of women 
to hold property, and to vote. And in 
1843, he went so far as to suggest, in 
a lecture at the Broadway Taber- 
nacle in New York, that the women 
of America had the right to revolt 
against an oppressive government, 
citing the Declaration of Independ- 
ence as his authority. 

At the age of 79, Neal collared a 
young man and pitched him out of a 
horse-car when the youth persisted in 
smoking in the presence of some lady 

He died on June 21, 1876, in his 
83rd year, a prophet with honor in his 
own home town but virtually for- 
gotten everywhere else. 

But local fame is not very durable. 
Recently I talked with an old resi- 
dent of Portland, not a bookish man, 
but the kind of Yankee John Neal 
would have liked. Had he heard of 
Neal? He paused, reflected for a full 
minute, and then replied: "Didn't he 
write a guide book to Portland many 
years ago?" 2 

^Portland Illustrated (1874). 



/* 0?<csis'C?4&e 



T^ryL&vcc&ri ^5<* 


Most people think of brass tube as a mill product with a 
great many important industrial uses. It is regularly used 
to carry water and other liquids, to make parts of machines 
and appliances, railings, handles, and so on. Yet it also 
can be a musical item, in door chimes, and the story of its 
development for that purpose is an unusual one. 

When electric door chimes appeared, it became evident 
that here was an entirely new requirement for brass tube — 
that it produce a pleasing tone when struck. The other 
factors that have made brass tube a staple, large-volume 
product for so many years, such as 
its rich color and corrosion resistance, 
dictated the choice of brass. Here, 
then, was the problem: what are the 
causes of pleasing tone in tube, and 
how can they be controlled in the mill 
in order to supply a reliably standard 
musical product? 

The first step was purely experi- 
mental. Revere proceeded by ear. 
Over 100 samples of tubes in various 
alloys, tempers and gauges were hung 
up, struck, listened to, and preferences 
obtained from many people. These 
tests showed an outstanding prefer- 
ence for the tonal quality of one type 
of tube. But Revere did not stop theie. 
It was desirable to know why that tone was preferred, 
what factors were responsible for it, and how they could 
be controlled. 

The project then was turned over to a laboratory physi- 
cist who is also a talented musician. Now began the most 
ambitious and lengthy and scientific part of the work, 
employing the most modern electronic apparatus, including 
a beat-frequency oscillator and a cathode ray oscilloscope. 
These made it possible to dissect the tone produced, meas- 
uring the intensity and frequency of the fundamental note 

and its partials with an accuracy of one cycle per second. 
Much new information was developed concerning the 
source of the tone, the manner in which the tube vibrates, 
and the changes in the tone produced by changes in tube 
characteristics. The net result is that Revere really knows 
chime tube, scientifically, musically, physically, and, of 
course, how to produce it. We also know exactly how a 
chime tuba should be plugged, and where struck, and why, 
which information is of value to door chime manufacturers. 
As Revere contemplates the voluminous laboratory rec- 
ords of this work it realizes that inter- 
esting and important though it was, 
it is by no means a solitary example. 
Revere has repeatedly studied in the 
greatest detail both new and old appli- 
cations of its mill products, and un- 
covered data of value in extending the 
life and usefulness of them. So, for 
that matter, has practically every 
other supplier of materials to industry. 
Hundreds of companies operate well- 
equipped, competently-staffed labora- 
tories. Others employ college labora- 
tories more or less steadily. The final 
results of these continuing studies are 
embodied in products and processes, 
and thus raise the standards of all 
American industry. In addition, in the majority of cases 
secrecy as to the information obtained is not imposed, 
and thus you can obtain not merely better products, but 
also much information of practical value in their use. It 
has been pointed out that those who pay for materials also 
pay for the brains required to develop them, and that 
therefore those brains should be used. Thus, Revere sug- 
gests that no matter what you buy, be it rubber or glass, 
chemicals or metals, cements or solvents, you would do 
well to draw upon the brains of your suppliers. 


Founded by Paul Revere in 1801 

-sir & -fr 

Executive Offices: 

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Industry and Education 

(Continued from page 15) 
much of our basic technical informa- 
tion came from abroad. The remain- 
der came largely from our own uni- 
versities and a few industrial labora- 
tories. Our stockpile of basic scien- 
tific knowledge was seriously de- 
pleted by the war; our normal supply 
of scientists and research engineers 
was likewise seriously depleted by 
the war. Both must be re-established. 
Universities are deeply concerned 
about these problems. Normal funds 
are no longer adequate to educate an 
increased number of postgraduate 
students, to support an adequate 
amount of basic research, and to pro- 
vide for a greatly expanded enroll- 
ment of undergraduates. Endowment 
income has scarcely kept pace. High 
taxes have made future endowments 
questionable. And, at the same time, 
costs of operation have increased all 
along the line. The growth and main- 
tenance of American industry and fu- 

ture security of our country are im- 
periled by these critical shortages. 

Again — a ready answer is to be 
found in more government spending 
for research. There is no doubt that 
the Federal government does have a 
responsibility for certain types of re- 
search. Weapons of war, public 
health, agriculture — these have long 
been recognized as governmental pre- 
rogatives. It seems inevitable, too, 
that the government must continue 
to expend large sums on military re- 
search in the years ahead. 

Industrial research, however, is 
clearly a task for industry — either in 
its own laboratories or on a sponsor- 
ship basis in public service organiza- 
tions created for that purpose. I 
firmly believe, too, that industry must 
accept a greater responsibility for the 
encouragement of fundamental re- 
search and for the training of research 
workers in universities. 

A national science foundation bill 

was passed in the last session of Con- 
gress. It provided for the expenditure 
of government funds on fundamental 
research. And it provided undergrad- 
uate scholarships and graduate fel- 
lowships for promising science stu- 
dents. It was later vetoed by Presi- 
dent Truman because of its admin- 
istrative procedures. 

The President's research advisory 
committee recently urged that such a 
foundation be established and that it 
be authorized to spend at least 250 
million dollars a year by 1957 for 
basic research. The report further 
recommends that total national ex- 
penditures on research of all kinds 
should be at least 1 per cent of the 
annual national income by the same 
date. This is nearly twice the current 

Despite some very effective work 
in American universities under the 
sponsorship of government agencies, 
I am opposed to government domina- 
tion of fundamental research. 

Central direction of a large share 
(Please turn to page 44) 


hot enough 

to melt bricks 



H/ver see a brick melt in air — 
melt like a block of butter in a warm 
room? Probably not. For air around the 
ordinary brick building just doesn't 
get that hot . . .over 2000°F. Yet raising **~ 

the temperature of air until it's hot enough to 
melt a brick — and a lot hotter — is now possible 
with the Pebble Heat Exchanger developed by 
B&W. It heats gases far above the temperature 
limits of metallic heat exchangers. 

Development of the Pebble Heat Exchanger is 
further evidence that B&W— old in experience, 

pioneer of many advances in divergent fields — is 
still young enough to have new ideas. 

B&W offers excellent career opportunities to 
technical graduates in diversified phases of manu- 
facturing, engineering, research, and sales. 



NEW YORK 6 , N. Y. 


Plastics where plastics belong 

for resistance to wear and moisture 

., m MISWK M* mm 


O WM « str£N6T« 

Synthane where Synthane belongs 

Here's Synthane (our type of laminated plasties) at work 
in the water pump of a popular car, where resistance to 
wear and moisture are important. 

This seal washer is lapped to fit precisely, seals watertight 
without packing, resists — mile after mile — the inroads of en- 
gine cooling water. It's an appropriate job for moisture-resistant 
Synthane, a good example of using plastics where plastics be- 
long. Synthane has many other unusual mechanical, electrical, 
physical and chemical properties. It is light (J-i the weight of 
aluminum), dense, strong, resists heat, impact, corrosion, is a 
good electrical insulator, and easily machined. It is a practicable 
material for a limitless number of applications. Synthane Cor- 
poration (Key Address) Oaks, Pennsylvania. 





More Than Just Lumber 

There are lots of places in the Chicago area where you 
can buy lumber. If you want quick, friendly service, your 
choice is more limited. And if you also want lumber cut and 
fabricated to suit special requirements your best bet is the 
new, modernized Schenk Lumber Co. 

Telephone Portsmouth 1411. 


Specialists in Serving 
Industrial Accounts 



6E0I So. CENTRAL Ave. 


(Continued from page 42) 
of the country's scientific investiga- 
tion is a dangerous procedure. Com- 
plete freedom of inquiry to explore 
all phases of scientific activity is es- 
sential for sound progress. Such free- 
dom is difficult, if not impossible, to 
maintain even under the best possible 
centralized administration. 

The alternative — or perhaps the 
antidote — to government domination 
of fundamental research is greater 
support from industry. As yet, indus- 
try has accepted this responsibility 
only on a small scale. About 200 com- 
panies support perhaps 1,000 fellow- 
ships in American colleges. Yet this is 
one of the most obvious ways of in- 
creasing knowledge and educating re- 
search workers. 

Every company with scientific per- 
sonnel could well afford to support 
fellowships of this kind. There are 
many good examples of individual 
company projects and many others 
of an industry-wide nature, but the 
practice needs great expansion. It has 
been proposed that tax credits be pro- 
vided corporations which support 
fundamental research. A bill to put 
the proposal into effect was intro- 
duced in the last session of Congress. 
Such a plan has considerable merit. 
But the incentives for support of fun- 
damental research should make it 

How industry can cooperate 
with education 

I have been discussing some of the 
broad relationships between industry, 
government, and education. I have 
attempted to point out the impor- 
tance of a continuous supply of edu- 
cated citizens and trained scientists. 
I have discussed the importance of 
fundamental and applied research to 
the security and prosperity of the na- 
tion. The need for broader educa- 
tional opportunities for our most able 
youth has been mentioned. 

There are certain specific areas of 
cooperation between industry and ed- 
ucation which can help to bring about 
these things: 

1. Cooperative programs in 
which students spend alternate pe- 
riods on the job and in the class- 
(Please turn to page 46) 


Marsh & McLennan 


Insurance Brokers 



























National Electric 

Products Corporation 

Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

constituents, simultaneously. It makes possible 
substantial savings in the operation of kilns, pro- 
duction of inert gases, and in metallurgical, 
petroleum, and other chemical processes. Single 
point and multipoint instruments are available for 
a wide variety of applications. 

Send for Literature 
Cambridge also makes pH Meters and pH 
Recorders both single and multipoint sampling; 
Voltamographs for polarographic andlysis and 
many other mechanical and electrical instruments 
of precision. Send us details of your instrument 
problem for our recommendation. 



3756 Grand Central Terminal, New York 17, N. Y. 
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An economical reproduction process for Office 
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(Continued from page 44) 
room, thus combining practical ex- 
perience with a sound theoretical 
training. Many colleges maintain 
such programs. They offer the advan- 
tage of producing a graduate with a 
thorough understanding of industrial 
problems. Furthermore, they provide 
the financial resources for able young 
men otherwise unable to attend col- 

2. Evening classes in metropoli- 
tan areas for persons employed in 
industry. Most colleges and univer- 
sities in metropolitan areas conduct 
such classes. Participation by em- 
ployees merits the encouragement of 
management, for such extra training 
increases the employee's usefulness 
to his organization and to society. 

3. In-plant training programs 
and special courses to meet the 
needs of employees of a particular 
company. (Work of this type is illus- 
trated by the program of graduate 
education conducted by Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology for engineers in 
the Allis-Chalmers plant in Mil- 

4. Scholarships for undergrad- 
uate students and fellowships for 
graduate students. These help to 
identify young men of promise and 
encourage their education. (An out- 
standing example is the nation-wide 
competitive scholarship program of 
the Pepsi-Cola Company, which an- 
nually assists several hundred stu- 
dents from all states of the union.) 

5. Greater direct support for 
fundamental research in universi- 

6. Utilization of the services of 
university research foundations, by 
small companies as well as large. 

These programs help to solve specific 
problems in applied research. They 
make it possible for experienced per- 
sonnel and extensive equipment to be 

put at the disposal of manufacturers 
at reasonable cost. (An example is 
Illinois Tech's Armour Research 
Foundation, which has worked with 
hundreds of companies on important 
research projects in the 10 years since 
its formation.) 

7. Pooling of an industry's inter- 
est in graduate education and fun- 
damental research. (An example is 
the Institute of Gas Technology at 
Illinois Tech.) Such organizations 
find the healthiest environment for 
their development in cooperation 
with colleges and universities. 


I feel that the proper maintenance 
and growth of our system of higher 
education is of vital importance to 
every citizen. I feel with President 
George D. Stoddard of the University 
of Illinois that "the wealth of the state 
and the nation derives from the prom- 
ise of youth." Industry in particular 
has a very special interest and a real 
responsibility for helping educational 
institutions find sound answers to 
some of the problems in education 
and research. 

There are very great pressures — 
backed by persuasive reasoning — for 
greatly increased Federal support for 
both. Perhaps that is the only answer. 
But I am thoroughly convinced that 
greatly increased Federal support of 
education and research without a cor- 
responding increase in support by in- 
dustry and private philanthropy is 
another step toward collectivism. 
Centralized control inevitably ac- 
companies centralized support. If 
you permit the government to supply 
all the money — through your own 
failure to do so — then you can expect 
government control of higher educa- 
tion and research. 

Let us, rather, do our best to main- 
tain independent action by individual 
initiative — a free partnership of sci- 
ence, industry, and education. 

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-mountains are leveled and oceans bounded by the slender force of human beings' 

Why communications get better all the time 

Your voice girdles the globe in one-seventh of a second. 

It travels at 186,000 miles per second— the speed of light 
— thanks to the telephone and radio. And by television, so 
do the pictures of any event as it occurs. 

What has made this blinding speed possible? What has 
given us these "ringside seats" ... to see, to hear, to share 
in the headline news of the day? 

The answer: Greater knowledge of electronic waves and 
better materials to harness them. For example, the vac- 
uum tube— heart of radio or television— depends upon the 
greatest possible absence of air or other gases— a high vac- 
uum. Most of the air is pumped out before the tube is sealed. 
Then a tiny bit of barium, called a "barium getter" is 
flashed inside of it by electricity. This captures the remain- 
ing air and gives a nearly perfect vacuum. 

Unending research and engineering have also provided 
finer plastics for insulation, purer graphite and carbon for 
electronic devices . . . and a host of other basic materials 
that help shave the speed of communications to the tiniest 
splinter of a second. 

Producing these better materials and many others— for 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of man- 
kind—is the work of the people of Union Carbide. 

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Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

Technology's Heritage 

(Continued from page 19) 
pire? What were the consequences — 
political, social, moral — of these vast 

Western civilization was founded 
on the grandeur that was Rome, and 
the wealth of Rome increased a thou- 
sand fold with every generation. 
What else? Did speed of transport, 
rapidity of communication, increased 
productivity bring greater happiness 
to the millions of slaves and citizens 
of the Empire? Technology made 
possible both bread and circuses; did 
it lessen barbarity and conspicuous 
consumption? Were the skilled tech- 
nicians merely the instruments of 
avarice and cruelty? Did the wealth 
they had created become a magnet to 
attract the hordes of the despoilers, 
the have-not Huns, Vandals, and 

In more recent times, what has 
been the net result of England's enor- 
mous technical advances in industrial 
progress epitomized in Masefield's 

Dirty British coaster with salt-caked 

smoke stack. 
Butting through the Channel in mad 

March days, 
With a cargo of Tyne coal. 
Road-rails, pig-lead, 
Firewood, iron-ware, and cheap tin trays. 

Will England, rebuilding her Empire 
on a South African axis, take into con- 
sideration the mistakes made in her 
technological era? Will we, in the 
United States, confronted by the 
technological failures of other civili- 
zations, repeat the story of isolated 
greatness and material mastery and 
disappear amidst the ruins of sky- 
scrapers, blasted roads, and twisted 
rails? The answer, it appears, rests 
in large degree with our engineers. 

The engineer should know and un- 
derstand how his skills have been em- 
ployed in the cultural patterns of 
which he is a part. History is inclined 
to look upon some of the engineering 
marvels of the past as useless land- 
marks of unfunctional societies. 
Egyptian and Toltec pyramids. 

Sphinxes, obelisks, Mayan temples: 
monuments to pride and superstition 
built at enormous cost in manpower 
and wealth. Yet in their day such 
wonders were undoubtedly com- 
pletely functional. The Toltec Sun 
and Moon pyramids and the massive 
temple to Quetzalcoatl at Teotihua- 
can were a part of a highly developed 
culture which had also built vast ir- 
rigation systems, devised a calendar 
as accurate as our own, and estab- 
lished a system of fair and equitable 
produce distribution. Who is to de- 
cide, a thousand years hence, wheth- 
er a Rushmore monument, a Rocke- 
feller Center, or silted-in Hudson 
River tunnel were functional or mere 
phases of a civilization that wor- 
shipped tradition, Rockefeller, and 

The technologist must learn, the 
hard way, perhaps, that much of his 
effort is expended on refining ma- 
chines that may some day be as dead 
as the dodo. To what end does he em- 
ploy his skills in perfecting the media 
for transmitting sound and picture? 
(Please turn to page 50) 



four color printing 

office supplies 






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Some day you are going to want to know something that 
you won't have learned in college. And won't find in books. 

You are going to consider using aluminum for some 
purpose where the engineering isn't all spelled out for 
vou. You'll want facts about aluminum that you can 
apply to your problem; and guidance in using them. 

When that happens, remember to call on the brains 
that have stored up more knowledge of aluminum than 
you can find anywhere else. For 59 years this brain has 
been gathering facts and experience in making aluminum 
useful in thousands of ways. 

We are talking about the cumulative corporate brain 
of ALCOA . . . Aluminum Company of America. When 
it goes to work on your problem, the particular kind of 
knowledge needed is sure to be found in one or more of 
this brain's many parts ... in the minds of the scien- 
tists, engineers, plant men and salesmen who make up 
this corporate brain of ours. 

Their metallurgical experience, their counsel on 
design, their intimate knowledge of aluminum fabrica- 
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first in ALUMINUM 



A guide for fishermen, 
and factory heads 

Fishing rod guides (like the one 
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can now wear virtually forever. 

Why? Because the hardest metal 
made by man is adaptable for use at 
the wear points. This super-hard metal 
is Carboloy Cemented Carbide. 

And the same, almost incredible 
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parts throughout industry. Take textile 
plants, for example: 

Textile parts last years longer 

In one mill, Carboloy nylon guides 
have lasted three years and are still in 
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months. And so it is with slitter knives, 
carding pins, needles, jute and yarn 
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metals but duck soup for Carboloy. 

Vital to all industries 

Carboloy is held by authorities to be 
one of the ten most important indus- 
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... a guide to cost-minded factory 
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1. Carboloy commonly triples 
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2. Regularly increases the qual- 
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3. Cuts, forms or draws all 
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A challenge to you 

The odds are 10 to 1 that Carboloy — 
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be put to work profitably in your plant 
by our engineers. Write 

Carboloy Company, Inc., Detroit 32, Mich. 




(Continued from page 48) 
Examine the cultural forms that have 
resulted: mass participation in the 
vicarious thrills of radio serials, dis- 
torted news reports, and sensational 
motion pictures. Our printing presses, 
including the radio newspaper, can 
print faster but no better than the 
presses of the sixteenth century book- 
makers. Speech and pictures cannot 
be made to travel faster than the elec- 
tric impulses now employed to trans- 
mit them. A turbine cannot be made 
more than 100 per cent efficient. Sub- 
sidiary improvements are possible; 
atomic energy will provide new 
power to apply to old machines. Of 
course, the machines will be greatly 
modified and new ones, jet propelled, 
will be created. But the engineer is 
learning that the machine must serve, 
not dominate. He may discover, as 
Mumford tells us in Technics and 
Civilization, that "as social life be- 
comes mature, the social unemploy- 
ment of machines will become as 
marked as the present technological 
unemployment of men. . . . The ma- 
chine, so far from being a sign in our 
present civilization of human power 
and order, is often an indication of 
ineptitude and social paralysis." 

Engineers are in the saddle today; 
if they are to retain that position they 
must not employ whip and spur. A 
degree of arrogance can be detected 
in their general attitude: "Without us 
where would you be?" It is true, we 
would have no four-lane highways 
and highspeed motorcars, no stream- 
lined, cross-continent Zephyrs or 
Rockets, no four-motored airborne 
Constellations, no skyscrapers, no 
deep-freeze units, no television sets, 
no high fidelity sound-wave mech- 
anisms, no technicolor motion pic- 
tures, no soft lighting effects. On the 
other hand we would have no glaring 
neon lights, no soap operas, no cheap 
Westerns, no traffic congestion, no de- 
structive forces to wipe out 100,000 
persons in a single explosion. It is not 
an unmixed blessing that technology 
has brought us. No one wishes to go 
back to a horse and buggy era or to an 
age when apples and corn were dried 
in the sun on the woodshed roof. But 
the engineer is not the corn-fattened 

(Please turn to page 52) 



ON January 26, 1946, newspapers 
carried front page stories about the 
new and amazing 100 million volt 
"betatron". The heart of this instrument 
that enables scientists to peer more 
deeply into steel castings to discover 
flaws, is a giant hollow glass "doughnut." 
With the betatron, men in the field of 
nuclear research have already made start- 
ling discoveries in the investigation of 
atomic energy. 

The making of this giant glass tube called 
for glass research knowledge and glass- 
making skill of the highest degree. And 
Corning was ready with the right com- 
bination of both. Each of those "dough- 
nut" sections you see in the picture had 
to be built to the most exacting dimen- 
sional tolerances. 

Science and industry have learned to 
expect Corning to come through with 
the answer to any glass problem. For 
instance, Corning produced the world's 
largest piece of cast glass . . . the 200" 
telescope mirror for famed Mt. Palomar. 
And when all other materials failed to do 
the job of handling hot corrosive acids, 
Corning made glass pipe and glass pumps 
that work without a hitch or replace- 
ment for years. Thermometer tubing 
. . . miles and miles of it . . . with a bore 
only 1/8 the diameter of a human hair is 
just an everyday job at Corning. 
With more than 50,000 different glass 
formulae to draw on, Corning scien- 
tists and glass workers have adapted 
glass to thousands of different jobs 
...some simple, some as complicated 

as the betatron. But in every 
glass is used because it does the job best. 
And you'll find after graduation that a 
knowledge of glass may help you do a 
better job. So why not keep Corning in 
mind. We'll be ready to help you all we 
can. Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 




Research in Glass 







To business correspondents who do noi 
know you personally, or who have not 
leen your place at business, your letter- 
head teflects the personality of your firm 


FRANK W. D1UCK & Company 

432 South Dearborn • Chicago 

cJPeHerlteuJ cftylisis 



2301-2311 Prairie Avenue 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

(Continued from page 50) 
prize animal in the modern scene that 
he appears to be. A study of the his- 
tory of technology would show him 
that he has his periods of power — his- 
tory is measured by centuries — and 
his periods of eclipse. The Egyptian 
and Euphrates valley engineers had 
their day of ease; their irrigation sys- 
tems, based on sound principles of hy- 
draulics, were largely responsible for 
the rise of empires dependent on the 
vast supplies of food which they had 
made possible. What happened to 
those empires? No society has ever 
continued because of its engineers; no 
civilization is ever completely de- 
stroyed by other engineers. Survival 
depends upon the efforts of all sectors 

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of society working toward goals de- 
termined by all sectors. Empires or 
civilizations collapse or decay after 
they have "survived and triumphed." 
America may top all previous civili- 
zations in power and conquest; after 
that, the story of its engineering tri- 
umphs may be something for the 
archaeological angels, if there are 
such, to record. Technological history 
makes humble engineers. Professor 
W. H. Burr has said: 

"It is now largely a matter of specula- 
tion, how these ancient engineers planned 
and executed their works, but enough has 
already been disclosed to show that the 
modern engineer has not been the only en- 
gineer to meet and solve difficulties, or to 
make the best use of the means at his com- 
mand to accomplish great engineering 


National, world-wide, or interplan- 
etary engineers, however, must go far 
beyond making "the best use of the 
means at his command to accomplish i 
great engineering works"; they must, 
it they have studied technology's heri- 
tage, help engineer the universe as; 




0001" flMIMHCE 


No. 5 Plain Grind 
ing Machine — 

or 3"xl8". Work 
speeds and cable 
speeds are designed 
for diameters up to 
about 1". 

Brown & Sharps Mfg. Co. 
Providence 1, R. I., U. S. A. 





ENDIX is essentially a great creative engineer- 
ing and manufacturing organization — unlike 
any other existing in America. If Despite 
the fact of its modern manufacturing plants 
and its demonstrated productive capacities, 
the essence of Bendix greatness lies in its ten research lab- 
oratories and in the integrated knowledge its many engi- 
neers have jointly acquired in the fields of electronics, 
magnetics, optics, ceramics, electro-mechanics, hydraulics, 
pneumatics, injection-carburetion, aerological physics and 
metallurgy. H Bendix is constantly exploring the widest 
possible application of all these sciences to all manner of indus- 
trial, commercial, domestic and human problems. ^ By virtue 
of this, wherever machinery replaces human effort, there you 
■will find Bendix instruments and controls lightening the load 
on human minds and removing the strain from human backs 
and hands. Tf The searchlight of Bendix creative engineering 
is always pointed to a bright and better tomorrow. ^ When you 
see the name Bendix Aviation Corporation, on any product, you 
can buy it with the definite knowledge that it is first in crea- 
tive engineering design and the last word in quality. 


ON the walls of the great Bendix laboratories ... in 
the offices of the huge Bendix engineering staff . . . 
over the desks of executives in Bendix plants the 
country over, there hangs an exact copy of the credo 
pictured above. It hangs there because it is a working 
credo — an authentic statement of Bendix aims, aspira- 
tions and accomplishments. The results of this whole- 
hearted preoccupation with a finer future for you are 

everywhere apparent. Radio, meteorology, all forms of 
transportation aloft, afloat and ashore are better be- 
cause of Bendix, and new products of basic importance 
to industry and individuals are constantly added. "To a 
bright and better tomorrow." Every Bendix Resource 

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^^7 www l^f 



at Annual Party 

ON December 6 over 1300 Norton men and women 
were company guests in Worcester's Municipal 
Auditorium for the 26th annual presentation of Service 

212 — 10 years service 

47 — 15 years service 

59 — 25 years service 

29 — 35 years service 

Approximafely 10% of all Norton employees 
have been with the company 25 years or more. 

These figures attest to the truth of the phrase so often 
heard in Worcester, "Norton's is a good place to work" 



(Continued from page 4) 
His writing and editing experience 
includes newspaper work prior to 
and during the war. He joined the 
Illinois Tech staff in April 1947. 

Mentor L. Williams is assistant 
professor of English at Illinois Tech. 
He received his bachelor's and mas- 
ter's degrees at the University of 
Washington and his doctorate at the 
University of Michigan. He was an 
instructor in high school English in 
the state of Washington from 1925 
to 1928. He taught at the University 
of Idaho from 1928 to 1931, and at 
the University of Michigan from 
1931 to 1945. In 1945-46 he served 
as visiting lecturer at Tulane univer- 
sity. He joined the staff of Illinois 
Tech in the fall of 1946. Dr. Wil- 
liams' articles have been published 
in College English, Michigan Quar- 
terly Review, Michigan History, In- 
land Seas, and Philological Quar- 

Salary Scale Proposed 
For Engineers 

The Minnesota Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers has proposed a 
series of minimum salary scales for 
engineers of that state. 

The association would classify en- 
gineers in eight grades, two of which 
(Grades 1 and 2) would be consid- 
ered pre-professional grades. Classi- 
fication in the professional grades 
(Grades 3 through 8) is given those 
engineers who hold positions where 
considerable independent thought 
and action is required. 

Minimum annual salaries (subject 
to a cost-of-living adjustment) pro- 
posed for Grades 1 and 2 are $2,640 
and $3,400, respectively. Engineers in 
Grade 3, the lowest professional 
grade, would receive at least $4,200 
annually. The minimum salary for 
Grade 8, the highest professional 
grade, would be $10,000. 

A Grade 3 position might involve 
administration of the smallest city or 
county engineering organization. The 
Grade 8 classification would imply 
full responsibility as the head of a 
large engineering organization. 




MARCH, 1948 


More people are smoking 
CAMELS thamever before ! 




Let your J -Zone tell you nfy/ 




ver America, the story's the 
same! With smoker after smoker 
who has tried and compared differ- 
ent brands of cigarettes, Camels are 
the "Choice of Experience"! 

Try Camels in your "T-Zone" — 
that's T for Taste and T for Throat 
— and you'll see why! Compare 
Camels for rich, full flavor; for 
mild, cool smoking — and you'll 
agree with the millions of smokers 
who say Camels suit them to a "T"! 
Let your own experience tell you 
why more people are smoking 
Camels than ever before! 

ccording to a Nationwide survey: 

Doctors Smoke Camels 
than any other cigarette 

h organizations to na 
named Camel th; 

e asked by three 
lie cigarette they 
ly other brand! 

Contributors . . . 

Albert F. Heino, director of de- 
sign, buildings, and airports for 
United Air Lines, was graduated at 
Armour Institute of Technology in 
1926. He received a master's degree 
at the University of Illinois in 1928 
and was an instructor in design at 
that school for two years. He opened 
an independent practice in Chicago 
in 1932. In 1942, Mr. Heino became 
head of the architectural department 
for United Air Lines and was placed 
in charge of research development 
covering requirements for airports of 
the future. He is a consultant to a 
number of cities on airport building 
programs, and is a member of nu- 
merous national and local commit- 
tees on airport construction. He is 
chairman of the joint airline build- 
ing commission for the new Chicago 
Municipal Airport terminal building 
and was the originator of the unit 
terminal plan for commercial air 
transport terminals. He is a director 
of the Chicago Chapter of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects and has 
been awarded a medal of excellence 
by that organization. 

Jesse E. Hobson, until March 1 
director of Armour Research Foun- 
dation of Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology, now director of the Stanford 
University Research Institute, re- 
ceived his bachelor's and master's 
degrees at Purdue university in 1932 
and 1933, respectively, and was 
awarded a doctorate (magna cum 
laude) at California Institute of 
Technology in 1935. From 1937 to 
1941 he served as central station en- 
gineer for the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing company and as 
lecturer at the University of Pitts- 
burgh. He became professor and di- 
rector of the department of electrical 
engineering at Illinois Tech in 1941. 
Dr. Hobson was awarded Eta Kappa 
Nu's award to the outstanding young 
electrical engineer in the country in 
(Please turn to page 4) 

COVER PICTURE— Students in 

electrical engineering operate D-C 
generators in parallel. 


MARCH, 1948 



~Jn this issue 


By Albert F. Heino 


By Jesse E. Hobson 


By Karl Menger 


By Mary Louise Mojonnier 


By John Day Larkin 


Extracted from the Annual Report of Armour Research Foundation of 
Illinois Institute of Technology 



By George S. Speer 

THELMA L. COLEMAN, Business Manager 

Associate Editors 

Student Staff 




Published October, December, March and May. 

Subscription rates, $1.50 per year. 

Editorial and Business Office, Illinois Institute of Technology, 

3300 Federal St., Chicago 16, Illinois. 

MARCH, 1948 




Telephone Portsmouth 1411 




Specialists in Serving 
Industrial Accounts 



6601 So.CENTRAL Ave. 

PORTSMOUTH c _r- , -|i 

(Continued from page 3) 

Karl Menger, professor of mathe- 
matics at Illinois Tech, has been a 
member of the faculty since Septem- 
ber, 1946. Born in Vienna, he ob- 
tained his Ph.D. degree in 1924 at 
the University of Vienna. He taught 
two years at the University of Am- 
sterdam, then 10 years at his alma 
mater. He gave visiting lectures in 
the United States in 1930-31 and 
came to this country in 1937 to join 
the faculty of the University of 
Notre Dame. He is the author of two 
books. Theory of Dimension (1928) 
and Theory of Curves (1932), and 
numerous technical articles both 
here and abroad. 

Mary Louise Mojonnier, chair- 
man of the department of home eco- 
nomics at Illinois Tech, was grad- 
uated at the University of Chicago 
in 1928 and received her master's 
degree at Columbia university in 
1938. From 1928 to 1938, Miss 
Mojonnier taught at the Milwaukee 
Vocational school and was a nutri- 
tionist for the Infant Welfare So- 
ciety of Chicago. From 1938 to 1946, 
she served as assistant director and, 
later, director of the home econom- 
ics division of the department of 
welfare of the City of Chicago. She 
accepted her present position in 
1946. Miss Mojonnier has held 
membership on a number of com- 
mittees in the field of welfare, and 
from 1944 to 1946 was chairman of 
the Chicago Nutrition Association's 
Food Conservation Committee. 

John Day Larkin has been dean 
of the Liberal Studies division at Il- 
linois Tech since June, 1945. Previ- 
ously he had been chairman of the 
department of political and social 
science. A graduate of Berea (Ken- 
tucky) College, Dr. Larkin received 
his master's degree at the University 
of Chicago and his Ph.D. at the Har- 
vard School of Arts and Sciences, 
Harvard university. He has served 
on the faculties of Hamline univer- 
sity, the University of North Dako- 
ta, Harvard university, and the Col- 
lege of the City of New York. He 
(Please turn to page 28) 


Horizons of Chemistry 

constantly beckon 

Dow is deeply interested in colleges and technical schools and maintains 
close ties with them. The very nature of our business makes this a logical 
course for us to pursue. 

We are producers of chemicals essential to industry and agriculture. We 
are developers of plastic materials. We are the pioneer producers of mag- 
nesium, recovering this lightest of all structural metals from ocean water. 
We are developers of magnesium alloys and methods for their fabrication. 

To carry on this work, research is a necessity and a considerable portion 
of our efforts and resources are devoted to it as an undeviating policy. 

All these activities require trained men— scientists and technicians — 
chemists and chemical engineers — metallurgists, biologists, physicists, 
entomologists. Dow employs such men in large numbers — keeps an eye on 
them as they emerge from their academic training — gives many of them 
special schooling at the Dow plants, according to the jobs they are slated 
to do. 

In peace as well as in war, chemistry is an essential occupation because it 
deals with materials essential to industry and to the health of the nation. 
It is a developing business with horizons that constantly beckon — a 
profession to intrigue any ambitious young man with an eye to the future. 


New York • Boston • Philadelphia • Washington • Cleveland • Detroit 

Chicago • St. Louis • Houston • San Francisco • Los Angeles • Seattle 

Dow Chemical of Canada, Limited, Toronto, Canada 

Typical of its laboratory activities, Dow 
recently developed this direct-reading 
spectrometer that electronically measures 
concentration of elements in alloys — auto- 
matically records analyses in 40 seconds. 



MARCH, 1948 

the future of 



transport industry is a national 
asset of the first magnitude. With- 
out it, our nation would have been 
in serious difficulty in the early days 
of the last war when the government 
called upon the airlines for the skills 
and knowledge to assist in organiz- 
ing the greatest air armada in his- 
tory. The Air Transport Command 
and Naval Air Transport Service 
were aided by years of successful 
commercial operation, and the men 
who pioneered the airlines of the 
country became of inestimable value 
in creating the great world-wide air 
transport that helped win the war. 

Our commercial air transport sys- 
tem, besides being closely related to 
any plan of national defense, bids 
well to play an important part in the 
economy of the nation in the years to 
come. We must recognize that the 
well being of all of the citizens of this 
country is dependent upon the posi- 
tion this country holds in the forward 

progress of the aeronautical sciences. 

Prior to the war, and even up to 
this day, the major attention of the 
airlines has been directed toward the 
development of bigger and better 
aircraft. Economics has demanded 
that the aeronautical engineers de- 
velop aircraft capable of producing 
the maximum amount of revenue. 
High payload weight with safety has 
been the objective. In the process, 
wing loadings have been increased 
and larger and faster airplanes have 
resulted; both speed and magnificent 
safety records have been attained. 

While all this has been going on, 
development of the nation's airports 
has. with few exceptions, lagged be- 
hind. Airports designed for aircraft 
of another day are suddenly found 
inadequate to handle modern trans- 
ports and lacking in adaptability to 
flight procedures of the future, which 
promise all-weather landings and 
greater regularity of service. Not only 
are the majority of airfields unable to 
meet the requirements of modern 

aircraft, but what is worse, in many 
cases they cannot be expanded. 
Where it is possible, they are 
hemmed in by a multitude of ob- 
structions which make safe ap- 
proaches under all-weather condi- 
tions a matter of great concern and 

A good example of this situation 
is the Chicago Municipal Airport 
which, for many years and up to 
the war, was considered one of the 
finest airports in the country. It also 
is an excellent example of modifica- 
tion to meet the ever-increasing re- 
quirements of aircraft. The original 
field, comprising a quarter section, 
was laid out in 1926. Later, in 1930, 
it was expanded by the addition of 
another quarter section to the west. 
During the heyday of WPA, the Belt 
Railroad tracks were removed and 
the field doubled to bring it up to its 
present size of 620 acres. Tomorrow, 
its successor, Douglas Airport, will 
comprise approximately 6,000 acres. 

Chicago Municipal is still a fair 


airport for contact operation, but it 
is not adaptable to instrument land- 
ings and all-weather operation, the 
goals of the future. Expansion of the 
present Municipal to achieve these 
objectives is not feasible economical- 
ly because hundreds of occupants of 
surrounding space would have to be 
displaced at great cost. Therefore, 
Chicago, along with other major cit- 
ies of the country, has come to the 
realization that to provide properly 
for air transport of the future, it is 
mandatory that a new concept of 
airport design be adopted and that 
the necessary provisions be made to 
assure reasonable permanence and 
longevity of its major airport. The 
alternate to such an airport program 
is retrogression in the development 
of the nation's air transport industry 
and stabilization of aircraft design 
adaptable to pre-war airfields. This 
latter course could not produce an 
economically healthy air transporta- 
tion system. 

The primary objective of com- 
mercial air transportation is regu- 
larity and dependability of service 
with safety. The science of electron- 
ics, stimulated by wartime research, 
is playing its part in bringing about 
a gradual improvement in airline 
service. Today, a much greater per- 
centage of scheduled flights are com- 
pleted. And, with the full develop- 
ment of all-weather landing aids, 
service will be as regular and depend- 
able as that of any surface carrier. 
Under present approach procedures, 
instrument landings are slow. At best, 
they are at the rate of approximately 
20 movements per hour on a single 
runway airport, and until this opera- 
tion is speeded up, no major airport 
presently conceived will be able to 
handle the traffic volume that is pre- 

The important thought in this 
connection is that, in our estimates 
of traffic capacity at a given airport, 
we should think in terms of regular 
operation under all-weather condi- 
tions. The practice in the past has 
been to schedule on a "contact op- 
eration" basis. When the weather 
closes in, disruptions in schedules 
occur and many thousands of pas- 
sengers are discommoded. This hap- 

MARCH, 1948 

pens because there is not sufficient 
airport capacity under adverse 
weather conditions to satisfy the 
normal travel demands of the public. 

Planners of the super airports at 
Idlewild in New York and Douglas 
at Chicago have had to make certain 
assumptions that the projected traf- 
fic may some day be possible through 
improvements in the science of in- 
strument operation of aircraft, as 
well as in the science of airways 
traffic control. The master plans for 
both of these airports are based on 
the assumption that 360 movements 
per hour under instrument opera- 
tions will some day be a practical 
reality. Even though this reality is 
in the future, the gradual stage de- 
velopment of these airports will be 
planned to satisfy the traffic at a 
given time while providing for ex- 
pansion when the projected traffic 
load materializes. 

All this is good, particularly where 
the premium in dollars is not excess- 
ive for the attendant gains. In the 
past, few airports were built when the 
scale of the development of air trans- 
portation was evident. As a conse- 
quence, there was a notable lack of 
provision for future expansion. This 
has resulted in the obsolescence and 
abandonment of many expensive air- 
ports, which are just not usable for 
modern commercial air transporta- 
tion. The remarks here refer prin- 

cipally to airports constructed in the 
twenties and to even those built in 
the period immediately preceding 
the war. During the war, many ex- 
cellent airports were constructed for 
military purposes by the Govern- 
ment, and in many cases, these same 
airports now provide modern, well 
designed bases for commercial opera- 

In development of an airport 
many interests have to be taken into 
consideration. No longer are airports 
built simply to serve as stopping 
places for commercial air transports. 
There is an awakening in the nation, 
a realization that the welfare of its 
citizens is inextricably a part of each 
and every project. Congress has rec- 
ognized this fact in the passage of 
the National Airports Bill granting 
federal aid for airport development. 
The airlines provide the vehicles to 
take the business developed by its 
citizens in and out of a given city. 

The cost of operation is of great 
concern to the general public as is 
the cost of the ground plant neces- 
sary to provide this service. Few 
people realize that the total invest- 
ment in ground facilities is a small 
part of the business generated 
through this new form of transporta- 
tion and that they and the air carriers 
are partners in the true sense of the 
word. The distribution of cost for 
both airline operation and the con- 

struction and maintenance of the 
fixed plant is the principal subject 
of negotiation today. Airport de- 
velopment is held back in some cases 
because of a failure to negotiate satis- 
factory terms. In other cases, the op- 
eration of airlines is restricted be- 
cause of short sighted policies of gov- 
erning bodies. The airlines them- 
selves are not without blame in this 
respect and share the responsibility. 

It is axiomatic that if we adopt the 
short-sighted policy requiring the 
airlines to pay the major portion of 
cost of the expensive ground plant, 
without regard to potential revenue 
from other sources, fares will be 
raised to such a level that the large 
ground plants projected would be- 
come unnecessary because of the re- 
sultant loss of market. The theory 
that the airlines should pay the bulk 
of costs can prove a deterrent of in- 
estimable magnitude to business and 
industry in many cities. What is the 

Our country is the acknowledged 
leader in the field of aviation. We 
believe in it. We have built up the 
greatest air transportation system in 
the world. It is certain that this in- 
dustry will go forward. It will be 
the principal medium in uniting peo- 
ples of the entire world. As speeds 
increase, it will become also an im- 

portant means of communication. 
The traffic potential that may be 
generated is enormous and air travel 
will supplant many present day 
methods of doing business by slower 
and more cumbersome means. 

If we accept all of this, then the 
problem is to find the equation that 
provides air transportation at the 
lowest possible cost for John Q. Citi- 
zen. After all contributing elements 
have been thoroughly recognized, it 
seems that the cost of passenger 
transportation should be relatively 
low so that it will be within reach of 
the greatest number of income lev- 
els. The burden of cost should be 
borne by commercial developments 
on the airport which benefit by air 
transportation. Cities, states, the fed- 
eral government in all of its branches, 
and business in general all have im- 
portant stakes in the larger problem 
and should all bear a relative per- 
centage of the cost commensurate 
with the advantages to each. 

When the Port of New York Au- 
thority proposed to spend $191,000,- 
000 for the development of the 
New York airports in addition to 
approximately $90,000,000 already 
spent by the city, an economic prob- 
lem was created. Obviously, a reve- 
nue picture had to balance this 
capital cost. Where was this revenue 

to come from? The size of the proj- 
ect in dollars is a substantial portion 
of the invested capital of the entire 
commercial air transportation in- 

The Port immediately set about 
to create an aviation center on a 
regional basis and Idlewild and La- 
Guardia became major business en- 
terprises. It was acknowledged that 
the commercial airlines could not be 
expected to contribute the major 
share of the total revenue. Non- 
airline revenue became the principal 
object of study for this huge invest- 
ment; every avenue of approach was 
taken. The project was scaled up 
and down in an attempt to justify 
the economic picture in each stage 
of development. 

The Port recognizes that one of 
the easiest ways to break the back 
of the airline industry is to saddle it 
with unbearable costs. At the same 
time, being a sound and progressive 
business organization, the Port must 
justify its investments to its bond 
holders. From the Port of New York 
and airline studies in the New York 
area should come some interesting 
data which may help chart the 
course for future development else- 

Last year, 18,500,000 passengers 
were flown on the domestic airlines, 



and the crystal gazers tell us that 
50,000,000 passengers will be flown 
in 1960. In the last pre-war year, 
1940, 2,800,000 passengers were 
flown. A quick look at these figures 
impresses one with the seriousness 
and magnitude of the problem: 

How can the present traffic, al- 
ready much greater than in pre-war 
years, be handled now, and what 
must be done now to prepare for the 
accommodations necessary to satisfy 
the traffic of 1960? 

All kinds of goods and services 
must be provided in addition to the 
basic transportation needs of these 
people. Airports will become social 
centers and will symbolize the de- 
gree of participation of a given com- 
munity in the aviation pattern. A 
pressing need is for larger and im- 
proved passenger station facilities. 
A rapidly growing part of the indus- 
try is air freight. It will not be long 
before air freight terminals will be 
centers of major activity at airports. 
Congress has under consideration a 
program to provide post offices on 
airports. This may presage the car- 
rying of almost all first-class mail by 
air and the installation of an air 
parcel post service. Such develop- 
ments would bring more traffic to 
airports and greatly increase the 
building needs. 

Wise planning demands decen- 
tralization of the principal elements 
which make up the ground plant of 
an airport. Since we do not actually 
know the picture of the future, we 
can ill-afford to build all-purpose 
buildings which are not easily ex- 
panded or used for purposes other 
than those for which they were de- 
signed. Initial cost may be slightly 
higher where this philosophy is used, 
but it will pay dividends in the facil- 
ity of expansion and the elimination 
of congestion at unpredictable dates 
in the future. Certainly our experi- 
ence in the past has shown this to be 
true. It is less costly to plan intelli- 
gently than to be expedient in satis- 
fying the needs of the hour without 
regard to what happens when condi- 
tions change. 

Leaders in the field advocate de- 
centralized and modular planning, 
simplicity of form and construction, 

and low capital cost structures. The 
architecture of the age of flight 
should bear some relationship to the 
age it will typify. Monumental air- 
port architecture should be relegated 
to the past where it belongs and not 
be resurrected when an attempt is 
made to express a dynamic and pro- 
gressive industry. The architectural 
and engineering professions will be 
most helpful if they will make maxi- 
mum use of light construction and 
new building methods and materials. 
Here is an opportunity to create an 
architecture that is truly American; 
planners should bear this in mind 
when urged to fall back on architec- 
tural idioms of the past. 

An airport passenger station, usu- 
ally referred to as the "terminal 
building," should be a highly func- 
tional structure. It contains, besides 
the public areas, an integral part of 
the nerve system of the airline. 
There is no need to house this type 
of activity in monumental high cost 
buildings. We must approach pas- 
senger station design with the same 
cold economic analysis that is ap- 
plied to an apartment building, a 
department store, or any other busi- 
ness structure. 

The facilities that are planned for 
the convenience and use of the gen- 
eral public as well as for airline 
passengers and which are of a non- 

airline category should carry the cost 
of buildings to house them, plus a 
sufficient bonus to the city (prefer- 
ably based on activity and volume) 
to contribute to the general good of 
the airport. Facilities built strictly 
for airline operation and containing 
operational offices should, as stated 
above, be simple in construction with 
low first cost and should be subject 
to complete amortization by airlines 
using them. We will run into trouble 
when the air carriers are called upon 
to assist in carrying the burden of 
high building costs, the primary use 
of which is non-airline. 

It must be recognized that the de- 
sign of a passenger station to serve 
air transportation differs from that 
to serve surface transportation. Fun- 
damentally, the problem is the same, 
but the physical characteristics of 
the airplane introduce problems in 
circulation not usually present to the 
same degree in the design of a rail- 
road or bus terminal. Actually, the 
analogy is more nearly to that of a 
series of docks on the waterfront. 

It is generally agreed that the 
space required to dock one plane is 
150 lineal feet. Seven of these are 
necessary to handle the passenger 
capacity of a single average railroad 
train. In other words, where large 
traffic is to be handled, the problem 
(Please turn to page 26) 

Airport scenes such as this taken at New York's LaGuardia Field em- 
phasize the immensity of modern airliners. The plane above is 1OOV2 
feet long, has a wing spand of 11 Wi feet, and carries 52 passengers 
plus 6,000 pounds of cargo on one-stop coast-to-coast schedules. 

MARCH, 1948 



Industrial Research-! 


Application of basic scientific 
knowledge, through applied or in- 
dustrial research, to the problems of 
industry and government was given 
great impetus during the war when 
applied research laboratories suc- 
ceeded in meeting the national emer- 
gency. Postwar needs for technolog- 
ical developments are only a degree 
less urgent, and we find both indus- 
try and government engaged in 
large-scale programs of scientific ac- 
tivity. Research, both basic and ap- 
plied, has become a major resource. 
Viewed in any light — expenditures, 
manpower, contribution to the na- 
tion's economy, contribution to na- 
tional security, or promotion of gen- 
eral welfare — research has become 
big business and a major profession. 

Research In Industry 

higher taxes, plus increased com- 
petition between industries and be- 
tween companies within an industry, 
are causing more emphasis to be 
placed on the application of scien- 
tific knowledge for the development 
of new products and processes, re- 
duction of production and service 
costs, and improvement of the qual- 
ity of existing products. Last year 
brought a marked expansion of in- 

e in the May 

*ill appear in 

forthcoming International Industry Yearbook, 

edited by Lloyd Hughlett and published by 

McGraw-Hill International Company. 

t Until March 1, director of Armour Research 
Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology, 
now director of the Stanford University Research 

vestment by industry in industrial 
research in existing laboratories, in 
the development of new laboratories, 
and in research "farmed out" to in- 
dependent laboratories and to uni- 

The National Research Council 
reports 133,515 persons now em- 
ployed in more than 2450 labora- 
tories of industry, an increase of al- 
most 100% over the total personnel 

of 70,000 reported in 1940. The 
rapid increase in the number of lab- 
oratories and laboratory personnel 
since 1915 indicates a long term 
trend. In 1915 there were only 100 
such laboratories. Five years later 
there were 300. employing 9300 per- 
sons. By 1939, 34,000 persons were 
employed in 1625 laboratories. 

Included in the present total of 
133,515 are 55,000 professional per- 

Dr. Hobson is shown at his desk with a model of the continuous belt 
recording machine. The machine was designed by Marvin Camras of 
Armour Research Foundation and developed by the Mast Developing 
Company, Davenport, Iowa. 



sons, as compared with 35,000 in 
1940. A smaller percentage increase 
of professional personnel than total 
personnel is an indication of the 
growing shortage of scientists and 
engineers, particularly those with ad- 
vanced training. 

According to the National Re- 
search Council, professional person- 
nel in the laboratories of industry 
are distributed among the branches 
of science as follows: 

Chemists, 21,095; biologists, 1,- 
695; engineers, 20,637; doctors of 
medicine, 236; physicists, 2,660; 
metallurgists, 2,3 64; psychologists, 
22; geologists, 81; not classified, 5,- 

Although John R. Steelman 1 esti- 
mates the annual expenditures for 
research by industry at $450 million, 
others are inclined to place the prob- 
able expenditures nearer $600 mil- 
lion or $700 million. In any event, 
expenditures have increased about 
100% since 1940. A recent survey 
by the Patents and Research Com- 
mittee of the National Association 
of Manufacturers disclosed that an- 
ticipated expenditures by the Asso- 
ciation's members for 1947 will be 
270% above 1939 and 14% above 
1946. Several companies reported 
that their 1947 research and de- 
velopment budgets will be more than 
10 times their expenditures in 1939. 
Research programs are carried on 
by 750 of the 983 companies cov- 
ered by the NAM survey. Replies 
further indicated an average ratio of 
research investment to gross sales for 
1947 of 1.6%, as compared with 
1.86% for 1939. 

Business Record 2 reports that the 
median percentage of the sales dollar 

The top picture shows the first building completed at the new Johns- 
Manville research center located 40 miles from New York City. This 
unit is 572 feet long. Pictured also is an artist's sketch of the new Merck 
research building now nearing completion in Rahway, N. J. 

1 In his Report to the President, Science and 
Public Policy. 

2 "A Survey of Business Practices," March, 

spent on research falls between 
\ x h°7o and 2%, with some com- 
panies spending as much as 5% and 
a very small minority allocating little 
or nothing to research and develop- 
ment. This survey also shows that 
most companies report a higher per- 
centage of the sales dollar spent on 
research and development than be- 
fore the war; and it points out that, 
whereas the ratio may be the same 
as or below the prewar rate, aggre- 
gate research expenditures in many 
instances show a sharp rise over 
1939 and 1940. 

(This point is illustrated by the 
record of a railroad equipment com- 
pany which showed 1.1% of sales 
spent on research both in 1946 and 
1939, but with total expenditures in 
1946 amounting to $852,000 as com- 
pared with $273,000 in 1939, a gain 
of 212%.) 

A survey on the "Research Re- 
quirements of American Industry" 
by the Evans Research and Develop- 
ment Corporation concludes that 
87.1% of industry e-.s a whole is 
spending more for rest arch than in 
the prewar period, 10 6% the same 
as in the prewar period, and only 
2.3% spends less than in the pre- 
war period. Further, 86.1% of all 
industries benefited from their war- 
time research activities. It is signifi- 
cant that 72.5% expect to increase 
their research activities in the future 
and that 60% expect to expand their 
facilities. From one to two years is 
needed before industrial research 
can be brought to the desired level, 
according to 45% of the reporting 

The same survey reveals that 
47.6% of industry invests funds in 
research to improve present products 

MARCH, 1948 


The pilot plant for research on manufacture of industrial insulations recently unveiled at the new Johns- 
Manville research center. 

and processes, 42.3% to develop new 
products and processes in their own 
fields, and 14.7% to develop prod- 
ucts and processes in other fields. 

Barrons National Business and 
Financial Weekly 3 states as ex- 
amples of current expenditures for 
research : 

"The American Cyanamid Com- 
pany . . . spent almost S7 million in 
1945; six years before it spent less 
than $2 million. The Bendix Avia- 
tion Corporation presents an even 
more striking picture. Its research 
and engineering expenses for 1945 
were approximately $18 million as 
contrasted with a 1939 figure of $2.5 
million. International Business Ma- 
chines Corporation more than 
doubled its prewar budget of $1 mil- 

lion. Addressograph-Multigraph, 
Monsanto Chemical, Westvaco Prod- 
ucts, American Smelting and Refin- 
ing, Allis-Chalmers and a host of 
others had like stories to tell. The 
figures vary, but the principle re- 
mains the same: 

"These corporations all regard 
money spent tor research as a defi- 
nite investment and are pouring 
more funds into it, as they would into 
any investment that has proved its 

No one can accurately predict the 
future budgets for research by in- 
dustry. One thing, however, is cer- 
tain: industrial budgets for research 
not only will increase but must in- 
crease if American industry is to 
keep its place as world leader and 

■ Feb. 17, 1947, article by Ro'~»rt 

maintain its position in world trade. 
Some research leaders have pre- 
dicted research expenditures will 
double within the next 10 years. If 
this occurs, research by industry 
alone will exceed one billion dollars. 

Certain factors inevitably will in- 
crease the costs of industrial re- 
search and perhaps decelerate an ex- 
tension of the rapid growth of the 
past several years. The shortage of 
trained scientists and engineers cre- 
ated by wartime reduction of college 
training certainly will increase re- 
search salaries. Many scientific prob- 
lems can be solved now only with 
the use of intricate and expensive 
scientific equipment and through the 
cooperative efforts of research teams 
trained in several fields. 

Furthermore, the cost of produc- 
(Please turn to page 30) 



Fundamental and Applied 



written about the relations be- 
tween fundamental and applied re- 
search. Geometry supplies us with 
examples for almost any expected 
and unexpected contingency. 

There was, for instance, the purely 
theoretical question as to whether or 
not a certain geometrical proposi- 
tion could be logically derived from 
other propositions — and eventually 
the research about this question led 
to modern Cosmology (Part I). If 
this application is not "earthly" 
enough, there were the purely theo- 
retical speculations about miniature 
planes containing only a finite num- 
ber of points; and these speculations 
resulted in methods of testing ferti- 
lizers in agricultural experiments 
(Part II). There are, on the other 
hand, examples of the fact that suf- 
ficiently profound research on ap- 
plied problems occasionally opens 
wider theoretical vistas than vision- 
less theoretical studies. The geomet- 
rical consequences of Kirchhoff's 
theory of electrical networks in what 
is called the "topology of graphs" 
illustrate this fact (Part III). What- 
ever their relations to geometry, stars 
and fertilizers and currents belong 
to the physical universe. In order to 
complete the picture we add a few 
remarks about graphs in the social 
universe of tastes and voluntary de- 
cisions. We outline an application of 
geometrical thinking to the famous 
ethical principle known as the cate- 
gorical imperative (Part IV). 

Need we say that our general re- 
marks might be confirmed by numer- 
ous other facts? Our selection has 

Figure 1. 

been prompted by the idea of pre- 
senting to the readers of this journal 
topics of research in the field of 
pure geometry carried on at Illinois 
Institute of Technology. 

I. Parallel Lines And 

In his "Elements," Euclid de- 
veloped a large part of geometry 
from postulates which he enumer- 
ated at the beginning of his book. 
One of the most outstanding features 
of the famous work was the fact 
that Euclid derived imposingly many 
and complicated conclusions from 
astoundingly few and simple assump- 
tions — so much from so little that 
geometers became over-exacting. 
They tried to derive from Euclid's 
other assumptions the only postulate 
which was somewhat complicated: 
namely, the parallel postulate. Ac- 
cording to this postulate, for a given 
line 1 and a point P not on 1, the 

plane determined by 1 and P con- 
tains exactly one line that passes 
through P and has no point in com- 
mon with 1. This line (the line 1' in 
Fig. 1) is called the parallel to 1 
through P. The unsuccessful efforts 
to derive this parallel postulate from 
Euclid's other assumptions constitute 
the greater part of the geometrical 
activity during the 2000 years fol- 
lowing the publication of Euclid's 

It was only at the beginning of 
the 19th century that the truth 
dawned on geometers: namely, that 
the parallel postulate could not be 
derived from Euclid's other assump- 
tions. And even before this fact was 
rigorously established, two geom- 
eters, Bolyai and Lobachevsky, be- 
gan the actual development of a 
theory based on an assumption that 
contradicted Euclid's parallel postu- 
late. They started with the hypoth- 
esis that for a given line 1 and a 
point P not on 1, the plane de- 
termined by / and P contains more 
than one line passing through P and 
not intersecting 1. Certainly this 
latter assumption is valid on a sheet 
of paper, or in the rectangle of Fig. 
2 where we can draw many lines 
through P, such as /', m, and n which 
inside the rectangle have no common 
point with 1. The system of con- 
sequences of Bolyai's and Lobachev- 
sky's parallel postulate in conjunc- 
tion with Euclid's other assumptions 
is called Non-Euclidean Geometry. 

It cannot be stressed enough that 
this non-euclidean geometry started 
as a purely intellectual game. As was 
mentioned above, at first even the 
logical consistency of the game was 
doubtful; for, as long as there was 

MARCH, 1948 


Figure 2. 

a possibility of proving Euclid's par- 
allel postulate from his other as- 
sumptions, the non-euclidean geom- 
etry was threatened by the danger 
of contradiction. But around 1870, 
Beltrami and Klein precluded the 
possibility of Euclid's postulate ever 
being proved. Their method consists 
in exhibiting objects of the Euclidean 
plane which satisfy all the assump- 
tions that Bolyai and Lobachevsky 
made about points and lines in the 
non-euclidean plane. Every contra- 
diction derived from these latter as- 
sumptions would thus constitute a 
contradiction in the theory of some 
objects in the euclidean plane. These 
Beltrami-Klein objects are the 
points and lines in a bounded piece 
of the euclidean plane such as the 
rectangle of Fig. 2, the only differ- 
ence being that, for technical reasons, 
a circular or elliptic domain rather 
than a rectangle is chosen. 

The geometry of Bolyai and Loba- 
chevsky was followed by other non- 
euclidean geometries which deviated 
from euclidean in other respects. 
Riemann was the first to develop a 
general theory which included Eu- 
clid's geometry along with a large 
number of non-euclidean geometries. 
For over half a century his research 
remained buried in the journals on 
pure mathematics; and, even in the 
realm of pure mathematics, it occu- 
pied a corner that seemed to be 


particularly remote from possible ap- 

During this entire period, appli- 
cations of geometry were based en- 
tirely on Euclid's "Elements." The 
reason was that Euclid's assumptions 
were extrapolations to space "in the 
large" of observations concerning 
chalk dots and lines on a blackboard, 
and concerning little particles and 
certain rigid rods. 

In the second decade of our cen- 
tury the situation was changed by 
the general theory of relativity. At 
the foundation of this theory are the 
assumptions: that cross hairs in tele- 
scopes and light rays behave like 
points and lines in a general geom- 
etry such as that studied by Rie- 
mann; that their more specific prop- 
erties and relations vary from one 
region of the space to another; and 
that in each region these relations 
depend upon the distribution of 
masses in that region. In elaborating 
on these ideas, Einstein and his col- 
laborators unearthed the work of 
geometers done during the preceding 
century and brought it from its re- 
mote corner into the center of in- 
terest to physicists, astronomers, and 
cosmologists. It is hardly an over- 
statement to say that the develop- 
ment of the theory of relativity and 
modern cosmology would have been 
retarded by many decades had ge- 
ometers not prepared non-euclidean 
geometries, developed purely for the 
sake of their intellectual interest. 

After the Beltrami-Klein proof of 
the fact that non-euclidean geometry 
is logically as consistent as euclid- 
ean, and after the application of non- 
euclidean geometry to Nature, 
philosophers with pro-euclidean 
prejudices had to withdraw to the 
rather vague position that euclidean 
geometry is simpler than any non- 
euclidean geometry, and, besides 
that it is the only intuitive theory 
of space. 

A new theory of the Bolyai and 
Lobachevsky space, developed by 
the author and his collaborators dur- 
ing the last decade, seems to indicate 
that, quite to the contrary, this non- 
euclidean geometry is simpler than 
euclidean. For the new development 
of the geometry of Bolyai and Loba- 

chevsky is based entirely on a few 
simple assumptions about the opera- 
tions of joining points and intersect- 
ing lines, while mere assumptions 
about joining points and intersect- 
ing lines (or even about the ar- 
rangement of points on lines and in 
planes) can never supply us with a 
complete foundation for euclidean 
geometry. In fact, it can be proved 
that a complete postulational theory 
of the euclidean space must be based 
on assumptions about congruency or 
perpendicularity 1 . 

On several occasions during the 
past few years we have pointed out 
that the visual space is non-euclid- 
ean. What we see at a given moment 
is just one half of a euclidean space, 
viz., the half before us. What we see 
of the floor on which we stand is 
one half of a euclidean plane. The 
visible part can be obtained by de- 
leting from the entire plane a line 
and all points on one side of this line 
in the same way as a non-euclidean 
plane can be obtained by deleting 
from the euclidean plane an ellipse 
and all points outside of this ellipse. 
The analogy becomes even stronger 
if we notice that both ellipse and 
straight line are conic sections, the 
former being a degenerate section. 
For this reason we have called the 
visual space a degenerate non-euclid- 
ean or semi-euclidean space. 

In concluding, we may point out 
that at present one of the greatest 
problems of geometry seems to be 
the development of new ideas (prob- 
ably statistical ideas) concerning the 
properties of space "in the small". 
For while non-euclidean geometries 
have modified and generalized Eu- 
clid's extrapolation of blackboard 
conditions to the large we still cling 
to his extrapolation of these condi- 
tions to the small 2 . If geometers had 
the leisure to follow their purely in- 
tellectual impulses in this direction, 
the results could be applied to psy- 
(Please turn to page 38) 

I The same is true for the spherical as well as 
the so-called elliptic geometry so that among the 
classical geometries, that of Bolyai and Lobachev- 
sky rather than that of Euclid enjoys a unique 

; An attempt to replace geometry "in the 
small" by a statistical theory is to be found in 
the author's note in Proc. Nat. Acad. Science, 
28, (1942) p. 535. 


strong as are the homes of which 
it is composed. Upon the character 
of these depends the welfare of the 
community and ultimately of the na- 
tion. The need for satisfying homes 
and family relationships is greater at 
present than ever before. The press 
today is filled with shocking stories 
of juvenile delinquency, crime, and 
frustration — a result of the failure of 
American men and women to estab- 
lish and maintain homes that meet 
the fundamental needs of family 
members. The proportion of depend- 
ency and delinquency associated 
with broken homes is overwhelming. 
There is within every individual a 
need for security and for affection 
that can be satisfied by belonging to 
and being an integral part of a group, 
by giving and receiving affection, and 
by the certain knowledge that one is 
necessary to the happiness of other 
human beings. Normally, this funda- 
mental emotional need is met in the 
home where the child is secure in the 
affection of his parents and siblings. 
From this small circle, his acquaint- 
ances increase and he is able to re- 
late himself to others and to society 
because of a satisfying experience in 
his family relationships. It is axio- 
matic in human relationships that 
one gives as he has received and that 
he is unable to give to others unless 
he has received from others a like 
kind and amount of affection and 

The home is also an educational 
institution where the child learns, in 
addition to an enormous amount of 
fundamental information, the atti- 
tudes and habits that serve him help- 
fully or harmfully throughout life. 
Nor is education in the home con- 
fined to the young child. Throughout 
childhood one learns from his home 
environment and particularly from 
the other family members. Adults 
may also learn, from one another 
and from their children, to live to- 
gether harmoniously, to share joys 
and disappointments, and to build a 
sense of family solidarity which in- 






MARChl. 1948 



!*■■-» ? 

■-Mt^h, -?; 

Students in interior design are taught the effective use of color, line, 
and texture in interior decoration. 

fluences their contribution to the 

Homemaking claims the time of 
more women than any other occupa- 
tion. That it is a profession is too 
little understood today, for a home 
does not just happen; it has to be 
created. Successful homemaking re- 
quires times, effort, and specialized 
skills and knowledge, plus constant 
attention to the maintenance of 
standards of performance and con- 
tinued study to keep abreast of late 
developments. A home, of course, 
does not consist only of the material 
things that make a house, nor of 
the organization that makes it run 
smoothly, but it consists also of the 
warm human relationships which 
serve to bring about happy family 
life. A practice of the knowledge and 
skills that produce the atmosphere 
and satisfaction of a home constitutes 
the profession of homemaking. 

Home economics, which is essen- 
tially training for the profession of 

homemaking. is based on the philoso- 
phy that education can definitely 
bring about improvement in home 
and family life. Homemaking may 
be practiced by the person in one's 
own home or in an institution which 
is a temporary or substitute home for 
its inmates, or by influencing others 
to improve their homes. Teaching in 
home economics is not confined to 
the classroom, but it also extends to 
community education through health 
and welfare agencies, and to the busi- 
ness field. Many professional work- 
ers in home economics specialize in 
certain fields, but the contribution in 
each fiield is toward the common 
goal of improved home and family 

Home economics, as a field of edu- 
cation, grew from the conviction of 
early leaders that the application 
of science to home problems could 
greatly improve the physical aspects 
of the home, that the application of 
art principles could enhance the aes- 

thetic satisfaction derived from home 
surroundings, and that the applica- 
tion of social sciences could strength- 
en family economic practices and 
human relationships. This study has 
changed in the last 50 years as these 
three fields of fundamental knowl- 
edge have expanded. It now includes 
a study of all aspects of family living 
— material, economic, and social. 

Fields Of Home Economics 

At Illinois Institute of Technology 
a general home economics curricu- 
lum is offered. Some specialization 
is possible, but this is limited to the 
junior and senior years when elec- 
tives may be chosen according to the 
student's interest. No specialized 
bachelors degrees are granted. This 
practice results from the philosophy 
that undergraduate training should 
be built on a broad base and that 
specialization should be confined to 
the graduate level. The home eco- 
nomics fields studied in the under- 
graduate courses are foods, nutrition, 
equipment, textiles, clothing, related 
art, child development, family eco- 
nomics, and family relationships. Be- 
cause home economics is concerned 
with the application of principles 
from other fields, the course of study 
requires at least introductory courses 
in mathematics, chemistry, physics, 
physiology, economics, psychology, 
and sociology. Students are encour- 
aged to go beyond requirments in 
these fields when their interests so 

In foods and nutrition, one studies 
food in relation to social, economic, 
and nutritional needs, the chemical 
composition of foods, and the effect 
of various types of preparation on 
each. From this study, principles of 
cookery are developed which enable 
the student to modify recipes, and to 
develop new ones as the occasion 
arises. One becomes acquainted with 
commercial methods of food process- 
ing and studies the effect of each on 
the cost, flavor, and nutritive value 
of the product. Common methods of 
home food preservation and safe 
methods of food handling to avoid 
contamination are taught. Cost, 
(Please turn to page 48) 


The Challenge To Freedom 


what are those features of our 
civilization which have given rise to 
our liberties — our personal freedom. 
There are many, of course. But I 
should like to stress at least two 
forces which seem to me to have 
been vital factors in advancing 
Western civilization — and especially 
its contribution to personal freedom. 
I choose these two because I believe 
them to be most vital, and perhaps 
the most likely to figure in our fu- 
ture way of life. First in point of 
time, if not otherwise, is religion — 
with us largely the Christian reli- 
gion; and second, the growth of sci- 
ence and technology. Both of these 
have been tremendous factors in the 
evolution of Western civilization. 
And both have made unmistakable 
contributions to our so-called demo- 
cratic way of life. 

In considering Christian religion 
as being a major factor in the ad- 
vancement of Western democracy 
(and the freedom which is such an 
essential factor in democracy) we 
should have it clearly understood 
that our reference is to the teachings 
of Christ — and the religion which 
such teachings engender and not 
necessarily to the Church, or any 
church. Churches are human institu- 
tions, subject to the frailties of those 
human characters who run them. 
Generally they have been important 
factors in the promotion of religion. 
But not always. At certain times and 
places churches have lent their pow- 
er and prestige to reaction, to the 

promotion of slavery, to serfdom, to 
tyranny, and to all manner of un- 
christian objectives. But the religion 
of the brotherhood of man — the 
very foundation of freedom and de- 
mocracy — is the factor of which we 
speak. In short, Western democracy 
emerged from a profoundly religious 
civilization. Whether or not it could 
have grown from irreligious roots, 
the fact remains that it did not do so. 
At two turning points in English 
history Christianity played a deci- 
sive part. In the eighteenth century 
John Wesley broke away from the 
narrow Anglicanism of his day and 
took the gospel to the poor. His re- 
forms led to the tremendous expan- 
sion of the Nonconformists or free 
churches, which in turn decisively 
influenced the beginnings of many 
liberal forces in Britain. And again, 
during the nineteenth century, waves 

* Dean of the Division of Liberal Studies, llli- 
noise Institute of Technology. "The Challenge to 
Freedom" was delivered by Dr. Larkin in Curtiss 
Hall of the Fine Arts building, Chicago, on Janu- 
ary 29, 1948, as the first of a series of lectures 
sponsored by the Illinois Tech Alumni Associ- 

of reform sponsored by Christian 
leaders swept over Britain — reach- 
ing into the prisons, the galleys, the 
mines, the factories and the work- 
houses. Most of these reform move- 
ments ultimately found expression 
in acts of Parliament in the interest 
of human rights. 1 

The history of this country is re- 
plete with comparable chapters in- 
spired by religious leaders. The first 
colonists founded societies so thor- 
oughly religious that some of them 
were practically theocracies. The 
drafters of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and of the Bill of Rights 
in our Constitution, may not have 
all been Christians — in fact we know 
that some were not professed of that 
faith — yet both documents breathe 
the spirit of the natural law and of 
a divine order which were also the 
bedrocks of European political and 
religious thought. The pioneer wom- 
en, who promoted "law and order" 
on our frontiers, based their cham- 
pionship of both on the faith they 
had in Christianity. And at the 
greatest crisis of this country's his- 
tory, its deeply religious feeling 
found expression in Abraham Lin- 
coln — a man without active affilia- 
tion with any church, but who is 
universally regarded as one of the 
most Christian statesmen the world 
has ever known. 

No one will deny the strength of 
the other forces that have molded 
America, but the strength of the 
Christian strand is so formidable 
that those who wish to prove it im- 
material to the development of de- 
mocracy will not be able to produce 
historical data to support their con- 
tentions. The answer of history is 
irrefutable. Democracy and religion 
have so far been inseparable. And, 
(Please turn to page 52) 

MARCH, 1948 





DATION of Illinois Institute 
of Technology has just completed its 
eleventh year as an active partner 
of industry and government in the 
all important field of industrial re- 
search. Coordination of personnel 
and facilities, — pooling of knowledge 
and experience, — and wholehearted 
cooperation by and with industry 

* Extracted from the Annual Report ot Armour 
Research Foundation ot Illinois Institute of Tech- 



and government have once again 
permitted it to make a significant 
contribution to the economic and 
technological wealth and strength of 
the United States. 

During the past year, more than 
200 sponsors of industrial research 
utilized the specialized staff of sci- 
entists, engineers and technicians 
and extensive equipment and facili- 
ties available to them under the 
Armour Plan tor Industrial Research. 

The soundness of this partnership 
is substantiated by the increasing 
research demands made upon the 
Foundation and its continued 
growth. Operating expenditures for 
the coming year are expected to 
exceed three million dollars. Expan- 


f f 

• • • • • 

f f f f I 97 

iiiiiiiiii 92 

sion in operations and facilities and 
in staff improvement, described in 
detail later, has more than kept pace 
with the rapid increase of applied 

The year has been highlighted by 
a broader and more effective re- 
search service to our sponsors and 
by an expanding sphere of influence 
and prestige for the Foundation. 

The Foundation is at work to pro- 
vide technical information, and the 
problems as presented by industry 
and government become its prob- 
lems. Their close and deep under- 
standing of the problems at hand is 
invaluable, and their suggestions and 
observations during the prosecution 
of the various research projects have 
been guideposts in bringing these 
problems to a conclusion satisfactory 
to all. 

Although a conclusion satisfactory 
to the sponsor and to ourselves is an 
ultimate goal, situations not previ- 
ously contemplated sometimes de- 
velop. However, in research every 
move is valuable, either in gaining 
more knowledge of creation and op- 
eration, or in knowing what to avoid 
in future operations of a similar na- 

At the Foundation, research is the 
division of scientific endeavor, which, 
regardless of success or failure on a 
specific problem, is never considered 
worthless, for even from negative 
results, knowledge, experience and 
sometimes the unanticipated are 

During the fiscal year 1946-47, 

iiiiii iii i ii 

F 1 25S 


r t 1 1 


n f f f f l «• 


r f f 1 f f f f 3 ™ 


ffffflfffffl 445 


fiiiiii i i i i ii 

Personnel at Armour Research Foundation, 1936-1947. 


there were 214 active industrial re- 
search projects. At the beginning of 
this fiscal year, the staff engaged in 
research on 105 active projects. Of 
these, 42 were active one year ago; 
63 are new projects; 86 of those 
active a year ago were terminated 
or are now inactive, and 23 projects 
were both started and completed 
during the year. 


As of September 1, 1947, the staff 
of the Foundation totaled 488. This 
is an increase of 43 persons over the 
staff at the close of the 1945-46 fiscal 
year. Thirty-one of the new mem- 
bers are technical people. A break- 
down of the staff shows: 

Tech- Tech- 
nical nical 

Administrative 5 7 

Magnetic Recorder Division .... 3 2 

International Division 4 — 

Research Division 

Ceramics and Minerals 11 — 

Chemistry and Chemical 

Engineering 44 — 

Electrical Engineering 20 — 

Applied Mechanics 73 — 

Mechanical Engineering 67 — 

Metals 31 — 

Physics 41 — 

General Consultants 23 — 

Business Staff — 17 

Clerical Staff — 46 

Research Services — 71 

Maintenance — 19 

Miscellaneous — 4 

Total 488 322 166 

A further analysis of the 322 
members of the technical staff shows 
that 12.5 per cent were occupied 

with scientific or technical super- 
vision; 59 per cent consisted of re- 
search scientists and engineers; and 
28.5 per cent were classed as tech- 
nical and scientific assistants. 

The prestige of an organization 
such as the Foundation depends to 
a large degree upon the individual 
staff members, their publications, 
patents, and participation in tech- 
nical societies. 

During the past year, staff mem- 
bers published 45 technical papers, 
two scientific books, and presented 
83 technical talks. Twenty-one pat- 
ents were filed or are in preparation 
for filing in behalf of our sponsors. 
Twenty patents were issued to the 
Foundation and its staff members, 
not including those for our sponsors. 
Sixty-nine patent disclosures not 
pertaining to research projects were 
submitted. Of these 32 were turned 
back to the inventor; 24 were rec- 
ommended for research projects, 
either by the Foundation or by out- 
side sponsors, and 13 are under con- 
sideration by the patent committee. 

Technical seminars in the fields of 
acoustics, vibrations, power systems 
engineering, design, electronics, me- 
chanics of solids, and others are 
maintained regularly by the staff. 
The staff has been active in affairs 
of professional and technical socie- 
ties, both in Chicago and in national 

In addition to staff additions, per- 
sonnel improvement was brought 
about during the year by further 
educational activities of staff mem- 
bers. In all, 134 members of the 
technical staff enrolled in 172 
courses, all except five of which were 
at the Illinois Institute of Technol- 

Financial Summary 

The Foundation has just com- 
pleted the largest annual volume of 
research business in its history. 

Year after year our annual re- 
search volume has reflected a very 
significant increase in sponsored re- 
search projects. However, gross re- 
search volume for the fiscal years 
1946-47 was in excess of $2,550,000 
— an increase of 34.6 per cent over 
research volume for the previous 
year. This represents the greatest 
increase in gross research volume in 
the entire history of the Foundation. 

Government Projects 

The character of the work we are 
continuing to undertake for the 
armed forces and various other gov- 
ernment agencies is becoming stead- 
ily more desirable from a research 

1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 

Research Volume at Armour Research Foundation, 1936-1947 

1946 1947 

MARCH, 1948 


Distribution of companies sponsoring research activities. 

point of view; and in most cases, in 
an effective manner supplements our 
research program for industry and 
increases our store of knowledge and 

It is the overall policy of the 
Foundation to render all possible 
assistance to research for military 
security, for public health, and for 
the development of our natural re- 
sources. However, at the same time, 
we must recognize our primary ob- 
jective as being one of service to 
industry and, therefore, must keep 
the major portion of our facilities 
and personnel available for industry. 

In keeping with this Foundation 
policy, government sponsored re- 
search was held to a reasonable 
percentage of our total business. 

Research Division 

Applied Mechanics 

Reorganization of the Mechanics 
group during the past year resulted 
in the merging of the Fluid Me- 
chanics Division with the Solids 
Mechanics Division, and changing 
the title of the combined group to 
"Applied Mechanics Research." 

Perhaps the most significant 
change in organization of this de- 
partment has been the establishment 
of close cooperation between Ap- 
plied Mechanics Research at the 
Foundation and the Department of 
Mechanics at Illinois Institute of 
Technology. This was accomplished 
by naming a common chairman for 
both departments and establishing a 
Fundamental Mechanics Research 
Section which can utilize personnel 
from both departments and accept 
research problems from both. This 
merger, together with the inception 
of the Fundamental Mechanics Re- 
search Section, has resulted in a more 
coordinated research group with a 
substantial increase in personnel. 

Ceramics and Minerals 

The end of this fiscal year marked 
the completion of the first full year 
of operation of Ceramics and Min- 
erals Research. This group was first 
set up as a separate department in 
March, 1946. The research volume 
of the department has shown a 
steady increase, with a current vol- 
ume approximately 50% greater 
than that of a year ago. 

Chemistry and 
Chemical Engineering 

Chemistry and Chemical Engi- 
neering Research continued to ren- 
der an outstanding service to indus- 
try during the past year. A Fine 
Particles Laboratory has been added 
to the number of special services 
maintained by the department, such 
as the National Registry of Rare 
Chemicals and the Dust Analysis 

Several important equipment ad- 
ditions were made during the past 
year. The effectiveness of the plas- 
tics section has been increased by 
the addition of a plastic molding ma- 
chine. This acquisition will prove of 
great benefit in reducing laboratory 
research to commercial practice. 

Other important additions are a 
test chamber providing wide varia- 
tions in humidity and temperature, 
an infrared spectrophotometer and 
a polarograph. A separate laboratory 
has been equipped with modern air- 
conditioning to provide a humidity 
and temperature-controlled dust-free 
room for studies in absorption spec- 
troscopy and chemical microscopy. 
Petroleum research facilities have 



been expanded and improved. 

Electrical Engineering 

The laboratory facilities and 
equipment of the Electrical Engi- 
neering Research department were 
improved considerably, thus allow- 
ing more efficient prosecution of in- 
dustrial and fundamental projects. 
The AC Network Calculator was 
used a total of 238 days in the solu- 
tion of power system problems. 
Plans are being developed to use 
the Calculator on studies other than 
power system problems. 

The Ohmite Laboratory facilities 
were expanded during the year. This 
laboratory was quite useful on sev- 
eral projects and was of service to 
a number of industrial concerns for 
standardization purposes. Plans for 
the coming year include an exten- 
sion of Ohmite Laboratory facilities 
to higher frequencies. 

Mechanical Engineering 

During the year, the equipment 
and physical plant of this depart- 
ment have been considerably im- 
proved. The year was marked by 
continued expansion of both person- 
nel and facilities in order to provide 
a broader service to industry. A 
substantial quantity of much needed 
equipment was acquired, adding to 
both capital equipment and instru- 
mentation. The availability of addi- 
tional new floor space made it possi- 
ble to increase the efficiency of this 
department by consolidating its per- 
sonnel, laboratories, and activities. 


This research group has expanded 
steadily both in personnel and facili- 
ties. Important personnel changes 
and additions have resulted in thor- 
oughly strengthening the depart- 
ment. Equipment acquired during 
the past year has provided additional 
types of facilities in welding, induc- 
tion heating, and heat treating. Prior 
to this year, Metals already possessed 
substantially complete facilities in 
fields of metallurgical research, 
namely: foundry processes, electro- 
chemistry, powder metallurgy and 
metal working. 

The additional facilities have ne- 
cessitated the rearrangement of some 
of the equipment and the subsequent 
establishment of intergrated working 
centers for each of the seven Metals 
Research activities. Plans are devel- 
oping for providing some additional 
floor area, and work is under way for 
the installation of new transformers 
and power lines to serve the new 


The organization of Physics Re- 
search has been expanded to include 
the direction and operation of River- 
bank Acoustical Laboratories located 
at Geneva, 111. The addition of these 
laboratories to the extensive acous- 
tical facilities already available at 

the Foundation now makes it possi- 
ble to handle practically any type of 
research program in the acoustical 

The acquisition of a number of 
major items of equipment, including 
an optical bench, an infrared specto- 
graph, and two 75-ton hydraulic 
presses, has added materially to the 
Physics Research facilities. The con- 
solidation of the magnetic recording 
research program has been affected 
by the provision of additional space 
in a separate building. 

Industrial projects and research 
for other departments continued at 
approximately the same level as last 
year. It should be noted that about 
one-fifth of the time of the Physics 
staff was spent on projects for other 
departments in keeping with the 
Armour Plan for Industrial Research. 
It is expected that this situation will 
continue, since the fundamental 
equipment available in Physics is 
useful on many reasearch programs 
carried on by other departments. 

International Division 

This division was established dur- 
ing the year with the purpose of 
(Please turn to page 58) 





Distribution of sponsored research projects by types of industry. 






MARCH, 1948 


The Midwest Power Confer- 
ence, revived and reorganized 
in 1 938, is sponsored by Illinois 
Institute of Technology with 
the cooperation of the following 
midwestern schools and local 
and national societies: 

Iowa State College, Michigan 
State College, Northwestern 
University, Purdue University, 
State University of Iowa, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, University of 
Michigan, University of Minne- 
sota, University of Wisconsin, 
Chicago section of the American 
Institute of Chemical Engineers, 
Chicago section of American 
Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, Chicago section of Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers, Chi- 
cago section of American Soci- 
ety of Mechanical Engineers, 
Illinois section of American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, Illinois 
chapter of American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engi- 
neers, Western Society of En- 
gineers, Engineers' Society of 
Milwaukee, and National As- 
sociation of Power Engineers. 

Invitations are extended to 
all persons interested in power 
production, transmission, or 
consumption. Stanton E. Win- 
ston, dean of the evening divi- 
sion and professor of mechani- 
cal engineering at Illinois Tech, 
is the conference director. 

Final Program 
Tenth Annual Meeting 

April 7-8-9, 1948 

Sheraton Hotel, Chicago 

Wednesday, April 7, 1948 

8:30 A. M. Registration, Sheraton 

10:00 A. M. Opening Meeting. Chair- 
main: Henry T. Heald, President. 
Illinois Institute of Technology. 

(a) Address of Welcome. D. D. Ewing, 
Head, School of Electrical Engi- 
neering, Purdue University. 

(b) Estimates of Future Electric-Power 
Needs of the United States. F. R. 
Benedict, Manager, Industry Engi- 
neering Dept., Westinghouse Elec- 
tric Corporation, East Pittsburgh. 

(c) Flood Control and Power in the 
Southwest. Edwin Vennard, Vice 
President, Middle West Service Co., 

(d) The Trek of Industry Westward. 
John M. Drabelle, Chief Mechani- 
cal and Electrical Engineer, Iowa 
Electric Light and Power Co., Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

12:15 P. M. Joint Luncheon with 
A.S.M.E. Chairman: Robert 
Krause. Chairman, Chicago Sect., 

Speaker: F. H. Thorne, Vice Presi- 
dent, National Aluminate Corp., 
Chicago. "A Man's Reach." 

2 :00 P. M. Central Station Practice.* 
Chairman: R. B. Gutekunst, Chair- 
man, Power & Fuels Div., Chicago, 
Sect.. A.S.M.E. 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 
Power and Fuels Div.. Chicago Sec- 
tion, A.S.M.E.) 
(a) A New Appraisal of the Fuel Sit- 
uation. John Van Brunt, Vice Pres- 
dent in Charge of Engineering, Com- 
bustion Engineering Co., New York. 
2 : 00 P. M. Developments in Heating. 
Chairman: William Goodman, Illi- 
nois Institute of Technology. 

(a) A Simplified Panel Heating Design 
Procedure, B. F. Raber and F. W. 
Hutchinson, Dept. of Mechanical 
Engineering, University of Califor- 

(b) Comparative Performance of Panel 
and Convection Systems in Re- 
search Residence. S. Konzo and 
R. W. Roose, Dept. of Mechnical 
Engineering. University of Illinois. 

eluded at 

3:30 P. M. Diesel Power. Chairman: 
John W. Andeen, University of 

(a) Combustion in Diesel Engines. Otto 
Uyehara and P. S. Myers, Dept. of 
Mechanical Engineering, University 
of Wisconsin. 

(b) A Test Cell for Measuring Engine 
Noise. W. P. Green, Dept. of Me- 
chanical Engineering. Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

3:30 P. M. Electrical Measurements. 
Chairman : F. D. Weeks, Chairman, 
Industrial Group, Chicago Sect., 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 
Industrial Group, Chicago Sect., 

(a) Electrical Measurement of Non- 
electrical Quantities. Everett S. Lee, 
Engineer, General Engineering and 
Consulting Lab., General Electric 
Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

(b) Measurement of Power and Power 
Factor in Industrial Plants. Erwin 
Boland, General Electric Co., West 
Lynn, Mass. 

(c) D.C. High Power Distribution Sys- 
tems, Short Circuit Analysis. Wil- 
liam Deans, Chief Engineer, I.T.E. 
Circuit Breaker Co., Philadelphia. 

3:30 P. M. Power Plant Equipment 
and Appraisal. Chairman: Norman 
A. Parker, University of Illinois. 

(a) Selection of Mechanical Draft Fans. 
A. P. Darlington, Head, Mechanical 
Draft Div., American Blower Corp., 

(b) Steam Power Plant Appraisal. Har- 
ry F. Lowe, Sloan, Cook & Lowe, 
Consulting Engineers, Chicago. 

(c) Condensers, Their Use and Applica- 
tion in Water-Shortage Areas. R. J. 
Martin, Dept. of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, University of Illinois. 

Thursday, April 8, 1948 

9 : 00 A. M. Feedwater Treatment No. 
1. Chairman: Ben G. Elliott, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

(a) Causes and Prevention of Conden- 
sate-Return-Line Corrosion. R. T. 
Hanlon, Special Service Engineer, 
National Aluminate Corp., Chicago. 

(b) The Practical Approach to Modern 
Boiler Water Treatment. R. C. Ul- 
mer. Technical Director, E. F. Drew 
& Co., New York. 

9:00 A. M. Excitation Systems. 
Chairman: R. W. Watson, West- 
inghouse Electric Corp. 




(a) Excitation Requirements and Con 
trol of Reactive Power. W. A. Lewis 
Illinois Institute of Technology. 

(b) Rotating Regulator Excitors. C, 
Lynn, Manager, D. C. Engineering 
Dept., Westinghouse Electric Corp. 
East Pittsburgh. 

10:30 A. M. Hydro Power. Chair 
man : W. A. Lewis, Illinois Institute 
of Technology. 

(a) Japanese Electric Power System. 
E. J. Burger, Vice President and 
Division Manager, Ohio Public 
Service Co., Lorain, Ohio. 

(b) Sediment Transportation in Streams 
in Relation to Power Plant Opera- 
tion. M. C. Boyer, Research Engi- 
neer, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic 
Research, State University of Iowa. 

10 : 30 A. M. Locomotive Power Units. 
Chairman: D. D. Ewing, Purdue 

(a) The Coal-Fired Gas-Turbine Loco- 
motive. P. R. Broadley, Mechanical 
Engineer, Central Railroad Co. of 
N. J., on loan as Ass't. to Director 
of Research, Locomotive Develop- 
ment Committee, Baltimore. 

(b) The Diesel Electric Locomotive. 
J. E. Goodwin, Chief Mechanical 
Officer, Chicago and Northwestern 
Railway System, Chicago. 

12:15 P. M. Joint Luncheon with 
A.I.E.E. Chairman: Jesse E. Hob- 
son, Chairman, Chicago Sect., 

Speaker: A. C. Monteith, Manager, 
Headquarters Engineering, Westing- 
house Electric Corp., East Pitts- 
burgh. "Opportunities in the Power 
2:00 P. M. Rural Electrification. 
Chairman: T. O. Millard, Chair- 
man, Power Group, Chicago Sect., 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 
Power Group, Chicago Sect., 

(a) Rural Electrification from the Pow- 
er Company Viewpoint. Grover C. 
Neff, President, Wisconsin Power & 
Light Co., Madison. 

(b) European vs. American Distribution 
in Towns & Rural Areas. K. R. 
Brown, Brown Engineering Co., Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

(c) Application of Oil Reclosures on 
Distribution Systems. R. O. Askey, 
Public Service Co. of Northern Illi- 
nois and C. V. Miller, Joslyn Mfg. 
and Supply Co., Chicago. 

2:00 P. M. Power Plant Operator 
Training. Chairman: Joseph P. 
Flynn, President, National Associa- 
tion of Power Engineers. 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 



Kenneth R. Hodges, Editor, Nation- 
al Engineer, Chicago. 

Julius Barbour, East Lansing, Mich. 

Garrett Burgess, Detroit, Mich. 

Stephen C. Casteel, East St. Louis, 

3:30 P. M. General Power Systems. 
Chairman : E. B. Kurtz, State Uni- 
versity of Iowa. 

(a) The Foreign Power Situation. Wal- 
ker L. Cisler, Chief Engineer of 
Power Plants, Detroit Edison Co. 

(b) Power System Stability, E. W. Kim- 
bark, Dept. of Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Northwestern University. 

3:30 P. M. Industrial Power Plants. 
Chairman: M. P. Cleghorn, Iowa 
State College. 

(a) Furnace Design Methods, With or 
Without Water Walls. Ollison Craig, 
Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, 

(b) Application of Heat Balance Analy- 
sis to Industrial Plants. H. C. Car- 
roll, Commercial Testing and Engi- 
neering Co., Chicago. 

(c) Experience with a Multiple Fuel- 
Fired Water-Tube Boiler. R. Frank 
Hollis, General Superintendent, Al- 
ton Box Board Co., Alton, 111. 

6:45 P. M. "All Engineers" Dinner. 

Informal. Grand Ball Room. 

(Ladies Invited). 

Toastmaster: Alex D. Bailey, Vice 
President, Commonwealth Edison 
Co., Chicago. 

Speaker: Colonel Robert R. Mc- 
Cormick, Editor and Publisher, Chi- 
cago Tribune. 

Friday, April 9, 1948 

9:00 A. M. The Heat Pump. Chair- 
man: R. A. Budenholzer, Illinois 
Institute of Technology. 

(a) Heat Source Possibilities of the 
Earth, (Milwaukee Area Heat- 
Pump Study). Charles H. Randolph. 
Air Conditioning Engineer, and 
O. O. Wagley, Superintendent of 
Industrial Sales, Wisconsin Electric 
Power Co., Milwaukee. 

(b) Investigation of the Heat Pump for 
the Chicago Area. M. S. Oldacre, 

of Research, Utilities Re- 
search Commission, Chicago. 

9 : 00 A. M. Feedwater Treatment No. 
2. L. G. Miller, Michigan State Col- 

(a) Use of High Alkalinity & Organic 
Materials for Sludge Removal in 
H-P Boilers. Selden K. Adkins, 
Chemist, Omaha Public Power Dist., 
Omaha, Neb. 

(b) Recent Developments in Boiler Wa- 
ter Research. F. G. Straub, Research 
Professor in Chemical Engineering, 
University of Illinois. 

10:30 A. M. Power and Control. 
Chairman: A. H. Wing, Chairman, 
Electronics Group, Chicago Sect., 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 
Electronics Group, Chicago Sect., 

(a) Circuit Principles of Industrial 
Electronic Control. Walther Richter, 
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co., 

(b) Rectifier Power Supplies from D-C 
Systems. C. R. Marcum, Westing- 
house Electric Corp., East Pitts- 

(c) Electronically Controlled Motor 
Drives. Marvin M. Morack, Power 
Electronics Div., General Electric 
Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

10:30 A. M. Fuels and Combustion. 
Chairman: R. Clay Porter, Univer- 
sity of Michigan. 

(a) Experiment on Underground Gasifi- 
cation in the United States. W. C. 
Schroeder, Chief, Office of Synthetic 
Liquid Fuels, Bureau of Mines, 
Washington, D. C. 

(b) Possibilities of Coal Processing in 
Power Production. A. D. Singh, 
President, Singh Co., Chicago. 

12:15 P. M. Joint Luncheon with 
W.S.E Chairman : William V. Kah- 
ler, President, Western Society of 

Speaker: Charles E. Friley, Presi- 
dent. Iowa State College. "Research 
and Social Progress." 

2:00 P. M. General Session. Chair- 
man: Herman Halperin, Chairman, 
Civic Committee, Western Society 
of Engineers. 

(Sponsored and arranged by the 

Subject: The Engineer in Civic Af- 
(Please turn to page 67) 


MARCH, 1948 


i Illinois Institute of Technology 
complete, as a part of their orienta- 
tion test, the Kuder Preference Rec- 
ord. This inventory is designed to 
measure the vocational preferences 
or interests of the individual, and to 
furnish a ready and objective indica- 
tion of the type of activity in which 
he would probably achieve the great- 
est satisfaction. 

The Preference Record consists of 
168 items, each of which presents 
three kinds of activity. The individ- 
ual marks the answer sheet in such a 
way that he indicates the one which 
he would most prefer, and the one he 
would least prefer. An example of 
the type of item 1 used is: 

X. Visit- a museum of science 
Y. Visit an advertising agency 
Z. Visit a factory in which typewriters 
are made 


or this: 

Test various brands of products for 

a co-operative store to see which 

are best 

Take care of the bulletin boards in 

a large business organization 

Keep accounting machines in good 


The response to any specific item 
is of little importance. The inventory 
is scored to reveal patterns of inter- 
est built upon the cumulative an- 
swers to all the items which fall in a 
particular field. Interest is measured 
in nine areas: mechanical, computa- 
tional, scientific, persuasive, artistic, 
literary, musical, social service, and 
clerical. Here again, we are con- 
cerned less with the score in any sin- 
gle area than with the profile formed 
by the pattern of scores in the nine 

These areas are self-explanatory 
with the exception, perhaps of per- 
suasive and social service. The per- 
suasive score is obtained from items 
involving highly verbal, direct con- 
tact with others, in such occupations 
as salesman, actor, counselor, labor 
leader, and the like. The social ser- 
vice score is obtained from items 
involving activities with others in a 
service or therapeutic relationship, as 
personnel director, clergyman, phy- 
sician, Y.M.C.A. secretary, and other 



SCI . 








y \ 








/ \ 







\ / 






- Ch 



* Director of the Institute tor Psychological 
Services of Illinois Institute of Technology. 

' Coovright, 1944, by G. F. Kuder, Quoted by 
permission of Science Research Associates, pub- 

Figure 1. Percentile rank of mean 
Preference Record scores of 110 
chemical engineering freshmen 
and 61 architecture freshmen. 

similar occupations. None of the 
areas have any significant relation to 
intelligence or other general or spe- 
cific abilities. 

These interest scores, along with 
the various ability and aptitude test 
scores, are furnished to each coun- 
selor at Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy, so that the freshman student has 
an appraisal of his interests as well 
as his ability. Thus, with the coun- 
selor, he may plan his career more 
wisely, selecting the curriculum to 
which he appears best adapted. 

Experience has indicated that 

there are significant differences in 
vocational interest between students 
entering engineering studies and 
those entering non-engineering stud- 
ies. There are also significant dif- 
ferences between students entering 
different fields of specialization in 
engineering. These differences are 
important in the guidance of the stu- 
dent, for it is a basic assumption in 
the measurement of interests that 
where ability, opportunity, and effort 
are equal, the individual will achieve 
the greatest satisfaction and success 

















v l 





/ \ 














cal E 



Figure 2. Percentile rank of mean 
Preference Record scores of 110 
chemical engineering freshmen 
and 252 mechanical engineering 



Fire Protection Engineers 


in the area where he has the greatest 

In Figure 1 are shown the percen- 
tile ranks of the mean scores obtained 
by freshmen entering chemical engi- 
neering and freshmen entering archi- 
tecture. It is quite apparent that the 
students in the two groups have 
sharply differentiated interests. The 
interest patterns of freshmen chemi- 
cal engineers may be compared also 
with the mechanical engineering 
freshmen, as shown in Figure 2, and 
the fire protection engineers as shown 












■ / 





_ s 












\ . 



- Che 


e Pr. 















/ \ 


i \ 

- ^ 






■ I 










\ " 





P. P.P. 

. Pro 


Figure 3. Percentile rank of mean 
Preference Record scores of 110 
chemical engineering freshmen 
and 34 fire protection engineering 

Figure 4. Percentile rank of mean 
Preference Record scores of 34 fire 
protection engineering freshmen 
and 116 fire protection engineer- 
ing alumni. 

in Figure 3. 

Our studies of over one thousand 
freshmen at Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology indicate characteristic and 
significant profiles for all of the vari- 
ous groups. The fire protecting engi- 
neering freshman, however, has a 
profile which differs from that of 
other groups primarily because there 
is no area on which marked interest 
is exhibited by the group. As Figure 
3 shows, the profile for the fire pro- 
tection engineering group is a rather 
flat one, whereas other engineering 


















" 1 


1 l 




^ / 







' v - 



\ " 


\ . 



» In 



F.P.E. »ork 

Alumni not In 
F.P.E. »ork. 

Figure 5. Percentile rarks of mean 
Preference Record scores of fire 
protection engineering alumni 
who continue and those who 

groups, and the non-engineering 
groups such as architecture, have 
definite peaks and valleys in the pro- 
files which indicate strong and char- 
acteristic interests. 

A possible explanation of this lack 
of a distinctive profile is that fire 
protection engineering students are a 
more heterogeneous group than stu- 
dents in the other departments. That 
is, the fire protection engineering 
group may include students who are 
attracted to the curriculum as a step 
(Please turn to page 68) 

MARCH, 1948 


The plan for the Chicago Orchard (Douglas) Airport. An artist's sketch 
of airport is shown on page 7. 

the future of airports 

(Continued from page 9) 
of circulation for both passengers 
and cargo becomes the major con- 
sideration. It is further emphasized 
when we realize that speed is the 
greatest asset of air transportation 
and that it can, to a large extent, be 
minimized by excessive ground time. 
Therefore, in the approach to air- 
port terminal design, traffic engineer- 
ing problems come first and must be 
solved satisfactorily or other fine fea- 
tures of the terminal will not develop 
to the fullest extent. 

You will notice in the illustration 
showing the proposed scheme for the 
passenger facilities at Douglas Air- 
port that the total traffic is broken 
down into five sub-terminals. This 
design is the result of many studies 
covering the range from maximum 
decentralization to maximum con- 
centration and represents a compro- 
mise wherein maximum non-airline 
revenue may be located reasonably 
close to the operating sections of the 

It should be pointed out that the 
ideal terminal from an operating 
standpoint is not necessarily the 
ideal solution because there must be 
an integration of the operating units 
of the terminal with the maximum 
development of facilities of a non- 
airline nature to serve the general 
public in addition to patrons of the 
airlines. Balance of these primary 
functions of the building is necessary 
and a sacrifice of one for the other 
can result in an uneconomical solu- 
tion. Generally speaking, maximum 
.centralization places the greatest 
handicap on airline operation and 
maximum decentralization places a 
handicap on facilities for non-airline 

The solution of the economic 
problem under discussion deter- 
mines to a great extent the kind of 
facilities that may be created at a 
given city. High unit building costs 
and an attempt to extract high air- 
line rentals will cause a contraction 
of building plans to a point where 

the ultimate objective is entirely 
lost. Contrary to this extreme, maxi- 
mum play for non-airline revenue 
can create a carnival with air trans- 
portation as a side show. Certainly 
this would not be a desirable situa- 
tion. There is a common sense, mid- 
dle ground. 

The kind of development that 
takes place on a given airport is 
largely dependent upon the airline 
operating requirements and the re- 
sources, both civic and industrial, of 
the city itself. Certain airports 
come maintenance bases for airl: ;s 
and require large developments of 
shops, hangars, administrative of- 
fices, and so forth. Generally speak- 
ing, these maintenance and overhaul 
bases are located at the end of the 
line, which permits flexibility in the 
scheduling of aircraft and allows 
maximum utilization of airpla - 
payload time. The major mainte . 
ance base of United Air Lines at San 
Francisco carries out this thinking. 

Airline service requirements at 
airports fall into three categories: 
(1) storage and minor service, (2) 
service hangars which perform up to 
major maintenance checks, and (3) 
repair, overhaul and engine change. 

Most airports served by commer- 
cial airlines have hangars available 
for minor repairs except for large 
aircraft. In some cases, nose hangars, 
wherein only the engines and the 
nose of the ship are under cover, are 
employed. To date, the principal 
use of storage hangars has been to 
perform minor repairs and irregular 
maintenance on aircraft, particularly 
to put an airplane under cover to 
warm up the engines after a period 
of idleness during schedule inter- 

The second category involves 
more elaborate servicing facilities 
which will allow work on an airplane 
while on jacks. This type of hangar 
will be used for major maintenance 
checks which are performed on all 
aircraft on or before every 150 hours 
in the air. In addition to the hang- 
ars, approximately an equal amount 
by area of shop and office space ii 
necessary. These facilities are likelj 
to be found at division points and 
(Please turn to page 28) 






THIS tower reflects great strides in 
communications. It's one of the seven 
new radio relay towers that link New 
York City and Boston. 

This new path for Long Distance com- 
munication uses microwaves . . . free 
from static and most man-made inter- 
ference. But, because microwaves shoot 
off into space instead of hugging the 
earth's curve, we've had to build relay 
stations within line of sight to guide 
the waves between the two cities. Atop 
each tower, metal lenses gather these 
waves and, after amplification, relay 
them to the next tower. The lenses focus 
and direct the radio waves like a search- 
light beam. 

This new system for transmitting Long 
Distance telephone calls, radio and tele- 
vision programs is but one phase in the 
Bell System's program for improving 
this country's communication service; 
a never ending program of growth and 
development in which many telephone 
engineers will participate, and whose 
careers will develop with it. There's a 
future in telephony. 


A cut-away view of a typical radio 
relay station. Emergency power equip- 
ment and storage batteries are on the 
first floor, radio equipment on the second 
floor, and the special microwave anten- 
nas which receive and beam the com- 
munication signals are on the roof. 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 26) 
intermediate stations where termi- 
nating schedules occur. For instance, 
it is advantageous to have complete 
servicing facilities where an airline 
desires to balance the utilization of 
aircraft in either direction. If weather 
interferes with scheduling, ships can 
be serviced and dispatched in the 
opposite direction. Such a major 
service station for United Air Lines 
is located at Chicago. It is an impor- 
tant point on United's system be- 
cause it permits flexibility in the 
routing of aircraft to obtain maxi- 
mum flying hours out of each plane. 

The third category is the most 
elaborate of all. In addition to 
greater hangar requirements, what 
amounts to an aircraft factory is 
necessary. Here, after a normal en- 
gine overhaul period, usually about 
1,000 hours, the airplane is com- 
pletely overhauled and, after process- 
ing is, in effect, a new plane. United 
has recently completed its new base 
in San Francisco which is the most 
modern maintenance base in the 

In addition to the airline servicing 
requirements, airports must furnish 
accommodations for other flying ac- 
tivities. Fixed base operators pro- 
vide a source of revenue where the 
commercial air activity does not 
command full utilization of the air- 
port. Such activities as airplane 
sales and service for private air- 
planes, charter service, sight-seeing 
local aircraft, aeronautical schools, 
plane storage, plane rentals, fuel sale 
and service may become integrated 
into the overall aviation facilities. 

As indicated above, extensive and 
independent air freight terminals 
will become necessary as this new 
business develops. To date, much of 
the air freight activity is conducted 
at passenger stations because large 
amounts of air freight are carried on 
passenger planes. The economics of 
the air freight business will preclude 
the high cost of handling freight in 
this manner and all air freight will 
be handled in "flying boxcars". Only 
mail, parcel post and express will be 
carried on passenger planes; ho^ 

ever, even these will be carried in 
bulk on Cargoliners. 

The air freight terminal of the 
future will center around a large 
warehouse with covered docking fa- 
cilities for aircraft on the field side 
and covered docks for motor vehicles 
opposite. The aircraft docks present 
interesting engineering possibilities 
for the maximum in mechanical 
handling of goods to speed up the 
operation and minimize man power 
necessary to perform the job. It is 
not possible to reduce rates to a 
point where real volume will devel- 
op unless these facilities are engi- 
neered to do the job with maximum 
efficiency and economy. The busi- 
ness has come so fast that it has 
caught the industry without the nec- 
essary facilities to handle the vol- 

Under the circumstances, a com- 
mendable job is being done. The po- 
tential of this business is enormous, 
and, in the opinion of the writer, 
if properly planned for on our air- 
ports, can develop into the major 
revenue of the commercial airlines 
just as the history of railroad trans- 
portation records the progression of 
the freight business. 

Now just a word about manage- 
ment. Most airports are municipally 
owned and operated. A few, such as 
New York, Seattle and Portland are 
authority operated. Still fewer com- 
mercial airports are operated by pri- 
vate enterprise. A fourth possibility 
exists which would permit terminal 
corporations, either operated by the 
airlines collectively or by a corpora- 
tion set up to do this particular job, 
to manage and operate in behalf of 
the owners. 

Wherever sound management fol- 
lowing accepted business principles 
is established, who operates it is not 
important. The really important ob- 
jective is to get good, efficient busi- 
ness-like management free from po- 
litical influence and endowed with 
an enterprising spirit to promote 
new activities, new sources of reve- 
nue and to coordinate all of the ser- 
vices provided by the airport so that 
each may perform its job without 

undue interference from the others. 
Management should always consider 
paramount the interests of the public 
which is paying the bill and make it 
easy for it to use the airport without 
great inconvenience. 

Major improvements, such as dis- 
cussed here, take much time. Many 
interests must be brought together 
into agreement in the planning 
stages, and once an agreement is 
reached, a long period of construc- 
tion is necessary. During this period, 
interruptions to normal business are 
unavoidable. The airports of the fu- 
ture are still on the drafting boards 
and we cannot expect adequacy for 
several years. The ground planners 
can gain much if they will take on 
the spirit of the aeronautical engi- 
neers who have brought the progress 
of aviation to its present high stand- 
ard. We must bring the ground plant 
up to this standard and into better 
balance in the forward-march of the 
entire industry. 

Contributors . . . 

(Continued from page 4) 

joined the Illinois Tech faculty in 
1937. During the recent war, Dr. 
Larkin served as a special mediation 
representative of the national War 
Labor Board and as vice-chairman 
of the Sixth Regional War Labor 

George S. Speer has been director 
of the Institute for Psychological 
Services of Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology since September, 1945. He 
received his bachelor's degree at 
Central Y.M.C.A. College and his 
master's at the University of Chi- 
cago. He served as research assistant 
for Mooseheart Laboratory for Child 
Research in 1935, as psychologist 
for the Child Guidance Clinic from 
1937 to 1940, and as professor of 
psychology, dean of students, and 
director of the Institute of Guidance 
at Central YMCA College from 1940 
to 1945. 




lasts . . . 

Jbor 48 years photography has preserved this passing scene . . . 

Yet today, as a record, it's as complete and accurate as ever. 
Photography lasts . . . and because it lasts, has great usefulness to 
business, industry, and the professions: 

Demonstrate a product, tell a sales story, in motion pictures — its 
appeal and showmanship stay fresh, its delivery always "letter perfect." 

Reproduce a blueprint, a specification sheet, a production chart on 
Kodagraph Paper— its definition stays crisp, its usefulness is prolonged. 

Photograph an accident scene, an operation, a construction project — 
eveiy detail remains accurately, lastingly fixed. 

File contracts, correspondence, cancelled checks on Recordak microfilm - 
they "stay put" in fixed order, and cannot be altered without detection. 

All this you can bring about because photography lasts. Because it 
does . . . because of its other useful characteristics . . . you can do even 
more. For examples, write for "Functional Photography." It's free. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 

Theodore Roosevelt on tour during the 1900 Presidential campaign. 

Functional Photography 

is advancing business and industrial technics 

Trends in Industrial Research 

(Continued from page 12) 
tive research developments increases 
as the scientific frontiers are rolled 
back. In spite of increasing costs, in- 
dustry is well aware of the benefits 
of research and, to an increasing ex- 
tent, considers its research expendi- 
tures as a vital and necessary invest- 
ment in future security. 

Only a few examples of returns on 
research investment, as reported by 
industry, are needed to illustrate the 
recognition given to results of scien- 
tific research: 

A major oil company reports a 
return of S 15,400 to its stockholders 
for every S1000 invested in research 
over a 10-year period. 

A pharmaceutical company, re- 
viewing its records of research in- 
vestment for the past 20 years, finds 
a return of 100% on research in- 

One-third to one-half of the prod- 

ucts of one of the largest electrical 
manufacturers had their beginning in 
the research laboratory. 

A large chemical company states 
that 30% of its sales are of products 
developed through research since 

An industrial machinery corpora- 
tion reports a tenfold sales increase 
since 1937 and credits 80% of the 
increase to new products. 

Surveys have indicated than 50% 
of the total employment in the 
United States is based on products 
coming from the research labora- 
tories — thus one research man has 
created employment for almost 200 

Numerous corporations are build- 
ing new research laboratories to ex- 
tend present facilities or to replace 
obsolete facilities. It has been esti- 
mated that more than 200 new lab- 
oratories were constructed between 

partners in creating 

For 80 years, leaders of the engineering profession 
have made K & E products their partners in creating 
the technical achievements of our age. K & E instru- 
ments, drafting equipment and materials— such as the 
LEROYt Lettering equipment in the picture— have thus 
played a part in virtually every great engineering 
project in America. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

tReg. U.S. Pat. Off. 

1940 and 1946. In the reference 
cited above to Barron's Weekly, 
Bleiberg points out that almost a 
dozen multi-million dollar projects 
have been built or are in the plan- 
ning stage. 

Firestone Tire and Rubber Com- 
pany built and put into operation in 
1945 a S2 million laboratory. Radio 
Corporation of America will double 
its existing laboratories at Princeton, 
N. J. General Electric Company has 
announced a S10 million project for 
electronics laboratories. General 
Motors Corporation is planning a 
research and technical center, esti- 
mated to cost more than $20 million 
and intended to bring together the 
product research and experimental 
facilities of the company. Standard 
Oil Company (Indiana) plans to 
construct a large and modern labora- 
tory near Chicago. 

H. K. Ferguson Company has de- 
signed and built three major research 
laboratories during the year: Allied 
Chemical and Dye Corporation at 
Morristown, N. J., to centralize that 
firm's research activities; Bristol Lab- 
oratories at Syracuse, N. Y., for the 
production of penicillin and the study 
of new anti-biotics; Parke-Davis and 
Company at Detroit, Mich., for the 
production of streptomycin and the 
study of new anti-biotics. 

Scientists and researchers in the 
field of anti-biotics are sure that they 
have only touched the surface and 
that penicillin and streptomycin are 
merely spearheads in the fight against 
disease. Bristol points out, in its an- 
nouncement of the new laboratory, a 
policy common to many progressive 
organizations: long-range planning 
and facilities to enable a firm to capi- 
talize on discoveries made in the re- 
search department. Lack of facilities 
undoubtedly would be more costly in 
the long run than present high build- 
ing costs in terms of a competitive 
position in their industry. 

The Johns-Manville Corporation, 
on October 16, 1947, unveiled the 
first big laboratory and pilot plant 
and laid the cornerstone of the sec- 
ond unit of a new research center 
group. Located on a 93-acre tract 
(Please turn to page 32) 








Write for Book No. 6085, 

outlining A-C's Graduate 

Training Course. 

Allis-Chahnera Mfg. Co., 

Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin 

MARCH, 1948 


rj*ovicfiitg H/a/Aing &af\efu 








Non-slip. . . Wet or Dry 

I HE same characteristics of hardness and toughneM 
which make Alundum abrasive so useful in grinding wheels, 
also give it valuable properties as a wear-resistant and 
non-slip flooring material. 

Alundum Stair and Floor Tiles, for example, provide a 
flat, smooth surface that is non-slip even when wet. And 
they will not wear slippery from foot traffic. There are 
also Alundum Mosaics for use where small tiles are desired 
and Alundum Aggregates to add safety and durability to 
terrano and cement floors and stairs. 

You will find NORTON FLOORS providing safe walk- 
ways in thousands of buildings the country over including 
many in leading colleges. Catalog 1935-CP gives the 
full story including siies and colors. 

NORTON FLOORS are just another evidence of Norton 
leadership and ingenuity in the field of abrasives. 


Sehr-Manning, Troy, N. Y., is a Norton Division 





(Continued from page 30) 
forty miles from New York City, this 
group will ultimately include five or 
six units providing 337,000 square 
feet of laboratory space. Modular 
design gives an assembly of standard 
work space units for maximum flexi- 
bility. This laboratory center is said 
to be the largest in the world devoted 
to building materials, insulations, and 
allied industrial products. 

Merck and Company has consid- 
ered research a most essential part of 
its activities. In 1933 the company 
completed its first building devoted 
exclusively to this function. Labora- 
tories now occupy almost 100,000 
square feet of space in five modern 
buildings. Work was started in 1946 
on a large new addition to the lab- 
oratories, which probably will be oc- 
cupied in 1948. Emphasizing a trend 
in new laboratory construction, the 
building will be extremely flexible, 
with the basic unit a small, complete 
laboratory that has all necessary ser- 
vices. All partitions, except exterior 
and corridor walls, will be easily mov- 
able panels permitting the grouping 
of a number of units to form a labora- 
tory of almost any size and shape. 
The laboratory staff now numbers 
510 persons, with a technical staff 
of 250. Research expenditures were 
$3,438,279 in 1945 and $3,216,845 
in 1946, close to six per cent of the 
sales dollar. 

Greatly increased research activ- 
ity by trade associations and organi- 
zations also demonstrates the growth 
of industrial research by all compa- 
nies, both large and small. More than 
125 associations were conducting re- 
search for their member companies 
before the war, and that number has 
steadily increased. 

A pending publication of the De- 
partment of Commerce"' summarizes 
work done by trade associations in 
their laboratories and in those of con- 
sulting, independent, nonprofit and 
university organizations. Associa- 
tions such as the American Institute 
of Laundering and the Structural 
Clay Products Institute are consider- 
ing substantial increases in their re- 
(Please turn to page 34) 



Research simplifies print making 
with development of "Varigam" Paper 

Chemists and physicists make 
important contributions 

Photographic film that has been over- 
exposed or overdeveloped usually means 
a "hard" or "contrasty" negative — too 
much silver is deposited on the high- 
lights in comparison with that in the 
shadows. The opposite effect, a "soft" 
or "thin" negative, results from under- 
exposure or underdevelopment. At one 
time photographers had to stock four or 
five grades of enlarging paper to correct 
for these conditions and get the right 
degree of contrast. 

To eliminate this expensive, unwieldy 
situation, scientists developed "Vari- 
gam" variable contrast photographic 
paper. With "Varigam," the whole 
procedure of getting different degrees 
of contrast is reversed. Instead of using 
several grades of paper, the photog- 
rapher uses only one. He gets variation 
in contrast by use of filters that control 
the wave lengths of light reaching the 
paper, thereby getting finer degrees of 
contrast than are otherwise possible. 

The action of "Varigam" depends 
on the ability of certain dyes to extend 
the sensitivity of silver halide emulsions 
beyond the blue and blue-green regions. 
This effect was well known to scientists. 
But "Varigam" has an added feature 
— it gives high contrast in the blue por- 

tion of the spectrum and is also sensi- 
tive to light in the green region, with 
low contrast. 

"Varigam" the work of many men 

The first job was one for the physical 
chemists. Silver halide emulsions, nor- 
mally sensitive to blue light, had to be 
made to give maximum contrast when 
exposed to light in this region. 

It was known that certain dyes would 
extend the sensitivity of the emulsion 
over as far as the infra-red. But they 
were not practical for photographic pa- 
per, being affected by the red safety 
light used in the darkroom. Research by 
chemists showed that certain dyes such 
as l:l'-diethylthiopseudocyanine iodide 
extended the light sensitivity only to 
the green region. And, most important, 
they produced low contrast when used 
in lower-than-normal concentrations. 
When such a dye was combined with 
high-contrast silver halide emulsion, 
the result was an emulsion that gave 
high-contrast prints when exposed to 
blue light, and low-contrast prints when 
exposed to green light. 

Physicists Develop Filters 

Physicists made this contrast control a 
reality by preparing sharp-cutting fil- 
ters that allow the user to control his 
printing light selectively. These filters. 

which are attached to the iens of the en- 
larger, range from blue for high con- 
trast to yellow, which cuts out the blue 
almost entirely and gives low contrast. 
In between are eight grades of filters 
with intermediate degrees of blue and 
yellow light transmission. All of the fil- 
ters are made in such a way that neither 
light nor printing time needs to be 
varied as filters are changed, except the 
last two on the blue end. These require 
approximately twice the time of the 

In "Varigam," made by Du Pont, 
chemical science has given the photog- 
rapher new economy and convenience 
in printing, and a degree of contrast 
control more precise than is possible 
with any combination of commercial 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 

What types of training are needed? 

The majority of openings for college graduates at 
Du Pont are in technical work and are usually in 
chemical, physical, or biological research; chemi- 
cal, mechanical, civil, electrical, or industrial 
engineering. Openings are available from time to 
time in other fields, including architecture, ceram- 
ics, metallurgy, mining, petroleum and textile 
engineering, geology, mathematics, accounting, 
law, economics, and journalism. Write for booklet. 
"The Du Pont Company and the College Gradu- 
ate," 2521-C Nemours Building, Wilmington 98. 


More facts about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of America," Mondays, 8 P.M., EST on NBC 

Normal print (center) can be obtained from either a "soft" negative (left) or a "hard' 
negative (right), using "Varigam" variable contrast paper. 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued horn page 32) 
search programs. Well-established 
research activities, such as those 
maintained by the Lithographic 
Technical Foundation, recently have 
been revitalized and expanded. The 
Commerce Department report states 
that at least 35 trade associations 
now maintain or operate their own 
laboratories, and these laboratories 
employ 800 to 1000 personnel, ex- 
clusive of fruit grower and processing 
groups. Among the larger labora- 
tories are: 

National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, 171 persons; American Gas 
Association, 120 persons; National 
Canners Association, 44 persons; 
Portland Cement Association, 37 per- 
sons; American Meat Institute, 31 
persons: American Institute of Laun- 
dering, 30 persons, and Tanners' 
Council Laboratories, 25 persons. 

Many associations use government 
laboratories, such as the Bureau of 
Standards and the Forest Products 
Laboratory, university laboratories, 
or non-profit research institute lab- 

Much of the research done by 
trade associations is for small com- 
panies, although association activity 
is by no means confined to the small- 
er industrial organizations. Small 
companies are becoming increasingly 
conscious of their dependence on re- 
search to maintain their competitive 
position within an industry and to 
meet the technical developments 
made by competitive industries 
which can, and frequently do, threat- 
en an entire industry with obsolesc- 
ence and decay. 

The National Research Council in 
1940 surveyed 50 small companies 
having assets ranging from 5150,000 
to $2,500,000. Twelve companies 
stated "if they should immediately 
cease all forms of organized fact- 
finding in which they are now en- 
gaged, they would be forced out of 
business within a year". Six stated 
they would be liquidated in three 
years and 17 would at once experi- 
ence a serious loss of competitive po- 

Contrary to the pattern estab- 
lished in England where trade asso- 

ciation research is substantially 
subsidized by the government and 
where association research forms a 
major part of research activity by 
industry, the United States govern- 
ment has assisted association re- 
search to a very limited extent. Re- 
cently, however, there has been a 
decided tendency on the part of gov- 
ernment to assume a much greater 
role in financing and organizing as- 
sociation research. This tendency, 
supported in some quarters, has been 
vigorously opposed by a part of in- 
dustry for reasons of patent policies, 
paternalism, alleged inefficiency of 
government supervision, etc. 

Scientific and industrial research 
by industry, both large and small 
companies, is definitely on the as- 
cendency. It is rapidly being recog- 
nized generally as a necessary part 
of business operation, and it is assum- 
ing an ever expanding position as a 
part of the corporate structure. 

Research In Colleges 
And Universities 

Today, as has always been the 
case, the basic source of progress in 
fundamental science resides in the 
laboratories of colleges and universi- 
ties. Pushing back the barriers that 
cloak and obscure the trails of scien- 
tific advancement is, and should be, 
the main consideration of research in 
the university graduate schools. 

To a considerable extent, our 
sources of basic scientific knowledge 
were in Europe prior to the last war, 
although several colleges and univer- 
sities in this country had made not- 
able contributions. The drying-up of 
foreign sources of fundamental sci- 
entific work, the drain on the stock- 
piles of scientific knowledge acceler- 
ated by wartime applied research, 
and the increased pressure for push- 
ing back the frontiers of knowledge 
to provide basic information for post- 
war developments — all have greatly 
increased the demand for fundamen- 
tal scientfic activity in university lab- 

The increased demand for scien- 
tific research by the universities has 
come at a time when increased stu- 

dent enrollments have taxed the 
teaching staffs to such an extent that 
little time is left for research inves- 
tigations. Funds from endowments 
are less plentiful because of lowering 
interest rates. And it is exceedingly 
difficult to attract and maintain an 
adequate staff because of the short- 
age of qualified scientists and the 
higher salaries offered by industry. 

Universities have been quick to 
recognize the need for further basic 
scientific research and to meet the 
challenge of difficult postwar condi- 
tions. Most educators and research 
men feel, however, that financial as- 
sistance from industry and govern- 
ment is urgently needed if their obli- 
gations can be met. They emphasize 
that financial assistance must be 
given without restraints as to publi- 
cation and patent protection or su- 
pervision if research in fundamental 
science is to be effective. 

Industry is recognizing to a greater 
extent its obligation to finance scien- 
tific training and basic research, as 
evidenced by the increased number 
of industrially-sponsored fellowships 
and grants. Research fellowships and 
scholarships supported by industry 
now total 1800, compared with a 
total of 90 during 1929. The number 
of firms supporting such grants has 
grown from 56 to 302, and a number 
of other companies report their in- 
tention to provide such support and 
assistance as soon as facilities and 
personnel are available. 

The federal government also rec- 
ognizes its responsibility to give ad- 
dional assistance to the universities. 
Although the legislation for a Na- 
tional Science Foundation, as passed 
by a large majority of the 80th Con- 
gress, was vetoed by the President, 
Congress seems to be united in feel- 
ing that financial assistance must be 
given for scientific training and re- 
search. It appears probable that as- 
sistance in some form will receive the 
early attention of Congress. 

Several governmental agencies 
have placed research contracts with 
colleges and universities. The major- 
ity of such contracts have not con- 
tributed greatly to the furtherance of 
(Please turn to page 36) 




YOUR PLANT IS BURNED and you must justify yourself before 
your Board of Directors ... it is your word against the facts. 

this be your defense? 

YOU: "Gentlemen, I wish to assure 
you I did everything I knew to protect 
our property and investment. I could 
not forsee a situation like this. looks 
like carelessness with a cigarette." 

THE FACTS: It is a well-known and 
established fact that everyone who 
is human is careless at times. Antici- 
pating carelessness is part of man- 
agement's responsibility. 

YOU: "Our buildings were all of fire- 
proof construction . . ." 

THE FACTS: But stored materials are 
seldom fireproof. All too often a fire- 
proof building may merely serve as a 
stove for blazing contents. 

YOU: "/ saw to it that we were covered 


by insurance. Of course it is not ade- 
quate for rebuilding at today's prices. 
We'll need capital — a lot of capital 
— IF we rebuild." 

THE FACTS: That property cannot 
be replaced for its insurance value 
today is but one of five sad after- 
maths of fire. The other four, as 
managers of fire-gutted plants will 
attest, are: (2) An indemnity check 
never buys back a lost customer. (3) 
Burned-out records are lost forever. 
(4) Employees wander away. (5) 
Two out of five burned-out busi- 
nesses never resume operation. 

There is no sure way to prevent 
fire. But there is one sure way to 
stop fire immediately, automatically, 
wherever and whenever it strikes . . . 


Grinnell Protection by automatic 
sprinklers. Any competent fire chief 
will tell you that it is the surest 
way. On top of that, it usually pays 
for itself in reduced insurance pre- 
miums in a few years. So, if you're 
insured, you're paying for Grinnell 
Protection .... Why not hare it? 
Grinnell Company, Inc. Providence 1 , 
R.I. Branch Offices in Principal Cities 


Automatic Sprinkler and Special Hazard 
Fire Protection Systems 


MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 34) 
basic research, but have been direct- 
ed toward the application of existing 
scientific knowledge. An outstanding 
exception has been the Office of Na- 
val Research, which has maintained 
a broad program of basic research in 
the physical sciences and in medi- 
cine. Approximately 80% of this 
program is conducted by the colleges 
and universities, and about $50 mil- 
lion will have been obligated by the 
end of this year. 

The universities have gone from a 

wartime total of about S20 million 
annually to a present rate of annual 
research expenditure of about $80 
million. Some 300 or more universi- 
ties are now engaged in either basic 
or applied research. More than 75 
members of the Engineering College 
Research Council offer to accept 
projects from industrial sponsors. 

The Council's 1947 directory lists 
facilities, major fields of investiga- 
tion, and volume of sponsored re- 
search of the leading engineering 
educational institutions. 

Peabody has spent three generations 
in building a high degree of skill in 
the business of mining, refining and 
distributing coal. This ability is ac- 
companied by ample mining machin- 
ery for efficient production as well 
as preparation equipment that makes 
scientific use of advanced methods. 
With mines in Illinois, East Ken- 
tucky and West Virginia ... and sales 
agencies in other coal fields - Peabody 
is serving virtually everv type of 

IN ITS 64 th YEAR 


231 South LaSalle Street, Chicago 4, Illinois 




Several colleges, universities, and 
technological institutes have estab- 
lished research foundations or insti- 
tutes. Some of these organizations 
are integral parts of the educational 
institution; some are closely affili- 
ated with it, but exist as separate 
corporations; and others are inde- 
pendent, non-profit corporations with 
a more-or-less close affiliation. Con- 
tractual relations, patent policies, 
publication policies, and charges for 
industrially sponsored projects vary 
widely between organizations. It is 
evident that economic pressure has 
been a dominant factor in causing 
many universities to seek applied 
research projects supported by in- 

Many individual scientists, re- 
search leaders, and educators have 
pointed out that investigations in the 
field of applied research do not often 
contribute substantially to the pri- 
mary university functions of scien- 
tific education, graduate study, and 
basic research. When industry sup- 
ports basic research, the effect upon 
the university is a salutory one, ac- 
cording to David Gordon of David 
Gordon and Company. Dr. Jacques 
Errera, speaking at a recent meeting 
of consulting chemists and engineers, 
cautioned that the role of the univer- 
sity is two-fold: First, it must edu- 
cate; it must supply the bachelors, 
masters, and doctors who will carry 
on the nation's research and develop- 
ment program; this activity must be 
self-supporting on a high level; for 
this support, it must look to both pri- 
vate and public funds. Second: he 
continues, the research function must 
involve basic research. 

Certainly there is a trend toward 
increased scientific activity in the 
universities and colleges: increased 
college enrollments at all levels in 
scientific education; additional em- 
phasis on graduate research and basic 
scientific research; and increased de- 
sire on the part of the colleges to 
seek industrially sponsored research, 
a part of which will contribute to the 
primary functions of scientific edu- 
cation and research. 

i Next month, the author will review the trends 
in public service research organizations, govern- 
ment in research, research in the international 
field, management of research, and research in 



Successful telecasts of surgical operations show value of television to medical education. 

'Step up beside the surgeon -and watch' 

Not long ago, a radio beam flashed 
across the New York sky— and "car- 
ried" more than 7000 surgeons into 
a small operating room . . . 

Impossible? It was done by television, 
when RCA demonstrated — to a congress 
of surgeons — how effective this medium 
can be in teaching surgery. 

In a New York hospital, above an op- 
erating table, a supersensitive RCA Image 
Orthicon television camera televised a series 
of operations. Lighting was normal. Images 
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MARCH, 1948 


. Research in Geometry 

(Continued from page 14) 
chophysics (e.g., to the geometry of 
our skin sensations derived from ex- 
periments on thresholds of sensa- 
tion). Moreover, general geometries 
of the small might find applications 
to molecular physics as general ge- 
ometries of the large were applied to 

II. Finite Planes And 

Another study that started as a 
highly theoretical activity is the con- 
struction of finite models for compli- 
cated mathematical systems. Such a 
model for arithmetic is known to 
everybody: the arithmetic of the 
clock. This miniature arithmetic has 
only twelve objects which every 
school child adds together and sub- 
tracts from each other in a perfectly 
consistent way. For instance, in this 
arithmetic 11 + 4 = 3 because 4 

hours after 1 1 o'clock it is 3 o'clock. 
Even multiplication can be defined 
for the 12 numbers of the clock arith- 
metic although in practical life we 
have no occasion to go beyond addi- 
tion and subtraction. 

In clarifying the foundations of 
geometry at the turn of the century, 
Fano and Veblen introduced minia- 
ture planes, namely: finite systems 
of points and lines which may be 
considered as models of plane geom- 
etry in the same sense as the 12 
numbers on the clock form a model 
of arithmetic. With regard to plane 
affine geometry, that is, that part of 
plane euclidean geometry which is 
independent of the concepts of per- 
pendicularity and congruency, the 
question arose as to whether one 
could find finite systems of points 
and lines satisfying the following 
postulates : 

1. Through two distinct points 

there is exactly one line. 

2. To a given line 1, through a 
given point P (not on 1) there is 
exactly one line that has no common 
point with 1 (Euclid's parallel postu- 

3. On each line there exists at 
least one point. (From the other 
postulates it readily follows that on 
each line there exist at least two 

4. There exist three points that 
are not on a line. 

The answer to this question is 
affirmative. The simplest example 
consists of four points, 

P, Q, R, S, 
and six lines each containing two 
points, namely: 

(PQ), (PR), (PS), 
(QR), (QS), (RS). 
It is not possible to find examples 
with more than 4 and less than 9 
points but there is an example of a 
finite plane containing 9 points and 
12 lines. One way of describing this 
(Please turn to page 40) 

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(Continued from page 38) 
example is the following "Greco- 
Latin square" 

A oc B/J Cy 

Cfi Ay B cc 

By C cc Ap 

where each of the nine pairs of let- 
ters represents a point, having the 
Latin letter as abscissa and the 
Greek letter as ordinate ; . There are 
three "vertical" lines each joining 
three points in a column of the above 
scheme, and three "horizontal" lines 
each joining the three points of a 
row of the above scheme. Besides 
there is an A-line consisting of the 
three points, A cc , Ay, A/3 with the 
abscissa A. Similarly there are a B- 
line and a C-line. Finally there is an 
cc -line consisting the three points 
A oc , C oc ! B oc with the ordinate oc . 
Similarly there are a /i-line and a 
y-line. One could easily verify that 
this system of nine points and twelve 
lines satisfies the postulates 1, 2, 3, 
and 4 mentioned above and thus 
constitutes an affine plane. As an 
example, we determine the line 
through the point By which is par- 
allel to the line joining the points 
Bji and Aji. The latter line is the 
/i-line containing Cji, Bf3, A/3. As one 
readily verifies, there is exactly one 
line containing the points By and 
not intersecting /i-line, namely, the 
y-line containing By, Ay, Cy. 

The next larger model consists of 
16 points and 20 lines; then comes 
a model with 25 points and 31 lines. 

Two thoughts are bound to occur 
to the practical man: "Obviously, for 
every number n, there exists an af- 
fine plane containing n 2 points. But 
what a useless endeavor to set them 
up, enumerate them, and classify 

First of all, the matter is consider- 
ably less simple than it appears to 
be at first glance. For instance, it is 
not true that for every n there exists 
an affine plane containing n- points. 
There are such planes provided that 
n is a power of a prime number such 
as 2, 3, 4 = 2-, 5, 7, 8 = 2 \ 9, = 3-, 

8 The terms abscissa and ordinate here are not 
:oincidental. Each tinite model of an affine plane 
:an be introduced as an analytic geometry in 
rhich the coordinates range over a miniature 
irithmetic I related to that of the clock) instead 
if ranging over the totality of all real number 
is they do in the analytic geometry of our normal 
:uclidean plane. 

11, etc. But it follows from a note by 
F. H. Safford in the American Math- 
ematical Monthly in 1907, that there 
does not exist an affine plane for 
n = 6, that is, an affine plane with 
36 points. 

Secondly, while for almost half a 
century these finite planes were in- 
deed merely of intellectual interest, 
modern statistics has changed the 
situation. Finite affine planes have 
found extensive use in the design of 
experiments, especially agricultural 
experiments. For instance, if we wish 
to try out three kinds of fertilizers 
A, B, C and three kinds of seeds or, 
/?, y, the best procedure is to divide 
the rectangular field on which we 
experiment into 9 equal rectangular 
parts and try on each ninth a com- 
bination of one fertilizer and one 
kind of seed according to the "Greco- 
Latin Square" which we mentioned 
as a finite model for an affine plane. 

One advantage of the above 
Greco-Roman arrangement as com- 
pared, say, to the arrangement 

A oc B/i Cy 

A/1 By C cc 

Ay Bo: C(i 

is obvious. If the soil on the field 
on which we experiment should get 
more fertile as we move to the right, 
then in the latter arrangement an 
inferior fertilizer C might produce 
better results. In the Greco-Roman 
Square each fertilizer is applied once 
in each row and once in each column 
whereby the effects of vertical and 
horizontal fertility gradients of the 
soil are eliminated. 

But there are several other ap- 
plications of the Greco-Roman 
Square, in particular, if we wish to 
test combinations of four different 
types of treatments, each type repre- 
sented by three variants. In fact, it 
was statisticians who introduced the 
Greco-Roman symbols for the finite 
affine planes. In 1932, Fisher and 
Yates rediscovered the impossibility 
of an affine plane with six points on 
each line. In India, one of the main 
centers of modern statistics, a recent 
publication was devoted to finite 

In concluding, we remark that 
(Please turn to page 42) 



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(Continued horn page 40) 
statisticians have also made use of 
finite models for geometries which 
differ from Euclid's, in particular for 
projective geometry. A projective 
plane can be obtained by adjoining 
to an affine plane one line ("line of 
infinity") and its points ("points of 
infinity"). In a projective plane 
every two lines intersect and thus 
no parallel lines exist. While there 
exist finite projective planes (in fact, 
the first finite models of Fano and 
Veblen were for projective planes) 
it has been recently proved by col- 
laborators of the writer that there 
are no finite Bolyai-Lobachevsky 
planes except planes in which each 
line contains only two points. For 
the visible space there are no finite 
models whatever 4 . On the other 
hand, we may mention finite models 
for analysis which we recently con- 
structed; that is, finite systems of 
entities behaving like functions in 
that they can not only be added and 
multiplied but also substituted into 
each other according to the laws 
of what we call "Algebra of Analysis." 

III. Networks And Topology 

An example of applied mathe- 
matics which later gained consider- 
able theoretical significance is the 
theory of electrical networks de- 
veloped by Kirchhoff in 1847. The 
question of interest to the physicist 
was this: Suppose that a finite num- 
ber, cc u of branches are somehow 
connected in oc nodes so as to form 
a network. Each branch contains a 
known resistance and a known 
source of e.m.f. What will be the cur- 
rents in the cc j branches? 

Kirchhoff's two famous laws about 
currents supplied him with linear 
equations for the oc , unknown cur- 
rents of the network, one equation 
corresponding with each of the cc 
nodes, and one equation correspond- 
ing with each circuit of the network. 
Kirchhoff readily proved that while 
the cc node-equations were depend- 
ent, any cc — 1 of them were inde- 
pendent. Much more complicated is 

the problem of setting up the maxi- 
mum number of independent circuit- 

Kirchhoff arrived at a solution by 
a penetrating geometrical analysis of 
the network. Clearly the shapes and 
lengths of the branches are irrelevant 
for the problem, once the resistances 
of the branches are given. What mat- 
ters are merely the relations between 
the branches and nodes, more pre- 
cisely, whether or not the n-th 
branch begins or terminates at the 
m-th node. Here, m ranges from 
1 to oc , and n from 1 to cc u and 
"beginning" and "terminating" is 
meant in the direction of the e.m.f. 
on the branch*. Kirchhoff found that 
in each network he could choose 
^ i — &■ o + 1 branches after whose 
deletion the network became acyclic 
(i.e., free of circuits) while all nodes 
were retained. With each of these 
deleted branches he could connect 
branches of the acyclic "skeleton" so 
as to obtain a circuit of the original 

The a ! — cc _|_ 1 linear equa- 
tions corresponding with the circuits 
obtained in this way are readily seen 
to be independent. Combining these 
^ i — «: o + 1 independent circuit- 
equations with the cc„ — 1 inde- 
pendent node-equations Kirchhoff 
obtained a system of cc j linear equa- 
tions for the cc j unknown currents 
and thought that he thus could al- 
ways compute the currents by solv- 
ing the equations. This reasoning was 
inadequate since the two independ- 
ent systems of equations need not 
and, in fact, do not always combine 
to an independent system of equa- 
tions 6 . But fortunately, as Weyl 
proved in 1924, the combined sys- 
tem of cc t equations will be inde- 
pendent provided that all the cc t 
resistances are positive. Negative re- 
sistances were discovered long after 

The simplest example of a net- 
work for which, in presence of nega- 
tive resistances, Kirchhoff's equa- 
tions needs not yield a unique solu- 

tion, is obtained by joining two nodes 
Nj and N 2 by two branches B t and 
B, (Fig. 3). We call r, and r 2 the 
resistances, E t and E 2 the e.m.f. in 
B, and B 2 , respectively, and assume 
that the direction of both forces is 
toward N„. We denote the unknown 
currents by i, and ig. Then the cc = 
2 node-equations read 

ij -\- ig — and -i t — i 2 ■= 0. 
They are dependent but either one 
of them is independent (i.e., not 
identically satisfied). There are two 
circuits, which are identical except 
for the orientation which is clockwise 
in one, and counter-clockwise in the 
other. We obtain cc j — <x -j-l=l 
independent circuit equation 

rj i t — r 2 ig = Ej — E 2 . 
A system of cc x — 2 equations for 
ii and i 2 reads 

fj + ig = 0, 

r t i, — t 2 ig = E, — Eg, 
This system is independent if and 
only if Ti ¥= -r 2 . If r x = -r 2 ; that is, 
if the resistances are equal in magni- 
tude but one is positive and one 
negative, then the two equations are 
dependent. In this case, they read 

it + U = 0, 

it + ig =Et- Eg 

and obviously have no solution if 

the other one. 


8 An excellent discussion of these questions 
; to be found in D. Koenig "Theoric der endlichen 
nd unendlichen Graphen" (1936). 


E x ¥= E 2 , while i t may be any num- 
ber if Ej = E z . 

In a less conspicuous way, the 
same situation prevails in some more 
complicated networks containing 
negative resistances. 

Apart from its practical applica- 
tion, Kirchhoff's study has had nu- 
merous theoretical consequences. 
The number cc 1 — <x -)- 1, later 
called the "cyclomatic number" of a 
one-dimensional connected graph 
with oc nodes and oc i branches, has 
become the corner stone of the com- 
binatoric topology of graphs. Com- 
binatoric topology is that branch of 
geometry which deals only with 
those profound properties of spatial 
objects (made of a finite number of 
simple parts) that depend merely 
upon incidence relations between the 
parts and are independent of such 
quantitative features as length, area, 
volume, etc. 

The scope of this theory goes far 
beyond one-dimensional graphs 
which, like networks, consist of 
branches connecting nodes — al- 

though the branches need not be 
wires, in fact, not even geometrical 
lines but may be sublimated to mere 
indicators of relations. The number 
^ 1 — a o + 1 has found extremely 
important generalizations to higher- 
dimensional objects of combinatoric 
topology which contain also triangu- 
lar surfaces, tetrahedral solids, etc. 

IV. Geometric Thinking And 
Human Organization 

We study a group, G, of human 
beings which is divided into two mu- 
tually exclusive subgroups, Gi and 
Go, such as men and women, selfish 
and unselfish persons, English and 
French speaking people, or the like. 

Let us further assume that every- 
body has a subjective attitude toward 
these groups. Some members of G 
wish to associate only with members 
of Gi. We call the class of these per- 
sons the attitude group A 1 . (For the 
sake of simplicity we limit ourselves 
to the study of the special case that 
the attitudes are universal in the 
sense that a person who likes associa- 

tion with one member of Gj likes 
association with any member of G].) 
Similarly, there is an attitude group 
A- of persons who wish to associate 
only with members of G 2 . Finally, 
there is a group A 12 of "tolerant" 
persons who associate with every- 
body, and a group A" of "hermits" 
who associate with nobody. 

The group G! is divided into four 

G\ G-, G 1 -, G". 

ill i 

consisting of members who belong 
to the attitude groups A 1 , A 2 , A 12 , A , 
respectively. Similarly, the group G_. 
is divided into four subgroups, 
G\ G 2 , G 12 , G°. 

We shall refer to these eight groups 
as the basic groups. 

A subgroup of G is said to be 
coherent if each two members of the 
subgroup are willing to associate 
with each other. Clearly, the basic 
group G 1 is coherent in this sense. 
For every member of G 1 belongs to 
(Please turn to page 44) 


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(Continued from page 43) 
G 1 as well as to the attitude group 
A 1 of people associating only with 
members of Gi. Since also all the 
other members of G 1 belong to Gi 

every member of G 1 will be willing 

to associate with every other mem- 
ber of G 1 . Similarly, G'-', G 12 and G 12 
are coherent groups. On the other 
hand, none of the groups G 2 , G 1 , G", 

1 2 1 

G" is coherent. In fact, these groups 
are explosive in the sense that no two 
members of the same group wish to 
associate with each other. 

Moreover, we see that each mem- 
ber of G 1 and each member of G 12 
i i 

are willing to associate with each 
other. Two groups in this relation 
will be called compatible. One read- 
ily sees that among the eight basic 
groups there are altogether six com- 
patible pairs, namely, 
G 1 and G' 2 ; G- and G 1 -; G' 2 and G]-; 
G- and G ,J ; G 1 and G 12 ; G 2 and G 1 . 

If we indicate each coherent group 
by a circle, each explosive group by a 
cross, and join two such "nodes" by a 
"branch" if and only if the two groups 
are compatible, then the network of 
the simple human relations that we 
are studying is represented by the 
following graph: 

How can we divide G into coherent 
subgroups? Obviously, there are only 
the following types of coherent 

(Ai): groups consisting of mem- 
bers of G 1 and of members of G 12 , 

special cases being groups containing 
only members of G 1 or only members 
of G 1 -; 

(A 2 ): groups consisting of mem- 
bers of G- and G 12 ; 

(B): groups consisting of mem- 
bers of G 1 - and G 12 ; 

(Cj): groups consisting of exactly 
one member of G 2 and any number 
of members of G 12 , special cases being 
groups consisting of one member of 
G- only; 

(Cj): groups consisting of exactly 
one member of G 1 and any number 
of members of G 12 ; 

(D): groups consisting of exactly 
one member of G 2 and one member 
of G 1 ; 

(E t ) and (E^): groups consisting 
of one single member of G" or G", 

In particular situations, some of 
the eight basic groups are vacuous 
or at least insignificant. For instance, 
if G, and Gj denote persons speak- 
ing different languages, only the co- 
herent basic groups G 1 , G 2 , G 12 , G 12 
are significant, and groups of the 
types (Aj), (A L .), and (B) are the 
only coherent groups that are likely 
to materialize. 

On the contrary, if G] and Gj are 
men and women in a party, then with 
regard to the attitude toward dancing 
only the explosive basic groups are 
significant: men who wish to dance 
with women; women who wish to 
dance with men; and non-dancers. 
Accordingly the only sets that will 
materialize are dancing pairs of the 
type (D), non-dancers of the type 
(E), and wallflowers forming special 
groups (C). 

If G, are despots, G, the other 
people, the only groups that are likely 
(Please turn to page 46) 

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MARCH, 1948 

(Continued from page 44) 
to materialize are: groups of type 
(Ci) consisting of one despot of the 
group G and passive persons of the 
group G' -'; and groups of the type 
(Ao) consisting of persons of G- and 
G> . 

In concluding we discuss the 
formal (extensive) aspect 7 of the 
categorical imperative: to behave to- 
ward others as one wishes everybody 
to behave. We see that the members 
of G', as well as the members of G~ 
fulfill this condition. Yet the union 
of the two groups is not coherent. On 
the other hand, a member of the 
group G' does not fulfill the condi- 
tion of the categorical imperative and 
may nevertheless be included in co- 
herent sets: in a pair consisting of 
him and a member of G 1 ; or in a set 
containing besides him only members 
of G' '. Abidance by the categorical 

" For a critique of the mater 
rather, the lack of material co 
principle, cf. the author's paper 
Sociology 43, (1938' p. 790. 

itenti of thi: 

imperative is thus neither necessary 
nor sufficient for the coherence of a 

What are possible applications of 
such theories of human groups and 
relations? Because theories of this 
kind are necessarily and admittedly 
formal they are looked upon with 
misgivings if not contempt by those 
who search for "absolute aims". Now, 
whatever one may think of the 
chances of this latter search, or the 
very meaning of its objective — one 
must admit that no agreement as to 
the goal has been reached. Equally, 
even if one thinks that formal reason- 
ing can, and ought to be, supple- 
mented by material studies, one must 
admit that its modest results are 
valid. Shall we let the bird in the 
hand go for the sake of the two in the 

Stability of organizations and hap- 
piness of individuals are essentially 
based on something related to the 
coherence of groups which we have 
studied in a simple case. One of the 
aims of formal theories of human 

relations is the discovery of schemes 
for the division of groups into co- 
herent subgroups. It is well known 
that the systematic synthesis of phar- 
maceutical products results in doz- 
ens, if not hundreds, of compounds 
which are discarded while occasion- 
ally one is found which marks a prog- 
ress. In the same way, a systematic 
formal study of relations between 
human individuals and groups would 
undoubtedly lead to many imprac- 
ticable schemes. But then occasion- 
ally it might bring to light possibil- 
ities which are overlooked in a 
passionate material approach. 

The general trend seems to be to- 
ward the formation of uniform 
groups. This is indeed the easiest 
solution of the problem. But, as we 
saw in discussing the categorical im- 
perative, uniformity is neither neces- 
sary nor sufficient for coherence. In 
many situations, with some thought, 
we may find divisions into subgroups 
that impose considerably smaller 
constraint on individuals and thus 
promote human happiness and prog- 



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mation about methods and end uses. 
Only this made it possible for us to 
collaborate with our friends in the 
successful search for cost-reducing 
materials or processes. 

Revere is by no means the only 
company accustomed to work in this way with its cus- 
tomers and prospects. Every important supplier in the 
country is fully informed about his materials, whether 
they be solids or fluids, organic or inorganic. We suggest 
that no matter what you make, or how, it will pay ycu 
to give your suppliers the privilege of collaboration. 


Founded by Paul Revere in 1801 

•k -k * 

Executive Offices: 
230 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

MARCH, 1948 


Profession: Homemaker 

(Continued from page 16) 
standards, appearance, and social 
usage are stressed throughout. The 
nutritive value of foods is studied 
in relation to the nutritive needs of 
various age, sex, and activity groups. 
Emphasis is placed upon menu plan- 
ning, marketing, and preservation of 
nutritive value by proper handling. 

Dietary practices of sub-cultural 
groups are studied and related to the 
economic, social, and psychological 
factors that impinge upon an indi- 
vidual, influencing his choice of food, 
and ultimately his nutritional status. 
Students learn to improve their own 
dietary practices, to like new foods, 
and to overcome food prejudices by 
studying the relation of nutrition to 
positive health and methods of 
changing food habits to improve nu- 
tritional status. 

Household equipment is studied 
from the standpoint of construction. 


Class of '38 



Life Insurance 

Retirement Plans 

Accident & Health 

Juvenile Insurance 



1030 Field Bldg. 135 S. LaSalle St. 
Chicago 3, III. Randolph 5560 

use, selection, and care. The student 
has access to many types of modern 
equipment and has opportunity to 
learn through use tests the essential 
and the desirable features, and the 
features to be avoided. Kitchen plan- 
ning and work units designed for 
efficiency and economy of time and 
effort are given special consideration. 

In the textiles and clothing, the 
course follows a systematic study of 
fabrics used for clothing and house- 
hold textiles. One learns to identify 
natural and synthetic fibers and to 
understand differences of yarn con- 
struction. Various types of weaves 
commonly used in home fabrics and 
finishing processes that impart spe- 
cial characteristics are studied. 
Knowing the relative importance of 
fiber, yarn construction, weave, and 
finish to the appearance, durability, 
cost, and use of fabrics, one can make 
intelligent selections from the wide 
variety displayed to the consumer. 
The study of clothing includes the 
selection, construction, and care of 
clothing best suited to the needs of 
the individual. The course also in- 
cludes pattern alteration and design, 
and tailoring processes. 

The study of aesthetic values in 
family life is known as related art. 
Each person becomes acquainted 
with basic principles of design, line, 
form, and color and learns to know 
and appreciate artistic values. 
Through the study of costume de- 

















1206 Wriehtwood Ave., Chicaeo 

sign, artistic principles are applied to 
the problem of line, color, and style 
to the end that clothing best suited 
to the individual may be selected. 
Interior design teaches the effective 
use of color, line, and texture in in- 
terior decoration. It stresses period 
furniture, arrangement, and func- 
tional design. House planning consid- 
ers requirements for modern living 
and the best use of space, placement 
of the home on the lot, and other 
problems of exteriors. After a study 
of related art, the student is prepared 
to plan or choose her surroundings 
with good taste and without sacrifice 
of efficiency. She is aware that a 
home should provide a place in 
which its family members can live, 
perform their work, and pursue their 
avocations, and that this is best done 
in surroundings where artistic quali- 
ties satisfy aesthetic needs. 

The study of child development 
and care, required of all students, 
covers the physical, mental, and so- 
cial development of children from 
the pre-natal through the pre-school 
period. Special emphasis is placed 
on nutrition and its importance to all 
aspects of the child's development. 
The objective of study in this field 
is to produce a home environment 
best suited to the needs of the child 
so that he may grow to full realiza- 
tion of the potentialities with which 
he is endowed. 

Help For The Consumer 

, In our modern society, family 
economics is largely a problem of 
consumption. Production is still prac- 
ticed in the home in varying degrees, 
but in urban areas the needs of the 
family are supplied primarily 
through the purchase of goods and 
services produced outside the home. 
Studies in this field have demon- 
strated repeatedly that the standard 
of living obtained by any family de- 
pends fully as much on the use of 
income as it does on its size. Nutri- 
tion studies show that adequate diets 
are not insured by large expenditures 
for food. There is no expenditure 
level at which all families obtain 
adequate diets, whereas, at a given 
expenditure level above the mini- 



mum, good, fair, or poor diets are 
obtained by different families. 

Home economics has always con- 
cerned itself with the problems of 
the consumer. Use tests, standards 
of adequacy, informative labeling, 
specifications, are all terms familiar 
to the home economist; they are 
common tools of her trade. She be- 
lieves that the consumer is entitled 
to know what she is buying and what 
she can expect from her purchases 
in terms of performance, durability, 
cost of upkeep, and satisfaction. The 
experiences of the general public in 
the past few years, coupled with the 
pressure of inflation against all fam- 
ily incomes, have persuaded many 
persons to take more care in their 
purchases. The Consumer Speaks 
project of the American Home Eco- 
nomics Association has demonstrated 
that consumers are interested in per- 
formance as well as price. It has 
contributed and is still contributing 
valuable information on the con- 
sumers wants and needs and her 
experiences with present consumer 
goods. This information is also in- 
valuable to maufacturers and dis- 
tributors whose primary interest is 
service to the consumer. 

Best use of family income is em- 
phasized through a study of budget- 
ing based on the detailed study of 
quantity, quality, and cost in each 
specialized consumption area. Time 
management, as well as money man- 
agement, is important if maximum 
satisfaction is to be experienced from 
resources available to a family. Since 
this is true, the study of home eco- 
nomics includes an evaluation of 
labor-saving devices in terms of time 
as well as cost of operation and in- 

Careers For Home Economists 

After completion of the curricu- 
lum, a student has a background of 
theory and practice in the problems 
facing the modern homemaker. Many 
opportunities for an interesting and 
varied career await the graduate. 
She may be a teacher, a dietician, a 
nutritionist, or a home economist in 
a welfare agency or business firm. 
At present there is a shortage in all 
professional fields that require home 

economics training. Financial returns 
from all are good. Opportunities for 
advancement are available for those 
who have the personal endowments 
required for success in the chosen 
field, in addition to the basic knowl- 
edge acquired through training. The 
speed and degree of advancement 
are limited only by the qualifications 
and industry of the individual. 

Teaching is probably the best 
known field for the graduate home 
economist. Many elementary and 
secondary schools offer courses in 
homemaking. The rewards of teach- 
ing are great because of the close 
contact with pupils and because, in 
general, the pupils are quite inter- 
ested in the subject. For teaching in 
colleges, further study and speciali- 
zation at the graduate level is essen- 
tial. Research is often combined 
with teaching in colleges and univer- 
sities, as is the case in other subject- 

matter areas. 

Dietetics and institutional food 
service present attractive occupa- 
tional possibilities. The duties of an 
administrative dietitian or food ser- 
vice manager include complete re- 
sponsibility for menu planning, food 
purchase, preparation and service, 
and personnel management. The 
therapeutic dietitian is concerned 
with the use of food for treatment 
in various types of illness. She works 
with doctors to devise diets, plan 
menus, and interpret to patients the 
dietary regime best suited to each 
one's needs. Many times her work 
also includes research. To qualify as 
a dietitian, a dietary internship in a 
hospital is required after graduation 
from college. For commercial food 
service directors, apprenticeships are 
available in many hotels and restau- 
rants. In addition to the required 
(Please turn to page 50) 





What crippled children want, and what they 
get through Easter Seals, is a chance in life. 
A chance for proper medical care and equip- 
ment, healthful recreation, special voca- 
tional training. A chance to overcome their 
handicap, to lead useful, happy lives. Giv- 
ing through the purchase of Easter Seals is 
your chance to give them a chance. 



1 1 South La Salle Street 

Chicago 3, Illinois 

Every Easter Seal You Buy Helps a Crippled Child 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 49) 
curriculum, the prospective dietitian 
attending Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology must use electives for the 
study of large quantity cookery, in- 
stitutional management, and diet in 

Business offers an ever increasing 
number and variety of positions to 
home economics graduates. Con- 
sumption of many goods and services 
centers in the home and the greatest 
responsibility for their choice rests 
with the homemaker. Since industry 
desires to meet the needs of the 
homemaker, it has found invaluable 


An economical reproduction process for Office 
Forms, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Specifica- 
tions, Testimonials, House-Organ Magazines, 
Bulletins, Maps and many other items. 

No Run Too Long 

No Run Too Short 

Estimates will not obligate you 
in any way. WRITE OR CALL 


1220 W. Van Buren St. 
Chicago 7, III. 

Process Machinery 

F. M. deBeers Cr Associates 

20 N. Wacker Drive Rand. 2326 


Process Machinery and Equipment 

• SPIRAL, plate-type, counter-flow heat ex 

• CENTRIFUGALS — perforate and solid 
baskets — any metal. Centroid speed con- 

vac. cooling — vac. refrigeration. Steam jet 
equipment — condensers. 

em representatives General Ceramics Co. 

the advice of women who have com- 
pleted a study of homemaking. These 
home economists contribute to equip- 
ment design and product develop- 
ment. Merchandising, advertising, 
and public relations also claim their 
services. Although the food industry 
has made the greatest use of home 
economist, there is also a demand for 
them in the equipment and textile 
fields. In all three industries there 
are openings in manufacturing and 
in wholesale and retail distribution. 
Public health agencies employ 
home economics graduates to direct 
their nutrition education programs. 
Openings in this important field have 
multiplied in the last few years be- 
cause physicians and health educa- 
tors have come to appreciate the 
importance of nutrition to the pub- 
lic health. The appalling number of 
youths rejected by the Selective Ser- 
vice System because of defects that 
could have been prevented or reme- 
died by proper diet dramatized the 
existence of a great gulf between 
what is known about nutrition and 
what is practiced. Except for minor 
gaps, we know what constitutes an 
adequate diet for all age, sex, and 
activity groups, yet dietary studies 
show that the food intake of a large 
proportion of the population is sub- 
optimal. It is the nutritionist's task 
to bring about in practice the stand- 
ard made possible by present day 
knowledge. To this end she teaches 
the public through classes, interviews, 
and the printed page. 


6911 South Chicago Avenue 
Telephone MIDway 2100 


Photo Printing 

.j^m* dldji'< 


53 WEST 
WABASH 6743 


Home economists employed by 
welfare agencies serve as consultants. 
They advise the agencies regarding 
kinds and amounts, as well as costs, 
of goods and services that will enable 
families to maintain health and par- 
ticipate in normal community life. 
Standard budgets, currently priced, 
are used by the agency to determine 
eligibilty for assistance as well as 
assistance grants. As a consultant to 
the case work staff, the home econo- 
mist may also be called upon to assist 
families in the solution of manage- 
ment or nutrition problems. Home 
economics in social welfare is a grow- 
ing field and has in recent years 
expanded to budget counseling for 
self-supporting families not seeking 
assistance, but wanting to better 
manage their incomes. 

So far this discussion has been 
confined to a consideration of women 
with a major interest in home eco- 
nomics; however, students majoring 
in other subjects are also welcome in 
the classes. Although it is primarily 
a woman's field, there are certain 
aspects in which men are interested. 
Textiles, nutrition, and art are illus- 
trative. Classes are open to men at 
Illinois Tech, and in some evening 
classes they outnumber the women 
students. A few have enrolled in the 
day school and it is hoped that this 
practice will become more common, 
for a better understanding of the 
problems of the home is important 
to all the family members, men as 
well as women. 

The department is now located in 
the Loop, but included in the build- 
ing program at Technology Center is 
space specifically designed for home 
economics laboratories. The new 
home will be in the Liberal Studies 
building. New facilities will make it 
possible to offer a more varied pro- 
gram, especially in advanced study 
for professional work. This is in 
keeping with the Lewis Institute tra- 
dition where home economics courses 
were offered from Lewis' founding in 
1896; it also coincides with the pol- 
icy of Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy, where students receive technical 
training for positions of leadership in 
business and industry. 



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electrical insulators known, Synthane is hard, dense, dur- 
able . . . quickly and easily machined. 
Among the interesting occupations of our type of tech- 
nical plastics are the redraw bobbin and chuck (below) 
used in winding fine denier nylon for women's hosiery. 

Fine nylon filaments can be wound without pulling and 
sticking because of the smoothness of the bobbin. Light 
weight of bobbin and chuck allows the spindle to bo started 
and stopped faster and with less effort. Greater crushing 
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where Synthane belongs 

The Challenge to Freedom 

(Continued from page 17) 
as Barbara Ward has so succinctly 
stated, "That they can be separable 
is a matter of theory, not of fact." 

Part II 

Let us come now to our second 
factor in the advancement of free- 
dom. It is one which seems far re- 
moved from the realm of religion. 
Yet it is a force to be reckoned with 
in the Western World. Many will 
say that its influence upon twentieth 
century America is nowhere 
matched. And while it is not gener- 
ally credited with a major role in 
support of man's freedom, I believe 
that such a role is not lacking in this 
connection. I refer to the growth of 
science and technology — and partic- 
ularly to the influence which con- 
trolled inanimate power has had in 
shaping our destinies. 

With the invention of the steam 
engine man began to enter into his 
present illimitable treasury of pow- 
er. Less than two hundred years ago 
civilization was dependent upon 
man-power, largely in the form of 
slave or serf labor, augmented some- 
what by the use of domestic ani- 
mals, falling water, or the winds of 
heaven in sails and windmills. Man 
employed tools and skills to spin and 
weave. He used wheel carriages for 
transport. But the forces of nature 
were only employed where they 
could be found. They could not be 
stored or transported. Therefore, a 
vast amount of man's work had to be 
done by hand, and the chief source 
of his power was manpower or the 
use of animals. 

It is little wonder that in a world 
of such nature, men of power and 
organizational ability imposed their 
will upon more docile men, thus cre- 
ating a state of servitude. It is also 
an historical fact that slavery and 
various forms of serfdom prevailed 
in practically all societies which an- 
tedated this modern era in which 
science and technology has made 
available greater power and a wider 

distribution of the various forms of 
inanimate power. Therefore, we may 
attribute the growth of man's free- 
dom, in part at least, to his mastery 
of those elements which have af- 
forded him greater sources of avail- 
able and transportable power. There 
is no longer occasion for enslaving 
and degrading our fellow man to use 
his muscular power, since cheaper 
and more efficient sources of power 
have been provided in abundance. 
The many civilizations which 
have preceded ours have not been 
barren. Nor have they all been brut- 
ish. At favored times and places 
there have been materially rich civi- 
lizations. In art, in literature, in phil- 
osophy, in religion, in all that ex- 
presses beauty and the rich poten- 
tialities of the human mind and per- 
sonality, and makes possible the 
highest form of human happiness, 
man achieved a quality which he 
has never surpassed since he has 
entered into his heritage of greater 
power.-' But cultural advantages and 
leisure through these earlier cen- 
turies were the privilege of the fa- 
vored few. And those who reaped 
the rewards of such earlier civiliza- 
tions generally did so with a much 
greater degree of exploitation of 
their fellow men. 

To illustrate this from our coun- 
try's history — and from that of the 
British — England was one of the 
first countries to become industrial- 
ized. She was also one of the first to 
champion the cause of freedom, and 
without a great military struggle, 
was the first to free her slaves. In 
this country the industrialized North 
was the first to take the stand 
against slavery, and in the final 
struggle for abolition, the Union's 
victory over the South was assured 
by its greater industrial machine. 
Even the McCormack reaper, which 
released many able-bodied men from 

- Sir Arthur Salter, Second Massey Lecture, 
"Modern Mechanization and Its Effects on the 
Structure of Society," McGill University, April 18, 
1933. Reprinted in Science and Social Change. 
Brookings, Washington, 1939, pp. 317-339. 

the farms to the army and made pos- 
sible the harvesting of grain by the 
older men and the women, was a 
factor in bringing the war to a suc- 
cessful conclusion. 

Today, power, mechanical appli- 
ances, the instantaneous transmis- 
sion of news, and all of the techno- 
logical advances that go with these, 
are the dominant forces in deter- 
mining the material basis of man's 
life; the structure of his society and 
his government; the character of his 
opportunities and his problems. For 
the first time in history mankind 
now has sufficient material resources 
and skill to provide not only the ne- 
cessities but also the comforts of life 
to the whole of the world's popula- 
tion. It would be possible to give 
every man both material wealth and 
the leisure which he needs to realize 
the full potentialities of his nature 
and enjoy the full heritage of the 
civilization of today, if only we 
spread the knowledge and advance 
the skills which we now possess. 
When we stop to consider the enor- 
mous productivity of the United 
States during the war, with fifteen 
million or more of our most able- 
bodied men and women withdrawn 
from the field of production, we can 
begin to comprehend our potential- 
ities in power and resources. Consid- 
er also the speed with which we con- 
verted from production for peace to 
war production. And other indus- 
trialized countries performed simi- 
lar feats under even more adverse 
circumstances. Consequently we 
know what could be done in the pro- 
ductions of those things which man 

But having the power potential is 
only the beginning. Ordered human 
progress requires more. The full ap- 
preciation of our freedom requires 
more. We must possess not only the 
power, the knowledge, the industry 
and the skill to work cooperatively 
for great productive progress, but 
also we must regulate and control 
individual and group activities so 
that they do not react disastrously 
and destructively upon each other. 
That is the major problem of the 
(Please turn to page 54) 


free men of our time. The problem 
of production is a problem of crea- 
tion. That we have solved. But the 
second, the problem of regulation in 
the public interest, is a far more 
complex and difficult problem. It is 
the great unsolved problem of our 
day. The future of man's freedom 
depends upon his success in making 
the right solution to this important 
problem. As John Dewey has said, 
"The great scientific revolution is 
still to come. It will ensue when men 
collectively and cooperatively or- 
ganize their knowledge to achieve 
and make secure human values." 

Such values as international 
peace, industrial plenty, physical 
health and long life for a great ma- 
jority of people, are among the prac- 
tical possibilities. To achieve such 
goals we must think of science and 
technology in its broadest sense. Sci- 
ence today, it should be remembered, 
means not merely the physical and 
biological sciences, but also the social 
sciences — modern economics, sociol- 
ogy, psychology, statistics and re- 
lated subjects. These we now seek to 
develop in a way as nearly objective 
as the nature of human materials and 
the available techniques of investiga- 
tion permit. In our time the highest 
hope of social advancement is based 
on a reasoned relationship of man to 
man, not a haphazard relationship. 

Part III 

Within our present legal structure 
we have evolved a certain system of 
social controls which some regard as 
unduly inhibitive. But this has de- 
veloped naturally. No one will deny 
that it is the government's function 
to restrain licentious conduct. The 
excess of those who would prey upon 
society must be curbed. The police 
must restrain the highwayman, the 
housebreaker and the reckless driv- 
er. The protection of our property 
and our safety require it. It may be 
said that only with such protection 
may one enjoy the blessings of free- 
dom. And only those who live by 
preying upon society will question 
such orderly restraint by the police. 
But in a highly complex society, the 

government's functions do not end 
— and cannot end — with the re- 
straint of these obviously anti-social 
acts. The government's activities, by 
popular demand, endeavor to keep 
pace with our social and economic 
life. As it becomes more complex, 
government functions lose their sim- 
plicity. Just as some citizens demand 
the enactment of laws to repress rob- 
bery, and property owners obtain 
protection for their persons, their 
houses, their chattels and their lands, 
so also do those engaged in the 
trades, the professions, and busi- 
nesses of sundry sorts, seek security 
in the government's protection 
against interlopers. 

It is in this realm of government 
control of our economic life that we 
first face a recognizable challenge to 
liberty, and to free enterprise. This, 
too, had a simple beginning. Let us 
consider the professional man — the 
lawyer, the doctor, the surgeon, the 
dentist. Each of these must spend 
years of study and preparation to 
attain creditable standing. Is it not 
reasonable that the state protect him 
against the unfair competition of 
quacks and shysters? Naturally, this 
is done in the public interest as well 
as in the interest of the professional 
man involved. 

From our country's beginning, the 
government has encouraged inven- 
tion by awarding monopoly privi- 
leges to those who perfect new and 
ingenious devices. And those who 
have been so brash as to question 
the wisdom of such a monopoly 
grant have generally been regarded 
as dangerous characters who would 

undermine the foundations of our 
economic order. But all such grants 
of special privilege are a phase of 
government interference in the 
"free" exercise of economic life. 

Another phase of government in- 
terference with the free flow of 
goods and services, which has long 
had public acceptance, has been the 
protective tariff. Designed in the 
days of Alexander Hamilton as a 
means of securing the home markets 
for our infant industries, the degree 
of protection has generally increased 
in direct proportion to the power and 
influence of the industries protected. 
There have been a few minor excep- 
tions. But in the main, the bigger the 
industry, the higher the protection. 
Such government assistance has se- 
cured our higher prices — and has 
often enhanced the growth of mo- 
nopolies other than those predicated 
upon patents. At least this practice 
of shutting out foreign goods has 
given rise to situations wherein one, 
two, or, at the most, a half dozen 
firms, dominate certain industries. 
All such government interference 
limits the competition which was 
once regarded as the life of trade. 
In short, as Dean Cox has said, men 
who see the virtues of competition 
for others seek shelter against it for 
themselves. 3 

And so we progress from one 
phase of government interference 
with our economic life to another. It 
is not unnatural for the workers in 
such major industries as those just 
mentioned to unite and demand the 
government's protection of their 
rights to bargain collectively. Where 
the industry is itself maintaining a 
relatively stable price system, the 
unions naturally seek to bargain on 
an industry-wide basis and to pre- 
scribe uniform wages for the indus- 
try. What could be more natural? 
And after this has been done, the 
power and influence of unions 
reaches a point which the public 
thinks should be brought under con- 
trol. Consequently we have the 
(Please turn to page 54) 

» Garfield V. Cox, "Shall We Save Free Enter- 
prise?" The University of Chicago Magazine, 
December 1947, pp. 9-11. 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 53) 
Taft-Hartley Act, a further restraint 
upon both employers and employees 
in the conduct of their relations. 

Meanwhile, the farmers have not 
been asleep. Through equally effec- 
tive political pressure organizations 
of the agrarian group has likewise 
sought and obtained a degree of 
government price maintenance. In 
each case government aid has been 
sought and legislation to effectuate 
the desired end has been obtained. 
And who is to say that one group 
has a better right to such protection 
than another? 

Let us go one step further. If the 
government is to lend its good of- 
fices to support the strong, why 
should it deny them to the weak? 
Our humane consideration for the 
unsuccessful has been a factor in the 
growing influence of the government 
in our economic life. In an era of 
swiftly changing technology, the la- 
bor market deals harshly with many 
persons. Mature men do not leave 
their homes and friends and learn 
new trades readily. Consequently, 
there is loss of jobs, loss of property, 
a shrinkage of incomes, and a fur- 
ther demand upon the government 
for safeguards against such social 

All of this adds to the sum total 
of government participation in our 
economic life. It is the manifestation 
of what has come to be known as 
collectivism. And it is said to be a 
challenge to our freedom. Certainly 
it has produced an economy vastly 
different from that which obtained 
seventy years ago. But it is impor- 
tant to note that this situation is be- 
ing brought about not so much by 
the advocates of state socialism as 
by those who have associated them- 
selves together to make common 
cause for their own private interests 
and to seek government aid in ad- 
vancing these ends. Whether in the 
field of tariff -protected industry, 
government-supported labor unions, 
government-supported franchises in 
the utility field, price-supported 
farm production and marketing, or 
social security, it all adds up to the 
uses of government, or private mo- 

nopoly, to win for the beneficiaries 
more income for less service. Such is 
the character of our political econ- 
omy at home. 

And what do we face abroad? 
The system of competitive private 
enterprise in America may be even 
harder to maintain in the face of 
growing collectivism in those coun- 
tries with whom we must trade, or 
with whom we must compete for 
markets. It may be impossible to 
make our system more competitive 
and restore free markets at home 
when our domestic firms are com- 
pelled to deal with states or quasi- 
public monopolies abroad. 

Part IV 

Today, as every day, we face a 
new challenge. The difficulties that 
are set for free governments by the 
developments of technology, and the 
social and economic change which 
goes with such developments, are 
enormous. We must admit that the 
government has an increasing re- 
sponsibility. We cannot deny that 
there must be some controls. The 
problem is how to shape our domestic 
policy and our foreign policy so that 
both business and individual citi- 
zens may function with relative free- 
dom and yet will play the game ac- 
cording to the rules. For it is the 
government's function to prescribe 
the rules. As Sir Arthur Salter has 
said: "The forms and methods of 
government are always adapting 
themselves; but they are always lag- 
ging behind. The pace set by prog- 
ress in scientific invention and im- 
proved industrial technique is too 
hot for man's regulative control to 
overtake. And when it lags behind, 
every new progress in specialized 
activity is a new danger; every new 
access of power threatens destruc- 
tion of what we have more than it 
promises increase. That is why 
mechanization is compelling, and 
will compel, profound changes in the 
whole social structure." 

The constant demand for new 
laws is an indication of the changes 
in our economic and social order. 
Every man has his conception of his 

own freedom and just how the other 
fellow's activities should be curtailed 
in the public interest. While it is not 
within our province to say what 
your list of freedoms and restraints 
should be, there are certain funda- 
mental liberties which we should all 
seek to safeguard. We should like to 
list a few of these and consider with 
you their present status. 

Freedom of religious worship has 
been one of our cherished liberties 
since the time of Thomas Jefferson's 
fight on the established church in 
Virginia (and since the adoption of 
the first amendment to the Constitu- 
tion). We should not overlook it 
now. You will note that this has 
meant, as far as the government has 
been concerned, freedom for all re- 
ligious groups — not just the Chris- 
tian groups, or a particular denom- 
ination of that faith. 

A democratic society could hard- 
ly flourish without a great measure 
of uncoerced personal responsibility 
among its citizens. It is basic with us 
that there are limitations to the 
state's authority. The English fought 
to defeat absolutism as it was ex- 
pressed in the Divine Right doc- 
trines of the Stuart Kings. And we 
in America have expressed the same 
idea in limiting the power of the 
states by written constitutions. But 
all such ideas are again being chal- 
lenged by new cults of absolutism. 
The Germans sought an Ayrian par- 
adise. Other Marxist groups cham- 
pion the classless society. Each 
thinks that it alone stands for per- 
fection — and, therefore, it alone 
should be allowed to exist as a guid- 
ing force in men's lives. It is a situa- 
tion in which faith in God gives way 
to faith in National Socialism, in 



Communism, in leader worship, or 
in the Divine Emperor. All of these 
put their leader, their party, or their 
emperor, above the law. All are, in 
a sense, absolute. In none of these 
do we find freedom of worship. Nor 
do we find citizens uncoerced in 
such states. Let us be on the alert to 
protect this first of our many free- 
doms — the freedom of religious wor- 

It goes without saying that such 
other civil rights as free speech, free 
assembly, and the freedom to pub- 
lish dissenting views, is in the same 
category as that of religious wor- 
ship. Our political faith has cham- 
pioned all of these, with modifica- 
tions. In times of national emer- 
gency, the state has dealt rather 
harshly with all such personal rights. 
And now that we seem to face emer- 
gencies more frequently — if not con- 
tinuously — such personal freedom is 
becoming increasingly endangered. 
The activities of our Federal Bureau 
of Investigation are increasing. But 
what is even more repressive than 
these government police is a tend- 
ency on the part of some self-ap- 
pointed groups to engage in various 
forms of witch-hunting. 

Part V 

For those who deplore the in- 
crease in government controls in the 
economic field, we believe there is 
little solace. As our economic and 
social life become more complex our 
governmental functions are bound 
to increase, not decrease. This can 
be easily illustrated by the citizen 
who may live in an isolated area, 
such as may be found in parts of 
Texas or in one of the Rocky Moun- 
tain states. Such a person may have 
the ultimate in personal freedom. He 
may even extend his conduct to the 
point of licentiousness. He may get 
as drunk as he pleases, make as 
much noise as he pleases, fire his gun 
in any direction that suits him. He 
may even kill anything that gets in 
his way with little likelihood of his 
being apprehended and confined by 
the law. But as he progresses from 
that point of isolation onto the state 
highway, he may soon find the re- 

straint of government taking a firm 
hand. By the time he reaches the 
heart of one of our cities, his conduct 
will have been decidedly altered or 
he will have been confined for an 
extended period of time. And so it is 
in the field of economic activity; the 
more complex our economy becomes 
the greater becomes the need for 
some regulation. 

Now that the government has such 
an established practice of making 
regulations in the economic field, it 
is not likely to relinquish such con- 
trols. It is often said that we could 
not abolish our tariff restrictions 
without creating chaos in many of 
our industries. But two years ago we 
were assured that if we would only 
get rid of the government's restric- 
tions on prices, the laws of supply 
and demand would take care of the 
direction of our production and prices 
would go down. We got rid of most 
of our controls, and we are now in 
the throes of an inflationary spiral 

which is creating more fear and ap- 
prehension than anything that has 
confronted us within the memory of 
this generation. Many are now won- 
dering whether we should have been 
in such haste to abolish some of our 
war-time controls. 

Only last week, one of the coun- 
try's leading elder statesmen, and a 
capitalist, urged a congressional com- 
mittee to roll back prices and hold 
them; to postpone income tax reduc- 
tion; to stabilize wages; to restore at 
least half of the excess profits tax on 
corporations; and to continue rent 
controls and to expand production. 
Of course, he could scarcely have 
proposed a five-point program that 
would be more unpopular, politically. 
The manufacturers don't want price 
control. Tax payers do want a tax 
cut. Labor wants no ceiling on wages. 
And corporations do not want an ex- 
cess profits tax. But in our refusal to 
take Mr. Baruch's bitter pill, we may 
(Please turn to page 56) 

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MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 55) 
invite an economic boom and bust 
which will be far more disastrous for 
our economic well-being than any- 
thing we have yet faced. Such a 
collapse would be worse for our free 
economy — and in the long run, for 
our personal freedom — than what 
Mr. Baruch has proposed. 

The need is great for better and 
clearer rules in matters which are al- 
ready the acknowledged responsibil- 
ity of the state. The direction of our 
monetary and fiscal policy, the fed- 
eral tax structure, spending and debt 
arrangements — these are the major 
areas of government responsibility, 
and today they are all a bewildering 
hodge podge. The government has 
plenty to do in these fields of major 
policy — in prescribing the working 
rules of our free economy — without 
dabbling in details of labor contract 
negotiation, and into the personal be- 
liefs of some citizens. 

Part VI 

We should not conclude a discus- 
sion of this topic without some con- 
sideration of our obligations to the 
rest of the world. Foreign affairs are 
now our most intimate domestic con- 
cern. The immediate and pressing 
challenge to our belief in freedom 
and prosperity is in western Europe. 
Here are people who have tradition- 
ally shared our faith in human dig- 
nity. These are the nations from 
whence our forefathers came and in 
whose traditions our civilization is 
rooted. Because of the dark shadows 
cast by the hopelessness, hunger and 
fear that have followed the Nazi war, 
they are threatened by Communism. 
The reconstruction of western Eu- 
rope is a task from which Americans 
can escape only if they wish to aban- 
don every principle by which they 
pretend to live 4 . 

Communist Russia is counting on 
an economic collapse in the United 
States as the signal for its further ad- 
vance westward. We are, in a sense, 
already at war with Russia. It has 

« Henry L. Stimson, "The Challenge to Ameri- 
cans/' Foreign Affairs, October 1 947. Reprinted 
for the Committee for the Marshall Plan, pp. 

been called the "cold war". That is 
because we have been waging it by 
economic pressure and by aid to cer- 
tain European governments who are 
engaged in more direct and overt 
conflict with the Russian satellite na- 
tions. The lessons of history should 
teach us that such economic strife is 
but the prelude to a shooting war. 
And if our economy is allowed to 
collapse our chances of winning, short 
of a shooting war, are practically nil. 

Popular sentiment in the United 
States today seems to run along three 
divergent lines: First, there is the 
official sponsorship of Secretary Mar- 
shall's plan to aid the western Euro- 
pean peoples to get back on their 
feet — to help them in their efforts to 
help themselves. This seems to be 
the prevailing view, since it is not 
only the policy of the administration 
but also has the active support of 
such Republican members of Con- 
gress as Senator Vandenburg, Chair- 
man of the powerful Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee. It is, we be- 
lieve, the sincere belief of most of 
those who support this program that 
only through some such plan of pre- 
serving the freedom of these western 
European peoples will we be able to 
maintain our own freedom. If all 
of Europe falls within the Russian 
sphere of influence, our position of 
leadership will have been lost and 
our future security endangered. 

The second body of opinion in the 
United States is one which cham- 
pions the solution of this and all 
other foreign problems by more di- 
rect and aggressive military action. 
With the greatest Navy in the world, 
the greatest potential air force in the 
world, the greatest industrial ma- 
chine in the world, and with the 
atomic bomb, we are invincible. 
Therefore, say these patriots, "What 
are we waiting for?" We could solve 
the Russian problem within a few 
decisive months, so why wait for the 
Russians to get their own atom bomb 
and attack us? 

We believe, with Henry L. Stim- 
son, that such strong-arm methods 
would be the worst kind of nonsense. 
This view results from a hopeless 
misunderstanding of the geographi- 

cal and military situation, and a 
cynical disregard of what the people 
of the world will tolerate from any 
nation, however lofty its alleged mo- 
tives. This militaristic, or jingoistic, 
theory indicates a wrong impression 
of the basic attitudes and motives of 
the American people. Even if it were 
true that the United States now had 
the opportunity to establish forceful 
hegemony throughout the world, we 
could not possibly take that oppor- 
tunity without deserting our true in- 
heritance. As Mr. Stimson has said, 
"Americans as conquerors would be 
tragically miscast." As such we 
should be forced to surrender free- 
dom at home. How then could we be 
its champions abroad. 

The third body of opinion with 
respect to our foreign policy is that 
expressed by Henry Wallace. His 
goodhearted insistence that nobody 
can dislike us if we try to like them 
is naive, to say the least. Of course, 
we must show good faith in our deal- 
ings with Russia. Only by so doing 
can we leave the door open for Rus- 
sian good faith toward us. But all 
of this does not alter the fact that 
the Soviet leaders have hoped and 
planned for the day when our eco- 
nomic system would collapse. And 
the regime which exists in the U. S. 
S. R., and her satellite states, is one 
which holds little hope for the future 
of freedom as we know it. Therefore, 
the challenge of Russian Commu- 
nism is a challenge to us, and to our 
freedom. We can meet this chal- 
lenge, not by conquering and sub- 
ordinating the rest of the world to 
our military might, but by asserting 
a form of leadership which restores 
and preserves the dignity of our fel- 

The Marshall plan may involve 
a gamble — a desperate one. But so 
does any other course we take. And 
the greatest risk of all comes from 
inerita — from doing nothing. We 
cannot drift into security, but only 
into subjection and slavery. Our 
leadership and our greatness depend 
upon some positive program, some 
forward effort. Let us not forget the 
old adage: "Eternal vigilance is the 
price of liberty." 



'—Many shall run to 

ind knowledge will be increased — dap 

Why transportation gets better all the time 

Over six hundred miles an hour in the air, four hun- 
dred on land, one hundred on water— these are the speeds 
that are telescoping time and space today. 

The world shrinks and shrinks . . . Distances that were 
once days, weeks, months away are now a matter of hours. 
What things behind the scenes have brought these whirl- 
wind developments in transportation? 

There's chromium, for one. Basis of stainless steel, it 
toughens planes, cars, trains . . . insures added safety . . . 
yet makes them lighter throughout. 

There are special carbon brushes necessary to the opera- 
tion of some thirty motors and generators used in the con-, 
trol apparatus of modern transport planes. These brushes 
must be built to stand up under the pressures of high alti- 
tude flying. 

Colorful plastics, too, lend their lightness, give their 
strength, safety and serviceability. 

And gasoline now gives more power— has more get-up- 
and-go— takes you farther at less cost . . . thanks to new 
vitalizing chemicals. 

Producing these better materials and many others— for 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of mankind 
—is the work of the people of Union Carbide. 

FREE: You are invited to send for the illustrated booklet, "Products 
and Processes" which describes the ways in which industry uses 
I CC's Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases and Plastics. 

Union Carbide 


30 EAST 42ND STREET |l|^ NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 

Products of Divisions and links include 

Linde Oxygen • Prest-O-Lite Acetylene • Pyrofax Gas • Bakelite, Krene, Vinyon, and Vinylite Plastics 

National Carbons • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries . Acheson Electrodes 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

Partners in Research 

(Continued from page 21) 
making available to other countries 
an integrated non-profit, non-govern- 
mental, industrial research and ex- 
perimental engineering service on a 
broad basis. 

The Foundation recognizes the es- 
sential role that industrial technology 
and research must play in economic 
development and in the improve- 
ment of living standards of people 
everywhere. The view is shared by 
leaders in government, industry, and 
banking throughout the world. 


Services of the International Divi- 
sion are available to foreign private 
industries, foreign governmental 
bodies, central banks, planning and 
development commissions, and also 
to similar domestic entities seeking 
new sources of products and mate- 
rials for importation, and those seek- 
ing to adapt their processes and prod- 
ucts to the requirements of foreign 
markets and manufacture. The prin- 
cipal objectives of the division are: 
1 — To undertake technological 
audits of industries within foreign 
countries for responsible private or 
government organizations. 

2 — To conduct surveys and lab- 
oratory research on the natural re- 
sources of foreign countries and to 
make recommendations for their 

3 — To study, recommend, con- 
duct, and supervise research leading 
to the improvement of existing indus- 
tries, the establishment of new ones, 
and the general improvement of 
health, nutrition, productivity and 
standard of living of other peoples. 
4 — To encourage and make pos- 
sible necessary research and develop- 
ment work by foreign private indus- 

5 — To provide specialized tech- 
nical, engineering, and scientific as- 
sistance for development of indus- 
tries and improvement of industrial 

6 — To assist and promote develop- 
ment of trained technical personnel, 
research facilities, and industrial 

process control in all countries. 

7 — To assist in establishing and 
operating research organizations in 
countries where these organizations 
can be of value. 


The Foundation first entered the 
field of international service in 1942 
when it was commissioned by the 
Argentine Corporacion Para la Pro- 
mocion del Intercambio to make a 
full scale technical and economic sur- 
vey to Argentine industries. This 
study was designed to indicate spe- 
cific steps for modernization of exist- 
ing industries and to outline research 
programs for the ultimate better 
utilization of natural resources for 
the economic improvement of the 
Republic and its people. New Argen- 
tine factories, institutions, and other 
evidences of industrial progress, 
based upon recommendations of a 
published report of the survey, have 
since been established within the 

In 1944, the Foundation was com- 
missioned by El Banco de Mexico to 
make a similar survey of selected 
industrial groups and resources of 
the Republic of Mexico with special 
emphasis on the development of 
fibers, hides and leather, forest prod- 
ucts, and solid fuels. Although this 
basic survey was completed and pub- 
lished at the end of 1945, numerous 
special research projects resulting 
from it were continued well into 
1946. In April, 1947 the Banco de 
Mexico arranged for a new, expanded 
program to be conducted by the 
Foundation. An even more extensive 
study of industry and resources has 
been requested by the Mexican Fed- 
eral Government as an aid to Mex- 
ico's industrial planning. 

In additon to the Technological 
and Economic Survey of Argentine 
Industries and the Technological 
Audit of Selected Mexican Indus- 
tries, several problems dealing with 
specific industries have been solved. 
Among these are: (1) the develop- 
ment of a method of producing a 

stabilized extract of cascalote tannin 
for the leather industry; (2) the de- 
velopment of a rapid method of an- 
alysis of the alkaloid content of the 
bark of young cinchona trees for the 
selection of plants for quinine pro- 
duction; (3) the design of a plant for 
the continuous extraction of quinine 
from cinchona bark; (4) technical 
and engineering studies for the im- 
provement of operations of a glass 
factory in Monterrey; and, (5) de- 
velopment of by-products from the 
wastes of henequen fiber production, 
two of which may be of major indus- 
trial importance to the Yucatan pen- 
insula, a "single product" state. 

New projects now in progress in- 
clude evaluation of a packing house 
by-products industry in Mexico; a 
comprehensive study of fats and oils 
native to Mexico as raw materials for 
both new and established industries; 
evaluation of fluorspar deposits in 
Mexico with the view towards their 
beneficiation; and, the stabilization 
and nutritional improvement of the 
tortilla base (masa). 

Establishment of a Mexican tech- 
nological research institute actively 
encouraged by the Foundation is 
nearing realization. Patterned after 
similar organizations in the United 
States this institute is expected to 
provide a service to industry and to 
government and to supply a much 
needed link in the industrial develop- 
ment program of Mexico. 


The International Division is 
uniquely equipped with a staff al- 
ready familiar with many of the 
specialized requirements and prob- 
lems of research in other countries. 
To further implement the usefulness 
of this background there is available 
for specific problems a staff of more 
than 400 technologists in the research 
division of the Foundation. These 
facilities are augmented by the serv- 
ices of many other research organiza- 
tions, engineers, consultants, univer- 
sities and similar entities that have 
made their facilities and personnel 
available. Thus it is possible to in- 
vestigate and develop resources and 
industrial opportunities within a for- 



eign country by making available to 
it services in practically every field 
of engineering (mechanical, electric- 
al, process, chemical, metallurgical, 
etc.), in agriculture, in foods and 
nutrition, in minerology and geology, 
in ceramics and in others. 

Magnetic Recorder Division 

The Foundation has continued to 
pursue a very comprehensive pro- 
gram of research and development 
in the field of magnetic recording. 
The activities range from a study of 
specific manufacturing problems en- 
countered by industry to basic re- 
search in the nature of ferromagne- 
tism. The scope of this research pro- 
gram is wide because of the range of 
commercial applications in which the 
licensees have shown interest. In 
some applications high quality is of 
paramount importance with the 
manufacturing cost a secondary con- 
sideration. In other applications, cost 
is the major factor. Exacting per- 
formance requirements are also en- 

countered in the use of magnetic 
recorders as scientific instruments for 
the recording of signals other than 
speech and music. 

During the past year considerable 
attention has been given to the im- 
provement of the recording medium 
and to the development of new mag- 
netic recording media. An improved 
magnetic powder has been developed 
which has proved suitable for coating 
paper and plastic tape as well as 
motion picture film. This powder 
gives very good performance at tape 
speeds of 8 inches per second and 
satisfactory performance for speech 
and music has been obtained on 35, 
16, and 8 mm motion picture film. 
Research has also continued on mag- 
netic wire and optimum magnetic 
characteristics for 0.004 mil wire 
have been established. 

A sizeable program has also been 
in progress on the design of recording 
heads for round and flat wire, flat 
tape, magnetic coatings on motion 
picture film, and electroplated films 
on metal bases. Suitable magnetic 

drive systems and electronic drive 
systems for use with these recording 
media and heads have also been de- 

A good quality magnetic recorder 
has recently been completed to dem- 
onstrate the Foundation's develop- 
ments in the field of magnetic tape 
recording. In this machine the tape 
is driven at 8 inches per second and 
very satisfactory quality for both 
speech and music is obtained. 

Experimental machines have also 
been built for showing the perform- 
ance of magnetic sound on 35, 16, 
and 8 mm motion picture film. Dem- 
onstrations of these machines have 
been given at a number of technical 
society meetings and a number of 
papers have been presented on mag- 
netic sound from motion pictures as 
well as on our other phases of mag- 
netic recording research. 

The study of magnetic recording 
phenomena has necessitated the de- 
sign and construction of specialized 
laboratory instruments. Among these 
(Please turn to page 60) 


Why? Because Thermoid concen- 
trates on a restricted line of prod- 
ucts, related in manufacture and 
in use, and maintains those prod- 
ucts at top quality level. 
Thermoid, as a firm, is large enough to 
be thoroughly dependable, yet small 
enough to be sensitive to the day- 
to-day problems of its customers. 

Engineers depend on Thermoid to 
always furnish well made INDUS- 
// catalogs on any of these lines 
would be helpful in your studies, 
we'll be glad to furnish them. 









Combination Squares 

Bevel Protractors 

Straight Edges 


Vernier Tools 


Dial Test Indicators 

Speed Indicators 

V Blocks 

Calipers and Dividers 



MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 59) 
is a 60 cycle hysteresis loop tracer 
which permits measurements of mag- 
netic characteristics of various types 
of recording media with good ac- 
curacy. This instrument presents the 
hysteresis loop on the screen of a 
cathode ray tube. During the past 
year modifications have been made 
to improve this instrument, principal- 
ly increasing the magnetizing field 
to which the sample is subjected. 

Public Service Activities 

(It is the general public that bene- 
fits directly from the research spon- 
sored in the Foundation laboratories 
by the various companies, organiza- 
tions and government agencies. Rec- 
ognizing its responsibility as a public 
service institution, the Foundation 
has continued to expand its special 
service laboratories and to broaden 
its services to the public.) 

AC Network 
Calculator Laboratory 

For more than two years, this lab- 
oratory has served very successfully 
the utilities and electrical manufac- 
turing companies of the midwest. 
During this past year, the calculator 
was in use 238 days, with 12 days 
reserved for maintenance and ex- 
tension of the facilities. Participating 
companies used the calculator for 
214 days, with non-participating 
companies using it 24 days. 

Seventeen participating companies 
originally financed the installation 
and operation of the network cal- 
culator. Two new companies have 
been added to the number of par- 
ticipating companies using the net- 
work calculator, increasing to 19 the 
number of participating companies. 

Two full-time operating engineers 
are employed to assist in the studies. 
The calculator laboratory has gained 
national attention and has recently 
been used for graduate instruction 
under a Fellowship plan provided 
by industry. An excellent group of 
graduate students in the power sys- 
tems field has been attracted to the 

Equipment for the transient analy- 

sis of power systems is now being 
added. A recording table invented 
and designed by a former Founda- 
tion staff member has contributed 
greatly to the accuracy of the board 
and to the speed of recording data. 

Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories 

On February 1, 1947, the Founda- 
tion assumed management of the 
Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories 
at Geneva, 111. These laboratories 
provide an important extension of 
our facilities with additional equip- 
ment for studying sound transmis- 
sion of windows, doors, walls; equip- 
ment for hearing aid and audiometer 
research and development; and a 
good reverberation chamber. 

During the final six months of this 
fiscal year, 96 studies were conducted 
for companies manufacturing acous- 
tical equipment and materials. 

Precision Gage Laboratory 

This laboratory, operated before 
the war by the Foundation, and 
maintained and augmented during 
the recent war years by the Ord- 
nance Department of the United 
States Army, is again in operation. 
Housed in a specially constructed 
air-conditioned and constant tem- 
perature section of the Engineering 
Research building, it continues to 
serve the tool, gage, and metal fab- 
ricating industry. Operated as one of 
a number of special service labora- 
tories of the Foundation under the 
Armour Plan for Industrial Re- 
search, the facilities of this laboratory 
are being used by industry for the 
convenient calibration of precision 
measuring standards, instruments 
and manufactured components. 

A course in precision mechanical 
measurements offered this fall makes 
this laboratory doubly useful to in- 
dustry, Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology, and Armour Research Foun- 

National Registry of 
Rare Chemicals 

First established in 1942, the Na- 
tional Registry of Rare Chemicals 
continues to render an outstanding 
service. More than 5,000 inquiries 
for information on rare chemicals 
were received during the past fiscal 
year. We were able to fill more than 
two-thirds of these requests from our 
own files. 

Source data on approximately 
2,000 new chemicals were added to 
the files, bringing the total number 
of chemical compounds listed in the 
files to 10,500. 

Ohmite Laboratory of Precision 
Electric and Magnetic 

The original contribution from 
the Ohmite Manufacturing Com- 
pany and additional support from 
general Foundation funds have de- 
veloped this laboratory to a position 
unexcelled by any non-governmental 
laboratory in this country. This lab- 
oratory is serving a very useful func- 
tion to the Foundation, to Illinois 
Institute of Technology, and to in- 
dustry in this area. 

Seven industrial sponsors made 
use of the laboratory during the past 
year and graduate instruction in pre- 
cision measurements was provided 
for students at Illinois Institute of 

Industrial Research Fellowships 

During the past year the Founda- 
tion established a number of In- 
dustrial Research Fellowships which 
provide the recipients with training 
in the techniques and procedures of 
industrial research, and a graduate 
educational program which would 
lead, upon successful completion, to 
the degree of master of science in 
the field of major specification at 
(Please turn to page 62) 



Lots of people like to play jack rabbit. Still, as a way of 
going to work every morning, we don't see much of a 
future for Pogo Sticks. Not even aluminum Pogo Sticks. 

But mention any other means of locomotion or trans- 
portation and our aluminum "Imagineers" get a gleam 
in their eyes. After all, what is more logical than 
vehicles made of aluminum? Less weight to move. 
More payload. 

We turned our imagination loose on that idea years 

ago then engineered our thinking into trains, trucks, 

planes, ships. Alcoa's Development Division has a staff 
of "Imagineers" who think of nothing else but better 

ways to transport people, products, and materials by 
using aluminum. Actually, we have four separate staffs 
of transportation engineers, one each on railroads, high- 
way vehicles, ships and aircraft. 

Whatever you do after college, you'll benefit from 
that. If you go into transportation, these Alcoa engi- 
neers will be working with you to cut costs, speed 
schedules, improve facihties. Or if you choose some 
field of production, they'll be helping to transport 
your materials and finished goods cheaper and faster. 
Aluminum Company of America, Gulf Building, 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania. 

Passenger streamliners, refriger- 
ator cars, hopper cars and tank 
cars built of Alcoa Aluminum are 
serving American railroads. 

Alcoa Aluminum is finding more 
and more uses in buses, trucks 
and trailers. Yes, in passenger 
car manufacture, too. 

Newest thing in shipbuilding is 
the aluminum superstructure, de- 
veloped by Alcoa with marine 
architects and engineers. 

Ever since Kitty Hawk, Alcoa has 
worked with the aircraft indus- 
try in developing better alumi- 
num for better planes. 


first in ALUMI NUM 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 60) 
Illinois Institute of Technology. 

These research internships are 
unique in that they provide experi- 
ence in our laboratories on actual 
existing research problems as well 
as graduate instruction and graduate 

Five appointments were made 
during the past year, and there is 
every indication that this program 
will develop especially well qualified 
men for the research laboratories of 
industry and for our own labora- 

Crystallographic Studies 

In connection with a fundamental 
research project designed to study 
the crystallographic structure of or- 
ganic compounds, the Foundation 
plans to expand this study and make 
available a system for the checking 
of data from other laboratories which 
will be collected, checked, edited and 

Eighteen additional compounds 

were studied this past year to de- 
termine the physical properties of 
common important organic com- 
pounds, including a summary of the 
literature, solubility and crystal 
habit, polymorphism, crystal geom- 
etry, crystal optics and application of 
fusion methods. 

Illumination Laboratories 

The Physics Research department 
of the Foundation continued to op- 
erate the Illumination Laboratory at 
Glesner House. This laboratory was 
of considerable value in connection 
with numerous research projects and 
studies and also served for educa- 
tional purposes in connection with 
the academic program of the Chi- 
cago Lighting Institute and Illinois 
Institute of Technology. 

It is expected that the usefulness 
and value of this laboratory will in- 
crease in the near future when its 
facilities are moved to the Tech- 
nology Center campus. 

Engine Research Laboratory 

Nationwide recognition has been 
accorded this neutral laboratory in 
the field of lubricants, fuels and in- 
ternal combustion engines. The addi- 
tion of considerable new equipment 
and the rearrangement of its facil- 
ities has greatly enhanced its value. 
The year has been marked by a 
rapid increase in the volume of re- 
search studies. 

Dust Analysis Laboratory 

Maintained largely for the Smoke 
Department of the City of Chicago, 
this laboratory has continued dur- 
ing the year to render an outstand- 
ing public service by providing a 
monthly analysis of dust from 24 
stations in Chicago. These studies 
are part of the Chicago Smoke 
Abatement Program. 

Management of Research Seminar 

More than 100 research executives 
from the Chicago area attended this 
(Please turn to page 64) 

Pipe line 

to the Stratosphere 

Up in a stratosphere plane you'd breathe oxygen 
from a tank . . . oxygen extracted from liquefied air. 
Processing equipment in which the extraction 
takes place calls for something extraordinary in 
the way of tubing. 

Ordinary steel tubes get hazardously brittle in 
the 315-below-zero temperature the extraction 
process demands — crack like a crisp carrot. Better, 
safer, tubes were needed. Industry got them — 
from B&W — tubes made of new nickel-alloy steels. 

B&^ calls these new tubes Nicloys. In refriger- 
ation, in making synthetic rubber, in handling 
natural gas and strongly corrosive crude oils, in 



paper mills, industry is finding that Nicloy tubes 
answer many tough problems. 

Development of Nicloy tubing is another 
manifestation that, for all its years, B&W has 
never lost the habit of having new ideas for all 

To technical graduates, B&W offers excellent 
career opportunities in diversified phases of manu- 
facturing, engineering, research, and sales. 

Main Office: Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Plants: Beaver Falls, Pa. & Alliance, Ohio. 



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There are five excellent glass coffee- 

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m eans 

Research in Glass 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued from page 62) 
one semester seminar course in the 
problems of research management. 
The seminar was given in coopera- 
tion with Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology and received considerable na- 
tionwide recognition. A number of 
men prominent in the research man- 
agement field served as leaders of 
the seminar. It is expected that this 
course, or an extension of it, will be 
given again within the near future. 

Foundation Sponsored 

(The maintenance of a funda- 
mental research program is of great- 
est importance in the technical and 
professional development of the staff. 
During the past year, 27 fundamental 
research projects were sponsored by 
the Foundation from its general 
funds. Most of the results of the 
Foundation sponsored projects, ab- 
stracted and published in this report, 
have been or will be published or 
announced in scientific meetings.) 

Abrasion Resistance 

Foundation sponsored work has 
been carried out as a supplement to 
industrially sponsored projects deal- 
ing with abrasion testing research. 
Metallographic and microhardness 
studies have been made of various 
abrasion resisting alloys in order to 
obtain a deeper understanding of the 
nature of abrasion obtained with dif- 
ferent types of abrasives. Tests have 
been made with crushed feldspar, 
cast iron grit, crushed quartz, and 
silicon carbide. 

Bomb Tests and Photographs 

This project was established for 
the purpose of making a fundamental 
study of various phenomena associ- 
ated with the "Munroe Effect" in the 
detonation of shaped charges. Dur- 
ing the current year studies have 
been made on an additional 132 
bombs at Camp McCoy, Wis., with 
particular investigation of the follow- 

(a) Penetration phenomena — 
Penetrations up to more than 20 
inches of steel have been obtained 


and sections of specimens and photo- 
graphs made. 

(b) Seismic waves set up by 
means of a shape charge — This work, 
in conjunction with the seismic work 
in the Antarctic, has given rise to a 
method of utilizing the shaped 
charge for the purpose of eliminating 
the drilling of holes for the explosive 
charges in geophysical seismic opera- 
tions. The superiority made possible 
in interpreting records produced as 
well as reduced costs and time con- 
sumed in prospecting for oils, has 
elicited the keen interest of oil com- 

(c) The deceleration of the jet 
material by means of the Mock angle 
and the resultant curvature of the 
shock wave — This is a new method 
of measuring deceleration of fast- 
moving materials, and it is the first 
time that the deceleration of the 
Munroe jet has been measured. 

Chemical Analysis by 
Nuclear Induction 

Work has been started on the de- 
velopment of equipment and tech- 
niques utilizing nuclear magnetic 
resonance effects as a means of mak- 
ing instantaneous chemical analyses. 
The sample to be analyzed is sub- 
jected to varying frequency radio 
excitation while in a strong magnetic 
field. The elements are identified by 
resonant absorption frequencies. 

Crystallographic Studies 

Eighteen additional compounds 
have been studied in the past 12 
months in the program of determin- 
ing the physical properties of com- 
mon important organic compounds. 

The following outline is covered 
for each compound: summary of the 
literature, solubility and crystal habit, 
polymorphism, crystal geometry, 
crystal optics, and the application of 
fusion methods. 

The compounds covered were: 

Pyrogallol, Pyrocatechol, p-Phenylene Diamine, 
Hydroquinone, p-Methyl aminophenol Sulfate. 
Semicarbazide Hydrochloride. Diphenyl Aceta- 
mide, Dicyandiamide, Thiourea, Azobenzene, The- 
obromine, Theobromine Hydrochloride, Uracil, 
1, 3, S-Tri-p-chlorophenylbenzene, 1, 3, S-Tri-p- 
fluorophenylbenzene, alpha-Pyridine Sulfonic 
Acid, beta-Pyridine Sulfonic Acid, and gamma- 
Pyridine Sulfonic Acid. 

Future plans include the organ- 
ization of a system whereby crystal- 
lographic data from other labora- 
tories as well will be collected, 
checked, edited, and published. A 
number of crystallographers have in- 
dicated their willingness to cooperate 
in such a project. 

A second paper has been written 
on the Kinetics of Crystal Growth. 
This work will be continued to in- 
crease our knowledge of the mechan- 
ism of crystal growth and to develop 
analytical methods based on meas- 
ured rates of growth. 

A paper is in preparation cover- 
ing the phenomenon of boundary 
migration and recrystallization of 
pure solid phases. Several additional 
compounds showing this effect have 
been found. 

Diffusion in Alloys 

A project is set up to study the 
diffusion rates of metals using a 
thickness tester developed at the 

Extreme Pressure 

This project includes several dif- 
ferent programs in the field of mod- 
erate and extreme pressure phenom- 
ena. Numerous extreme pressure 
techniques and new types of extreme 
pressure equipment have been de- 
veloped for the fundamental study 
of these pressures upon physical and 
chemical properties of matter, and 
the facilities in the high pressure lab- 
oratory have been greatly expanded. 

(a) Cavitation and the magneto- 
striction oscillator — The Foundation 
is cooperating with Dr. H. Neckles 
of Michael Reese Hospital in using 
the magneto-striction oscillator to 
produce hemolysis in blocd. Excel- 
lent progress is being made in this 

(b) The development of an ex- 
treme pressure method of determin- 
ing the hardness of materials under 
pressure — In addition to solidifica- 
tion pressure method for identifying 
the crude from which an oil is pro- 
duced, an extrusion pressure method 
has been developed for determining 
(Please turn to page 66) 



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MARCH, 1948 

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(Continued from page 64) 

the hardness of solidified liquids up 

to that of metallic copper. 

(c) Liquid tensions — Preliminary 
studies have been started in the in- 
vestigation of liquid tensions in which 
actual tensions of as much as 15,000 
psi have been developed in a column 
of oil V2 inch in diameter and 10 
inches long. It is believed that this 
work will lead to a better under- 
standing of the fundamental nature 
of liquids. 

(d) Phase Diagram — Consider- 
able progress has been made in 
phase diagram studies of several ma- 
terials under extreme pressure. 

(e) Pressure Windows — A meth- 
od has been developed for mounting 
pressure windows to withstand ex- 
plosion pressures of 100,000 psi and 
further development is now being 
sponsored on a government contract 
for application to a government con- 
tract. However, development has 
been made in the use of pressure 
windows for pressures up to 500,000 

(f) Special high pressure bombs 
— Much progress has been made on 
the design and construction of a very 
high pressure bomb for working at 
pressures in excess of 1.000,000 psi 
and at elevated temperatures. The 
basic design is so novel and con- 
veniently adaptable to a wide range 
of operating conditions and different 
processes that it has wide com- 
mercial possibilities as well as sci- 
entific merit. 

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in 
Artificially Roughened Pipes 

The objective of this fundamental 
research program is to clarify and 
increase the knowledge of heat trans- 
fer and fluid flow through artificially 
roughened pipes by systematic meas- 
urements of velocity distributions, 
pressure drops, heat transfer, tem- 
peratures, and roughness character- 
istics of the boundaries, for a wide 
range of Reynold's numbers, pipe 
sizes, and types of accurately repro- 
ducible roughnesses. In amplification 
of the work of Nicuradse, who used 
sand roughened pipe interiors, under 

the present program, geometrical 
roughnesses will be investigated, 
which are generated by cutting spiral 
grooves of quadratic cross -section 
into the inside of four-inch pipes. 
Geometrically similar roughnesses 
will be tested. 

Fundamental Mechanics Research 

The object of this project is the 
study of the effects of tri-axial 
stresses on failure of material and in 
partciular to evaluate the influence 
of the intermediate principle stresses. 
Evaluation of the effect of embrittle- 
ment will be made by temperature 

A type of material, new to the field 
of stress studies, has been developed 
and found satisfactory for providing 
specimens which permit controlled 
tri-axial testing conditions. Testing 
procedure and equipment are in the 
process of development and con- 

Fundamental Research in 

More information concerning the 
relation between domain structure 
and the magnetic properties of fer- 
romagnetic materials is needed to 
resolve apparent contradictions be- 
tween theory and experiment. Hence, 
attempts are being made to develop 
experimental techniques for making 
microscopic studies of domains at 
the surface of a ferromagnetic speci- 
men. Empirical studies of the math- 
ematical form of normal and cyclic 
B-H curves is also being carried on 
with the hope of correlating the re- 
sults with other magnetic properties 
of ferromagnetic materials. 

Hardenability Tests 

This project is intended to de- 
termine the base hardenability of 
pure iron and carbon alloys as a 
means of predicting the effect of 
alloying elements. 

Heat Transfer 

This project is to determine (a) 
heat transfer between a coiled tube 
and a liquid flowing therein, and (b) 
the influence of the properties of a 

liquid and the dimensions of a flat 
plate on the heat transfer by free 
convection from a horizontal plate 
to a liquid. A paper is in preparation 
on the first part of this program and 
equipment is being assembled on the 
latter part. 

High K Materials 

Recently developed ceramic ma- 
terials have dielectric constants up 
to several thousand and high dielec- 
tric strength, with resulting high 
energy storage per unit volume. In 
this project these materials are being 
studied to determine their applicabil- 
ity to the field of electrical engineer- 
ing for uses such as electrostatic 
generators or motors, electrostatic 
sound recording, microphone and 
phonograph pick-ups, loud speakers, 
and electrostatic measuring instru- 

Magnesium Alloys 

A method of determining alumi- 
num in magnesium alloys has been 
devised consisting mainly of dissolv- 
ing a sample in HCL to which NH,C1 
is added, adjusting the pH to a crit- 
ical value of 3.37, and titrating the 
sample using NH,OH until a second 
critical pH of 5.37 is reached. These 
pH values represent the beginning 
and end of the precipitation of alumi- 
num hydroxide. The amount of 
NH 4 OH is related quantitatively to 
the stoichiometric amount of alumi- 
num present. 

The method requires about 
25 minutes and is accurate to at least 
± 3 per cent of the measured value. 
The range of percentage which may 
be analyzed by this method is 0-12 
per cent aluminum. 

Materials for 
Magneto-Strictive Oscillators 

Two completely new and different 
types of materials have been con- 
ceived by members of the Electrical 
Engineering Department of A.R.F. 
for use as elements in magneto- 
striction oscillators. So far, only pre- 
liminary tests which have been made 
on these materials, indicate that they 
will give improved performance in 



the high frequency range, and that 
certain components for magneto- 
striction devices to be used at high 
frequencies can be simplified in fab- 
rication by their use. 

Parmly Anechoic Chamber 

The Foundation has sponsored a 
project to measure the performance 
of the anechoic (echo-less) chamber 
of the Parmly Laboratory for Audi- 
tory Research. Development of spe- 
cial sound sources and of unusual 
measuring techniques were neces- 
sary. The inverse square law was 
measured from 60-24,000 cycles and 
the effect of the proximity of the 
wedge-shaped acoustic treatment on 
the sound radiation of a loudspeaker 
was obtained. Data were also taken 
on the sound transmission of the 
walls. The performance of the room 
was found to be excellent for the 
kind of measurements for which it 
had been constructed. 

Residual Stresses 

This research consisted of an at- 
tempt to determine residual or 
locked-in stresses in steel plates and 
structural steel members by applica- 
tions of the magneto-striction effect. 
The method, though theoretically 
sound, was found to be subject to 
large errors due to hysteresis effects 
in the steel. 

Solidification Under Pressure 

This project is to determine the 
effect of pressure on transformation 
of steel. 

Use of the Betatron 

Arrangements were made for our 
use of the Betatron in Rock Island 
Arsenal, and several different inves- 
tigations have been undertaken: 

(a) The effect of the radiation of 
the Betatron on magnetically re- 
corded records. 

(b) The possible use of the Beta- 
tron for obtaining penetration and 
moving picture records of small arms 

(c) The effect of such radiation 
in the genetic study of some living 

MARCH, 1948 

(d) The use of the Betatron for with the results obtained in other 
metallographic penetration studies. competent laboratories. 

Torque Meter 

A compact, accurate, and reliable 
torquemeter, operating on a new 
principle, magnetostriction, has been 
developed and units are now under 
construction for industry at Armour 
Research Foundation. 

Tests made on stationary and ro- 
tating shafts have conclusively veri- 
fied the theoretical predictions. The 
test program included tests on tem- 
perature sensitivity, various methods 
of improving torque-sensitivity of 
surface films of power shafts, simpli- 
fication of electronic circuit, and re- 
duction in size of all parts. As a 
result of this program, better alloys 
have been found, and improved pick- 
ups and circuits were developed. 

Two additional patent applications 
were filed and arrangements for 
commercialization are under way. 

Transformation Curves for 
18-8 Stainless Steels 

This project is to determine iso- 
thermal transformations in a new 
type precipitation -hardening stain- 
less steel. The phase changes are 
followed by changes in the resistivity 
of the specimens. A special furnace 
has been built to maintain constant 
temperature over the length of the 
specimen during the isothermal 
treatment. The specimen is heated 
for solution treatment by an alter- 
nating current and the temperature 
is determined by thermocouples. The 
equipment has been built, and runs 
at several temperatures have been 

Transformer Insulation 

An investigation was made of the 
factors influencing the aging of trans- 
former insulation in parallel with 
similar investigations in other lab- 
oratories. The result of these investi- 
gations was submitted as a report to 
the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers by the Subcommittee on 
Transformer Insulation. The tests, 
now completed, checked excellently 

Vacuum Treatment of Metal 

The effect of treating molten 
alloys with moderate vacua for vari- 
ous lengths of time is to be studied 
under this project. 

Midwest Power 

(Continued from page 23) 

(a) Telemetering of Power, Reactive 
Power, and Similar Quantities. Na- 
than Cohn, District Manager, Tech- 
nical Division, Leeds and Northrup 
Co., Chicago. 

(b) Telemetering Channels. R. J. Don- 
aldson, Commonwealth Edison Co., 

(c) Supervisory Control. A. P. Peterson, 
President, Control Corporation, 

Speakers: S. M. Dean, Chief Engi- 
neer of the System, Detroit Edison 

Henry T. Heald, President, Illinois 
' Institute of Technology. 

2:00 P. M. Supervisory Control and 
Telemetering. Chairman: E. H. 
Schulz, Armour Research Founda- 
tion of Illinois Institute of Tech- 

3:30 P. M. The Gas Turbine. Chair- 
man: John T. Rettaliata, Illinois 
Institute of Technology. 

(a) Progress Report on the Coal-Burn- 
ing Gas Turbine. J. I. Yellott, Direc- 
tor of Research, and C. F. Kottcamp, 
Ass't. to the Director, Locomotive 
Development Committee, Balti- 

(b) Why So Many Gas Turbine Cycles? 
L. N. Rowley, Managing Editor, and 
B. G. A. Skrotzki, Associate Editor, 
POWER, New York. 

(c) Operation and Test Experience with 
an Experimental 2000-hp Gas Tur- 
bine. T. J. Putz, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric Corp., Philadelphia. 

3:30 P. M. Conductors. Chairman: 
K. W. Miller, Armour Research 
Foundation of Illinois Institute of 

(a) Development of Requirements for 
Copper Wire Connections. Frank E. 
Sanford, Director of Research, Cop- 
per Wire Engineering Association, 

(b) Synthetic Rubbers and Resins as In- 
sulation for Wires and Cables. J. T. 
Blake, Director of Research, Sim- 
plex Wire and Cable Co., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 


Vocational Interests 

(Continued from page 25) 
in preparation for quite varied voca- 
tional careers. We know that gradu- 
ates of this department enter such 
different kinds of work as sales and 
engineering, and it may be presumed 
that the students enter the depart- 
ment with different goals in mind. 

In order to carry this investigation 
further, it was decided to compare 
the fire protection freshmen with a 
number of the alumni. With the co- 
operation of Professor John J. Ahern, 
chairman of the department of fire 
protection engineering, the Prefer- 
ence Record was sent to nearly 300 
alumni of the fire protection depart- 
ment who had indicated an interest 
in the study. Approximately 150 
have returned the inventory, and 
their results may be compared with 
those of the students. The respective 
profiles of these two groups are 
shown in Figure 4. 

When one compares the scores of 
the fire protection students with the 
scores of alumni still in fire protec- 
tion work, certain differences in in- 
terest become apparent. The alumni 
show a greater interest in mechani- 
cal, persuasive, and social service 
activities, and considerably less in- 
terest than the students in computa- 
tional, scientific, or clerical activities. 
Other differences shown on the pro- 
files are insignificant. 

A small number of the alumni in- 
dicated that they are not now en- 
gaged in fire protection work, but 
have entered other types of activity. 
Although this number is small, the 
interest patterns of this group were 
compared with the alumni still ac- 
tive in fire protection. The profiles 
of the two groups, shown in Figure 5, 
indicate very striking differences in 
preference. Those alumni who are 
no longer in fire protection work 
exhibit much greater interest in 
computational, literary, musical, and 
clerical activities, and much less in- 
terest in mechanical and scientific 
activities. Almost exactly the same 
differences are found when this group 
is compared with the freshmen stu- 



























V - 








:. Fr« 

E. K 

Figure 6. Percentile ranks of mean 
Preference Record scores of fire 
protection engineering freshmen 
and alumni no longer in fire protec- 
tion engineer work. 

dents, as shown in Figure 6. The 
alumni no longer in fire protection 
work are less interested in mechani- 
cal and scientfic activities, and more 
interested in computational, literary, 
and musical activties. They are also 
more interested in persuasive and 
social service activities than are the 
freshmen. Whether still in fire pro- 
tection work or not, the fire protec- 
tion engineering alumni are more 
interested in persuasive and social 
service activities, and less interested 
in scientific activities, than the fresh- 
man fire protection engineering stu- 

The alumni who are now in fire 
protection engineering work also 
indicated whether their work is 
primarily sales, administrative or 
engineering in nature. The scores of 
these three sub-groups are shown in 

Figure 7. It is apparent that these 
three groups differ quite widely be- 
tween themselves, and that they are 
quite different in some respects from 
the freshmen. 

Although all three of the groups 
are higher in persuasive interest than 
the student group, the salesmen are 
much higher in this trait than the 
other two. Both the sales and the 
engineer alumni groups have higher 
social service interests than the stu- 
dents or the administrators, and also 
lower computational and clerical 
scores. In mechanical interest the 
sales alumni do not differ signifi- 
cantly from the students, but the 
administrators are considerably high- 
er, and the engineering group is still 

In short, the average freshman 
student in fire protection engineer- 
ing, less scientific in interest than 
other student engineering groups at 
Illinois Institute of Technology, and 














" \ 








- v 










v - 









Figure 7. Percentile ranks of mean 
Preference Record scores of fire 
protection engineering alumni now 
in sales, engineering or administra- 



with no really strong preferences for 
any of the areas measured, is most 
clearly interested in working with 
figures and with people. The alum- 
nus who is now in sales work is no 
more scientific in interest than the 
student, but has a much greater in- 
terest in working with people, and a 
greater interest in work which is of 
benefit to others. The alumnus now 
in engineering work has a greater 
interest in working with people, and 
a strong interest in work which will 
be of benefit to others. Although 
apparently no more scientific in in- 
terest than any of the other groups, 
he has much stronger interest in 
work which concerns machines and 
mechanical activities. 

The alumni-administrator group 
differs the least from the average 
fire protection engineering freshman, 
showing only somewhat higher inter- 
est in mechanical activities and those 
requiring direct verbal contact with 





















































do not obtain managerial responsi- 
bilities until after a period of em- 
ployment in other capacities. 

For each of the alumni groups the 
scores were arranged in order of the 
date of graduation, and arbitrarily 
classified by four dates: those who 
had graduated between 1910 and 
1919, 1920 and 1929, 1930 and 1939, 
and since 1940. 

The literary, artistic, and musical 
scores on the Preference Record are 
constant for all alumni groups, and 
do not differ greatly from the student 
scores. The computational and cleri- 
cal interests differ from the scores 
of the students, as shown above, but, 
with one exception, do not show any 
trends within the three groups. The 
exception is the rating on clerical 
interest of the alumni now in sales 
work; here there is found a steady 
rise in clerical interest the longer the 
individual has been a graduate. 
(Please turn to page 70) 

Figure 8. Relation of mechanical 
interest to date of graduation. 

Figure 9. Relation of scientific in- 
terest to date of graduation. 

In attempting to evaluate these 
results in order to use them more 
effectively in the guidance of stu- 
dents, there arises the problem of 
determining whether the alumni en- 
tered sales or engineering because 
they were the kinds of persons indi- 
cated by these scores, or whether 
they developed these interests as a 
result of the type of work which they 
were doing. 

Although the groups are too small 
to permit definite conclusions, we 
felt that some evidence on this point 
might be obtained by comparing the 
scores of the alumni who had been 
employed for varying periods of time. 
Here it was necessary to depend upon 
the date of graduation as an indica- 
tion of the length of employment in 
these fields. This is probably suffi- 
ciently accurate for the sales and 
engineering groups, but it is prob- 
ably not accurate for the adminis- 
trator's group because most people 























- Admlnlat 


Figure 10. 
interest to 

Relations of persuasive 
date of graduation. 

MARCH, 1948 


(Continued horn page 69) 

The changes in score on mechan- 
ical interest are shown in Figure 8. 
The sales group shows only minor 
and unimportant changes in this 
score, but both the administrators 
and the engineers exhibit definite 
changes. The engineers indicate a 
marked increase in mechanical in- 
terest, while the administrators show 
an equally sharp decrease in such 

The engineers show a steady in- 
crease in interest in scientific activ- 
ities, as shown in Figure 9. The dif- 
ferences found for the administrators 
do not reflect a consistent change. 
The scores of the sales groups, how- 
ever, seem to indicate some trend 
toward an increase in scientific ac- 

Changes in scores in persuasive 
interest are shown in Figure 10. In 
all three of the age groups the sales- 
men have exceptionally high per- 



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suasive scores. The engineers begin 
with lower scores than either the 
salesmen or administrators, and show 
a declining trend the longer they 
have been graduated. The adminis- 
trators show a sharp and steady de- 
crease in such interests. 

Figure 11 shows the changes 
found in social service interest. The 
administrators are low at all age 
levels, but both salesmen and engi- 
neers show a steady increase, with 
the rate of increase somewhat 
sharper for the salesmen than for the 

Recognizing again that the results 
must not be considered too definite 
because of the small numbers in- 
volved, it may nevertheless be pos- 
sible to draw some tentative con- 
clusions from these data. It seems at 
once apparent that the freshman stu- 
dents in fire protection engineering 
are a more heterogeneous group than 
the students in other departments. 
Those students who continue in fire 
protection work tend to enter one 
of two rather different types of ac- 
tivity, sales or engineering, although 
the sales work in this field is fre- 
quently closely related to engineer- 
ing. About one-third of them may 
look forward to administrative re- 
sponsibilities beginning ten years 
after graduation. 

Those with very high persuasive, 
and very low scientific and social 
service scores tend to enter sales; 

Specialists with over 25 years 

experience in 

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Figure 1 1 . Relation of social service 
interest to date of graduation. 

those with high mechanical, scien- 
tific, and social service scores, and 
low persuasive scores, tend to enter 
engineering activities. Those with 
high computational, literary, musical, 
and clerical interests, and low me- 
chanical and scientific interests, tend 
to leave the fire protection field to 
enter other occupations. 

From these results it also appears 
that those who later achieve admin- 
istrative responsibility quite quickly 
approach the average in each of the 
interest areas measured. One indi- 
vidual who has examined these data 
interepreted this to mean that ad- 
ministrators are not interested in 
anything. We feel that a better in- 
terpretation is that the administrator 
has broad responsibilities, and that 
his interests are thus necessarily less 
sharply differentiated between one 
area and another. An additional pos- 
sibility, of course, is that managerial 
interests take a form not measured 
by the Preference Record. 





MAY, 1948 



and Champion 
agrees that 

in cigarettes too- 





T for Taste... 
T for Throat... 

your final 
proving ground 
for any 

Zone tell you why 

More people are smoking; 
Camels than ever before ! 

• Now that people can get all the cigarettes they want 
. . . any brand . . . now that they once again can choose 
their cigarette on a basis of personal preference . . . more 
people are smoking Camels than ever before. 

Why? The answer is in your "T-Zone"' (T for Taste 
and T for Throat I . Let your taste . . . your throat . . . 
tell you why. with smokers who have tried and com- 
pared. Camels are the "choice of experience 7 '! 

CW/CE OF £XP£&/£A/C£/ 

According to a 

Nationwide survey: 


When 1 1 3.597 doctors from roast 
to coast were asked by three 
independent research organiza- 
tions to name the cigarette they 

smoked, m, 
Camel than 

iv other brand! 

Contributors . . . 

Alfred C. Ames is assistant pro- 
fessor of English at Illinois Tech. He 
received his bachelor's degree at the 
University of Kansas and his mas- 
ter's and doctorate at the University 
of Illinois. He taught at Illinois from 
1937 until 1944, when he joined the 
staff of Illinois Tech. Dr. Ames' ar- 
ticles have been published in Poetry, 
ETC.: A Review of General Seman- 
tics, Modern Language Notes, and 
the Journal of Engineering Educa- 
tion. An earlier article by Dr. Ames, 
"English at Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology: A Unique Situation", ap- 
peared in the October, 1947, issue of 
the Illinois Tech Engineer. 

David Baker, a graduate of Illi- 
nois Institute of Technology, is ar- 
chitect for the electronics division, 
bureau of ships, Navy department. 
He received his B.S. degree at Illi- 
nois Tech in 1938. Awarded a grad- 
uated scholarship, he studied design 
under Professor Ludwig Mies van 
der Rohe in 1938 and 1939. He was 
presented the American Institute of 
Architects award for scholarship and 
the Charles L. Mutchinson medal 
for the highest record in architec- 
tural design, and he received the 
Kendall Graduate scholarship from 
Harvard university in 1941. He was 
awarded a master's degree at Har- 
vard in 1942. Mr. Baker has been 
engaged in various capacities with 
leading architectural and engineer- 
ing offices. He is the author of nu- 
merous articles on architecture and 
city planning and is an authority on 
shore electronics stations and other 
structures for the Navy department. 

Jesse E. Hobson is now director 
of the Stanford University Research 
Institute. Until March 1 he was di- 
rector of the Armour Research 
Foundation of Illinois Institute of 
Technology. A biographical sketch 
of Dr. Hobson appears in the March, 
1948, issue of the Illinois Tech 
(Please turn to page 4) 

COVER PICTURE— A model of 
Illinois Tech's campus of tomorrow, 
designed by Ludwig Mies van der 

MAY, 1948 

MAY, 1948 



Jfn thii issue 


By Frank M. MacFall 


By James F. Oaies, Jr. 


By John F. White 

By B. S. Ramakrishna 


By Jesse E. Hobson 


By Alfred C. Ames 



By David Baker 


THELMA L. COLEMAN, Business Manager 

Associate Editors 

Student Staff 




Published October, December, March and Ma,. 

Subscription rates, $1.50 per year. 

Editorial and Business Office, Illinois Institute of Technology, 

3300 Federal St., Chicogo 76, Illinois. 



Telephone Portsmouth 1411 





. FRAMES . . BOXES . . 

Specialists in Serving 
Industrial Accounts 

r£ M » E " 


6601 So.CENTRAL Ave. 


1411 - m 

(Continued from page 3) 

Frank M. MacFall, research engi- 
neer at Armour Research Founda- 
tion of Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy, has done considerable study and 
research on the problems of ramie. 
Before joining the staff of the Foun- 
dation in February, 1947, he spent 
two years with the department of 
agriculture in Havana, Cuba, working 
with soft and hard fibers. For two 
years prior to that he had been with 
the department's cotton ginning lab- 
oratories in Stoneville, Miss. He was 
graduated in Physics in 1929 at But- 
ler university where he gained mem- 
bership in Phi Kappa Phi, national 
scholastic honorary. Before joining 
the department of agriculture staff, 
he was sales and service manager for 
the General Electric X-Ray corpora- 
tion, which was then located in Chi- 

lames F. Oates, Jr., prominent 
Chicago attorney and civic leader, 
received his A.B. degree at Prince- 
ton in 1921. In 1924 he was grad- 
uated from Northwestern law school 
with a J.D. degree. He is chairman 
of the board of the Peoples Gas 
Light and Coke company of Chi- 
cago, former chairman of the board 
of trustees and still a board mem- 
ber of George Williams college of 
Chicago, and vice president and trus- 
tee of Lake Forest academy, Lake 
Forest, 111. Immediate past president 
of the Chicago Bar association, he is 
also a member of the Illinois and the 
American Bar associations. 

Basava Sri Ramakrishna is at 
present working toward a doctorate 
in physics at Illinois Institute of 
Technology. Born in India 26 years 
ago, he received his bachelor's de- 
gree at M.R. College, Vizianagaram. 
India, in 1941 and his master's at 
Benares Hindu university in 1944. 
He was a lecturer in physics at vari- 
ous schools in his native country for 
18 months. He arrived in the United 
States in December, 1945, and at 
Illinois Tech shortly after. He is also 
serving as a research assistant in 
fundamental mechanics research. 

John F. White, dean of students 
at Illinois Institute of Technology, 
was graduated at Lawrence College 
(Please turn to page 59) 



The Dow-developed Spe 

schematic diagram stun 



n example of Dow research 

This electronic and optical device, called the Direct-reading Spectrometer, is a Dow-developed 
instrument which — using photoelectric tubes — measures the relative amounts of different metallic 
constituents in a complex alloy. 

A tribute to man's intelligence and industry, the Spectrometer was devised to obtain closer control 
and more accurate analysis of the magnesium alloys used with such spectacular success in World 
War II. For the past three years it has been used in the magnesium alloying plant to make many 
thousands of measurements and recordings of the exact concentration of the several metals in an alloy. 
An outstanding feature of the Spectrometer is its speed of operation. For instance, only thirty seconds 
will have elapsed from the time two magnesium samples are locked into clamps and a spark passed 
between them to start the operation, before an analysis can be determined from direct-reading, 
rotating dials. 

The entire operation is automatic and takes less than lOTc of the time required by the Spectro- 
graph^ method of analysis, which in turn is many times faster than conventional chemical methods 
of analvsis. This enormous saving of time enables a much closer and more nearly constant control 
over melting, alloving and casting of magnesium. 
This method eliminates the necessity for photographic and 
developing equipment used in Spectrographs analysis, as well 
as the opportunity for photographic error possible in the latter 

Here is another example of Dow research applied to production 
methods. Such research is typical of all divisions of The Dow 
Chemical Companv ... a company where intelligence and 
industrv are held in high regard. 



New York • Boston • Philadelphia • Washington • Cleveland • Detroit • Chicago • St. Louis 


MAY, 1948 



Age-Old Problem 


THE production of ramie, an age- 
old fiber, presents problems 
which bid fair to tax the ingenuity 
of modern industrial research. 
Ramie, cultured and processed in 
China since time immemorial, has 
resisted successfully the efforts of in- 
dividuals to mechanize its produc- 
tion. Will coordinated research be 
able to solve these problems and 
permit ramie to assume its rightful 
place in the textile industry? Ramie, 
indeed, presents an interesting chal- 

Ramie fiber, marketed under the 
trade names of "China Grass" or 
"Grass Linen," is obtained from the 
ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea L.) 
a member of the stingless nettle 
family. The ramie plant, a branched 
shrub, is a perennial which may be 
propogated either from seed or from 
root cuttings, the latter being pref- 
erable because seed plantings re- 
quire starting in seed beds and later 
transplanting. A suitable soil is one 
which is moist but not sodden; a 
friable loam with porous subsoil is 
preferred. Plants should be spaced 
at least three feet apart to permit 
rapid growth. This plant manages 
best in a hot rainy climate such as 
is encountered in the tropical coun- 
tries. Despite the frequency of har- 
vest, the plant will regrow and 
thrive for many years without re- 
planting. In tropical countries the 

plant grows to a satisfactory height 
of from four to six feet in approxi- 
mately 60 days. It is reported that 
six crops a year can be harvested in 
the Philippines. The climate of 
Cuba permits only four crops a year, 
this frequency tapering off to a sin- 
gle annual crop in the temperate re- 
gions of Alabama and Georgia. Pro- 
duction-per-acre figures vary wide- 
ly, but an acre will produce about 
four or five tons of green stems per 
cutting from which 500 to 750 
pounds of dry clean fiber can be 
obtained. In localities, therefore, 
where three or four cuttings per year 
are made, a ton of dry clean fiber 
per acre can be anticipated each 

In addition to the extensive cul- 
tivations of ramie in Western China 
and other parts of the Far East, 
ramie cultivation is practiced to a 
varying degree in the Philippines, 
Algiers, France, India, and Italy. In 
the western hemisphere plantings 
will be found in Brazil and Cuba. 
Cultivation in the United States is 
restricted to areas of Florida, Geor- 
gia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and California. 

The fibers yielded by the ramie 
stalk are contained in that part of 
the stem which lies between the out- 
er bark or peel and the inner wood- 
en core, where they are embedded 
in various gums and resins. The 
fibers are classed as bast type fibers 
inasmuch as they come from the 

stem of the plant rather than from 
the leaves or seed pod. The single 
ramie fiber is extremely fine in cross- 
section, varying from 30 to 70 mi- 
crons, and averages from four to six 
inches in length. The ramie fiber is 
similar in cross-section to cotton, the 
contour varying from hexagonal to 
oval. Longitudinally, ramie appears 
as an irregular, knotty, ribbon-like 
fiber. The fiber contains many fis- 
sures or cracks which make it much 
weaker than would be theoretically 
expected. Here is a fertile field for 
the geneticist! 

The fiber is unsurpassed among 
the natural fibers for length, 
strength, durability, color, and pur- 
ity. When processed properly it is 
the most lustrous natural fiber 
known apart from silk. One author- 
ity states that ramie is four times 
stronger than hemp, eight times 
stronger than flax, twelve times 
stronger than cotton, and twenty- 
four times stronger than silk! 

Most fiber plants of the bast type, 
such as hemp, flax, kenaf, etc., can 
be processed and the fiber removed 
by "retting." Retting consists of plac- 
ing bundles of the stalks under wa- 
ter for a period of 10 days to two 
weeks, during which time bacterial 
action loosens the mass of the plant 
substance and dissolves the binding 
gums and resins, causing the fibers 
to separate from the stem material. 
Ramie, however, is not amenable to 


this treatment, for the resins which 
bind the fiber in the plant are in- 
soluble in water and are not suscep- 
tible to known bacterial actions. 
This inability to separate the ramie 
fiber from the plant stem by the 
known methods has been the major 
stumbling block in the development 
of the ramie industry. 

Ramie fiber is adaptable for proc- 
essing on present types of flax ma- 
chinery. It can also be worked on 
waste silk machinery, or worsted 
cards, combers, and preparing 

The dried degummed fiber, as re- 
ceived at the mill, must be softened. 
This can be readily accomplished on 
the usual type of circular hemp soft- 

After softening, if the material is 
too long it is cut or broken on an 
ordinary type circular diamond cut- 
ter, or hemp brake. The material 
can be cut in two, producing a root 
and top section, or the root and top 
ends can be cut off, leaving a long 
middle section. The latter method 
produces more waste material but 

furnishes the more choice middle 
section of the fiber. The method se- 
lected depends on the condition of 
the fiber and the use to which it will 
be put. 

The fiber is then hackled or paral- 
lelized, drawn, and spun into yarn. 
The short fiber (tow) combed out 
in preparing the long fibers is proc- 
essed separately into low-grade 

The versatility and value of this 
fiber is shown by its many uses. It 
is used in the manufacture of up- 
holstery fabrics, brocades, damasks, 
tapestries, linings, neckties, suitings, 
dress fabrics, furniture plush, frieze 
velvet, fire hose, dry batteries, lace, 
endless driving belts, machinery 
cloth, incandescent lamp mantles, 
sole shoe thread, fishing lines, net 
hosiery, sewing thread, scarves, 
handkerchiefs, table linen, and in 
the making of fine paper. The re- 
markable length of the ramie fiber 
makes it possible to spin ramie into 
yarns having 50,400 yards to the 
pound with minimum twist and 
maximum lustre. 

The ramie plants above, at Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, are 29-days old. 

The history of ramie extends back 
as far as the early days of the Chi- 
nese and Egyptian dynasties, at 
which time it was used extensively 
in the manufacture of fine fabrics. 
The lasting and preservative qual- 
ities of ramie are well shown in the 
mummy wrappings found in the re- 
cently unearthed tombs. Ramie 
mummy, wrappings, centuries old, 
were found in an excellent state of 

When one reads the story of 
ramie he is sharply reminded of the 
futile efforts of the ancient alchem- 
ists who sought to transmute metals. 
Throughout the centuries mankind 
has spent lifetimes of energy and 
fortunes in wealth in an attempt to 
solve the problems of ramie so that 
it might be produced economically 
in commercial quantities. In the 
1870's the government of India of- 
fered a bonus of $25,000 for a proc- 
ess or machine capable of producing 
ramie fiber at a reasonable cost. 
This offer remained unclaimed and 
was finally withdrawn in 1881. To- 
day, most of these problems are still 

While the rest of the world was 
trying to mechanize the production 
of ramie fiber, the Chinese continued 
to produce the fiber by hand labor. 
Their manual process, which is still 
in use in most parts of western 
China, produces only a few pounds 
of fiber a day. Since this process, 
even today, accounts for the greater 
share of the ramie fiber produced, 
Sir Alexander Home's description of 
the process should prove interesting; 
mechanized efforts in many in- 
stances have been directed towards 
duplicating the hand process me- 
chanically. Home states, "At the 
ramie harvesting the workman 
seizes the ramie stem about nine 
inches above the ground between 
the thumb and the fingers of the 
right hand, snaps it over to the right, 
causing a fracture, pushes down and 
sideways the upper part of the stem 
on the fracture to complete the divi- 
(Please turn to page 22) 

MAY, 1948 

Alumni Support 
of Colleges 


Editor's note: The following ar- 
ticle was delivered by Mr. Oates as 
the main address at the Kick-Oft 
dinner for the 1948 Illinois Tech 
alumni fund drive. The dinner was 
held at the Chicago Bar Association 
April 9. 

I APPEAR before you tonight as a 
metaphysician. Don't be alarmed 
— this sounds much more formid- 
able than it is. Recently I was ex- 
posed to Dr. Robert Maynard 
Hutchins in a great books course 
and there learned the real meaning 
of the word "metaphysician." It ap- 
pears that none other than Mr. Aris- 
totle himself has made clear that the 
one foundation of metaphysics is the 
so-called law of contradiction. You 
will remember that the law of con- 
tradiction is simply the rule that 
what exists cannot exist at the same 
time. This seems to be self-evident, 
but curiously enough, the law of 
contradiction is difficult to demon- 
strate. Indeed, Aristotle is quoted as 
saying that any one who attempts 
to demonstrate the law of contradic- 
tion is a vegetable. Actually, the 
only way it can be proved is by in- 
ducing some one else to disprove it. 
You see, when another person says 
that the law of contradiction is un- 
sound, he is affirming a position and 
thereby implicitly denying the non- 
existence of the position affirmed, 
and you have won the argument 

All of which means, if it means 

James F. Oates, Jr. 

anything, that every one is either a 
metaphysician or reduced to silence, 
and since I could not be reduced to 
silence when asked to speak on the 
subject of alumni support for Illinois 
Institute of Technology, I claim to 
be a metaphysician. 

Let us review a few basic con- 
cepts to serve as a backdrop for our 
discussion. We face in this country 
today perhaps the greatest crisis in 
the history of our democratic Chris- 
tian tradition. This is so seriously 
true that it sounds trite. Throughout 
the world, the sphere of government 
continues to encroach more and 
more on the daily life of the individ- 
ual man. The United States of 
America is not immune from this 

There are, of course, various con- 
flicting theories of the proper field 
of government, most of which, on ul- 
timate analysis, resolve themselves 
into two general categories — the 
first where the sphere of govern- 
ment is imposed on the people, nec- 
essarily involving tyranny in some 
degree and a corresponding loss of 
freedom by the individual citizens; 
the other that the sphere of govern- 
ment in the life of man is not a mat- 
ter of coercion, but of grant from the 
people. For the several years last 
past, this general controversy has 
been debated and indeed pulver- 
ized. The disagreement is now mag- 
nified in the lens of the out-reaching 
ideology of communist Russia. 

An idea, even the brutal idea of 
dictatorship, cannot be destroyed 
with force. It must in the long run 
be overcome and submerged by a 
more acceptable and sounder idea. 
Ideas which do not work and bring 
satisfaction are not acceptable. It 
is, therefore, of primary importance 
that the democratic idea of freedom 
should operate effectively, in order 
that it can be recognized around the 
world as more acceptable than the 
tyranny of any form of statism. 

We have been told that through- 
out the history of the world, demo- 
cratic forms of government have re- 
peatedly failed and some form of 
Statism has arisen whenever the 
economic and social problems of so- 
ciety become so complex and gen- 
eral that they require collective ac- 
tion for solution. We now face the 
significant and searching question — 
are the problems of modern society 
so broad, so complex, and so im- 
peratively important that they can- 
not be solved without the impair- 
ment or possible destruction of the 
liberty of the individual? Of course, 
unless liberty exists for the individ- 
ual, it does not exist at all. 

It is submitted that the one best 
chance the democratic Christian tra- 
dition has for survival against the 
impelling urge of collectiveism rests 
upon the strength of the church and 
upon the maintenance and develop- 
ment of independent private educa- 
tional institutions. 

If the churches are open and the 


independent colleges are free to pur- 
sue truth, democracy will work. This 
is clearly recognized in the foreword 
written by President Heald in the 
booklet describing Technology Cen- 
ter — "Today and Tomorrow" — 
when he says: "We at the Institute 
believe that institutions such as ours 
must be maintained and strength- 
ened as independent centers of edu- 
cation and scientific inquiry — par- 
ticularly in this era of greater cen- 
tralized control. Illinois Tech's plans 
for the future are based upon con- 
tinued growth and increased service 
through independent action — a free 
partnership of science, industry and 

We, therefore, confidently assert 
that the privately supported educa- 
tional institution at the college level 
is in the first line as a great bulwark 
of democracy. 

In a democratic and free society, 
all of the facts should be available 
to provide the only sound position 
upon which any action may safely 
rest. Indeed, only in a free society 
can all of the facts be made avail- 
able. Judgment on any problem is 
no better than the facts upon which 
it is based. It is in the colleges and 
universities that men and women 
are trained to acquire all facts, to 
appraise them on the basis of the 

criteria of value which constitutes 
the ethical, cultural and religious 
heritage of the race, and then, and 
only then, act. 

The necessity of free access to all 
available data and free scope in 
evaluating such data is axiomatic in 
the field of technological progress. 
It seems clear that no scientific re- 
search worthy of the name could 
possibly be maintained successfully 
while subject to significant limita- 
tions upon access to facts and upon 
criteria to evaluate data. While pub- 
lic educational institutions are of the 
greatest importance, indeed they 
can be the very flower of modern 
civilization, they also need the pri- 
vate and independent sister institu- 
tions. It is a fact that Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology cannot exist as 
we know it, except as an independ- 
ent and free institution. 

I was interested in hearing Dr. 
Wilson, chairman of the Standard 
Oil Company of Indiana, state at a 
meeting the other day that no gov- 
ernment could efficiently operate 
the oil industry for the simple rea- 
son that no political leadership 
could afford to risk the consequence 
of a production record involving a 
large percentage of dry holes. In 
1947 the oil industry average for so- 
called wildcat wells was 80 percent 

dry holes; for Standard Oil of Indi- 
ana the comparable record was 70 
percent. He added that while the oil 
resources of Russia were enormous, 
the fields would never be adequate- 
ly drilled because the commissars 
would never risk the consequences 
of inevitable failure in petroleum 
exploration. Scientific research is de- 
pendent, in large measure, upon the 
empiric process which, by definition, 
involves a large percentage of fail- 
ure as the very foundation of ulti- 
mate success. Surely progress in sci- 
ence is dependent upon the initia- 
tive, freedom, and venturous spirit 
characteristic of the privately sup- 
ported independent institutions. 

The Chicago community — indeed 
the nation — owes much to Illinois 
Tech. The contributions made by 
the individual graduates and by Il- 
linois Tech's research activities are 
too well known to describe in de- 
tail, but they are certainly most im- 
pressive, as you well know far bet- 
ter than I. 

In glancing through the 1947 An- 
nual Report of Armour Research 
Foundation, entitled "Partners in 
Research", the reader is absorbed in, 
and fascinated by, the catholicity of 
interest and accomplishment. There 
we find, among many things, an ac- 
(Please turn to page 26) 

Two-hundred-fifty Illinois Tech alumni gathered at the Chicago Bar Association April 9 to hear James F. 
Oates, Jr., deliver the main address at the Kick-Off dinner for the 1948 alumni fund. Mr. Oates is seated to 
the right of John P. Sanger, general fund chairman, who is at the microphone. 

MAY, 1948 


| dei 

[E first goal in education for 
democracy is the full, rounded, 
and continued development of the 
person". 1 

Educators and personnel men 
have struggled for years with this 
problem of developing in our col- 
leges and universities what have 
come to be known as "well-rounded 
men and women". Too many have 
sought to achieve this end through 
the classroom alone, and far too few 
have seen and taken advantage of 
the opportunities afforded by a well- 
coordinated and well-stimulated pro- 
gram of outside activities. In consid- 
ering the question, it behooves us 
first to define the term, "well-rounded 
man and woman". 

He or she is a person who has been 
educated to the point where it is pos- 
sible, on the basis of this instruction, 
to earn a livelihood and to make a 
useful contribution to society through 
the practice of a chosen vocation; 
but, as important or more important, 
he or she is also a person who is able 



U. S. Gov't Printing Ot- 

to. and does, assume in an intelligent 
manner a rightful responsibility as 
a citizen and who spends leisure time 
in healthy and useful activity. Any 
extracurricular program, any curric- 
ulum, any college, which does not 
have this as its ultimate goal has 
failed in its responsibility. 

In planning a balanced college 
program, we cannot overlook the im- 
portance of the extracurricular phase. 

Members of the staff of Technology News, student weekly newspaper 
at Illinois Tech, work on make-up for the coming issue. Unlike those of 
most college papers, the staff of Technology News is generally com- 
posed of persons who find journalism an interesting sidelight rather than 
a prospective vocation. 

It is here that the student will have 
an opportunity to take part and lead 
his fellow men in activities from 
which he will derive experience and 
interests useful to him for the rest of 
his life. No longer can activities of 
this type be permitted to exist simply 
because they provide a channel for 
the student to "let off steam". Like 
any course in the curriculum, any 
club or other activity must pass the 
test of usefulness — does it make a 
contribution to the development of 
the individual? If it does, the college 
should support and, if necessary, 
nourish it; if it does not, it has no 
more real use than a course in the 
"Love Life of the Mosquito". Obvi- 
ously, if we found such a course in 
our college, we would get rid of it; 
the same should be true of a useless 

Industry has for some time recog- 
nized the importance of extracur- 
ricular activity. Those charged with 
responsibility for hiring young col- 
lege graduates are always looking for 
the young man with good grades and 
leadership ability as evidenced by 
participation in activities. Industry 
generally prefers that man to the one 
with higher grades but no record of 
such participation. 

There are obvious difficulties in 
reaching a balance between course 
work and outside activity, especially 
in an engineering college of Illinois 
Tech's type. In the first place, engi- 




neering curricula are noted for the 
extremely heavy academic program 
they impose upon students. The long 
hours in laboratories, classrooms, and 
shops are a constant source of 
"gripes". Then, too, Illinois Institute 
of Technology's location in a large 
municipality further complicates the 
situation. It has no choice but to 
become a "street-car college" where 
students are inclined to check in at 
8 a. m. and out at 5 p. m., with little 
or no time or effort for anything but 
the required course work. We are 
making a continuous effort to over- 
come these difficulties, but the prob- 
lem is such that improvement cannot 
yet be measured. 

Illinois Tech makes this effort 
because participation in proper stu- 
dent activities relieves the strain of 
the tedious job every college student 
faces; because it develops confidence 
and leadership in the individual, per- 
mits self-expression, and provides an 
opportunity for the student to meet 
a greater number of people; and be- 
cause it creates new interests for the 
student and, even more important, 
helps to develop a healthy attitude 
in the student toward the world and 
the profession he has chosen. 

In planning such a program, one 
must include organizations of at least 
six types : 

( 1 ). There are, first, the civic and 
service groups. If, at the college level, 
we fail to develop in the student an 

Illinois Tech cheer leaders lead their fellow students in a yell that they 
hope will fire their Techawks to a basketball victory. 

interest in serving his fellow men, we 
will surely fail in our efforts to give 
him an "education for a fuller reali- 
zation of democracy in every phase 
of living".- 

(2). A second activity is that of 
the professional type, which takes 
two forms — departmental organiza- 
tions and honorary societies for those 
men who have excelled in their 

(3). One cannot overlook the 
need for recreational activity, which 
takes form in athletics and hobby 
clubs. Athletics are too often thought 
of as varsity athletics alone. The col- 
lege program must include much 
more than this; programs of physical 
training, hygiene, and intramural 
competition are important. 

(4). Fraternal and other closely 
knit groups, whose memberships de- 
pend upon selection and whose direc- 
tion is determined by personal inter- 

est, are also necessary and significant. 

(5). Religious activities must be 
included in any well coordinated pro- 

(6). A sixth category will include 
groups devoted to special interests 
such as music, drama, and literature, 
nationality groups, and others which 
crop out in any normal community 
of 3,000 people. 

Illinois Institute of Technology 
recognizes its responsibility in stimu- 
lating and aiding these extracurricula 
groups. It has sought to meet that 
responsibility by providing the direc- 
tion for such activity and by making 
available certain services. Organiza- 
tions seeking a place on its campus 
are screened by the proper authori- 
ties and if found acceptable are ap- 
proved and supported. All such 
groups are approved if they show 
promise of making a contribution not 
already being made to the life of the 
individual student. (At the present 
time, there are 78 different active 

$ olMJa ap# 

MAY, 1948 

The Musical Clubs of Illinois Tech perform at numerous school functions, have given concerts at the Civic 
Theatre, and make frequent trips to neighboring communities in the Chicago area. Under the direction of O. 
Gordon Erickson, the clubs are composed of orchestra, band, and glee club. The orchestra and glee club are 
shown in the picture above. 

organizations on the campus). 

Like the ideal curriculum, the 
ideal extracurricular program must 
provide for individual differences 
and interests; consequently, it must 
include a variety of activities. But its 
heart and nerve center lie in a vital 
and successful student government. 

At Illinois Tech, student govern- 
ment rests with the Illinois Tech Stu- 
dent Association. Its Board of Con- 
trol, operating on an annual budget 
of more than $20,000, coordinates 
student activities and allocates funds 
to those organized on an all-college 

One of its main functions is to 
provide the funds necessary to sup- 
port the journalistic efforts of the 
students. The student newspaper, the 
yearbook, and the student handbook 
— all notable for their excellence — 
provide a real opportunity for ex- 
perience and service for the young 
men and women on their staffs. 

Opportunities to serve the campus 
and community are provided through 
the traditional Junior Week and 
Open House, the Forum Club, the 
Assembly Committee, the Commun- 
ity Service group, the Student Ad- 
missions Advisory Council and Alpha 
Phi Omega. 

The last-named, a fraternity or- 
ganized as a service group, is com- 
posed of college students who for- 
merly served as Boy Scouts. This 
particular organization serves as a 
welcoming committee and guide for 
all incoming freshmen classes and 
thereby assists the college in orient- 
ing new students. It also assumes 
responsibility for the annual March 
of Dimes Campaign, ushers at cam- 
pus affairs, and currently is planning 
to publish a faculty-staff-student di- 

The Community Service Club is 
composed of a number of students 
interested in the development of 
better relations between the college 
and its neighborhood. These young 
men and women have sought to de- 
velop a recreation program for the 
neighborhood children. While their 
program has suffered several set- 
backs, the fact that Illinois Tech 
students are interested in and will 
work toward such an objective is to 
their credit. 

In these civic and service groups, 
the attitudes mentioned earlier are 
fostered and developed. For the most 
part, such activities are centered in 
campus life, but that campus life 
makes up a community within itself 

and serves as a laboratory for later 

Construction of the new gymnasi- 
um last fall has been a significant 
stride in the development of recrea- 
tional activity for students at the 
Institute. This building provides ade- 
quate locker rooms, showers, work- 
out rooms, and two full-sized basket- 
ball courts. This makes it possible 
for large numbers of the students to 
participate in competitive and recre- 
ational activities previously denied 
them. Any time between 8 a. m. and 
10 p. m. on any school day, visitors 
will see students playing basketball, 
volley ball, or badminton, or taking 
part in boxing or wrestling matches. 

This new facility required a new 
member of the Institute staff, who 
was charged with the responsibility 
of encouraging, organizing, and su- 
pervising the intramural program. 
Swimming, basketball, touch foot- 
ball, ping-pong, bowling, track, box- 
ing, and wrestling are now regular 
and popular activities on the campus. 
These are all in addition to the regu- 
lar physical education course re- 
quired of freshmen. Other recrea- 
tional or hobby clubs, such as the 
Photography Club, the Chess Club, 
(Please turn to page 30) 



The Future of Materialism 


MATERIALISM, like other 
great philosophies of the west, 
was born of a set of scientific beliefs 
that were held widely among men of 
science over a fairly long period 
from the time of Newton. It is there- 
fore to be expected that the history 
of materialism should be influenced 
largely by the progress of science. 
The success with which a large 
number of natural phenomena were 
explained by the laws of Newton 
gave an impetus to seek a mechani- 
cal interpretation to all the observ- 
able phenomena of the material uni- 
verse. The belief in the possibility of 
such an explanation was reinforced 
by the ever increasing successes 
which the science of mechanics 
achieved in the hands of the later 
mathematicians, such as Lagrange, 
Laplace and others in the eighteenth 
century. Until the close of the eight- 
eenth century, mechanics was large- 
ly concerned with the study of the 
macroscopic states of matter; but the 
beginning of the nineteenth century 
placed the atomic nature of matter 
on a solid basis, and mechanics was 
faced with the new problem of ap- 
plying the principles which ex- 
plained astronomical phenomena 
with surprising success to the micro- 
scopic and invisible world. 

Maxwell, Boltzmann and other 
physicists of the age showed that 
the well-known properties of gases 
such as pressure, temperature, etc., 
could be given a very simple and 
convincing explanation on the hypo- 
thesis that the atoms or the mole- 
cules composing the gas are in rapid 
incessant motion, colliding, as they 
move, against one another and with 
the walls of the container. This 
theory — well known in science as 
the Kinetic Theory of Matter — 

scored triumph after triumph in the 
predictions it had made, and the 
new light it had thrown on the be- 
havior of matter. For a time no 
doubt was left in the minds of the 
19th century scientists that the goal 
of physical science lay in the ulti- 
mate explanation of the universe by 
mechanical principles. 

It was maintained that if we 
know the position, velocity and 
forces acting on every particle or 
atom in the universe at any time, we 
could completely determine the 
state of the universe at any subse- 
quent time. This did not mean that 
we could actually carry out the cal- 
culation, but the latter was merely a 
question of the labor involved. It 
did, however, imply an important 
consequence, viz., that the course of 
the universe is predetermined, and 
leaves no scope for the human mind 
to alter the destiny of the universe. 
Thus, the philsophy of mechanistic 
predetermination developed entire- 
ly in opposition to the doctrine of 
the freedom of will. 

The first half of the nineteenth 
century, which saw the beginning 
and the growth of the atomic theory, 
also witnessed a similar trend in the 
development of chemistry and biol- 
ogy. For a long time it appeared 
that certain chemical compounds 

MAY, 1948 

which were found abundantly in the 
animal kingdom resisted all at- 
tempts at their synthetic prepara- 
tion. It was therefore held that the 
presence of living matter is in some 
way essential to the formation of 
these compounds, and that, although 
living and non-living matter is com- 
posed of the same elements, there is 
an essential difference between the 
organic and the inorganic world. 

The first shattering blow to this 
belief was delivered when Wohler, 
in 1827, prepared synthetically the 
compound Urea, hither-to known to 
exist only in the organic world. Then 
followed a period of rapid develop- 
ment of the synthetic preparation of 
the various compounds, and the gulf 
between the organic? and the inor- 
ganic world seemed to diminish rap- 

These two theories, viz., that there 
is no difference between living and 
non-living matter and that the fu- 
ture history of every atom in the 
universe is predetermined — al- 
though far beyond human calcula- 
tion — seemed to lead to one very 
important conclusion. 

Stated in the plainest terms, that 
conclusion amounts to this: that if 
the position, velocity, etc. of all the 
atoms that constitute the human 
body are known at any instant, the 
future behavior of the individual 
can be determined, at least in the- 
ory. This implies a negation of the 
power of the mind to control the 
destiny of the body. 

It is interesting to digress a little 
at this stage and examine the vari- 
ous reactionary philosophies that 
developed in opposition to the ma- 
terialist philosophy. The idealist 
philosophy, which reached perfec- 
tion in the hands of Bishop Berke- 
ley, is the exact counter-part of ma- 
( Please turn to page 38) 




Industrial Research— II 


Public Service Research 

SEVERAL types of organizations 
have been established to render 
a service of scientific and engineering 
research to industry and government 
on a fee basis. These organizations 
include the consulting laboratories of 
such firms as Arthur D. Little, Carl 
Miner, Foster D. Snell, and others; 
engineering research and develop- 
ment laboratories such as Barnes and 
Reinecke, Buehler and Company, 
Mast Engineering Company. Engi- 
neering Research Associates, etc.; 
and the non-profit research founda- 
tions and institutes such as Franklin 
Institute, Mellon Institute of Indus- 
trial Research, Battelle Memorial 
Institute, Armour Research Founda- 
tion of Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology, Midwest Research Institute, 
Southern Research Institute, and 
others. Some of the latter institutes 
have a more-or-less close affiliation 
with an educational institution. 

It is of interest to survey the activi- 
ties of the leading non-profit research 
institutes since they reflect the diver- 

:;: This article and the preceding one by Dr. 
Hobson in the March issue of the Illinois Tech 
Engineer will appear in the forthcoming Interna- 
tional Industry Yearbook, edited by Lloyd 
Hughlett and published by McGraw-Hill Inter- 

sity of scientific activity undertaken 
by government and industry, because 
they work simultaneously in several 
industrial and scientific fields, and 
because their growth and activity 
roughly parallels that of all indus- 
trial research in the United States. 
Further, these institutions form a 
unique pattern of research organiza- 
tion which is being copied throughout 
the world. Th- primary objective of 
such institutions is to render a con- 
fidential research and engineering 
service to industry and government 
on a cost basis. They have, however, 
important secondary functions of 
promoting and furthering funda- 
mental research and of supplying 
men, trained in the approach and 
techniques of applied research, to 
the laboratories of industry and gov- 

The non-profit research institutes 
do not intend to compete with exist- 

t Director of the Stanford university Research 
Institute; formerly director of Armour Research 
Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology. 

ing commercial laboratories, testing 
laboratories, or consulting engineer- 
ing firms since they are established 
on a basis of tax exemption. They 
make every effort to accept projects 
which do not compete with research 
services available elsewhere. Projects 
are accepted on a confidential basis, 
with full patent and publication pro- 
tection given to the sponsor. 

The Battelle Memorial Institute, 
Columbus, Ohio, is a non-profit pri- 
vately endowed institution founded 
in 1929 by a bequest from Gordon 
Battelle. Income from the bequest 
has been used to provide buildings 
and equipment and to support an 
active program of fundamental re- 
search. The volume of industrial and 
scientific research conducted at Bat- 
telle in the calendar year 1947 will 
amount to approximately $4,250,- 
000, an increase of 24 per cent over 
the volume for 1946 which amounted 
to $3,425,000. The research activities 
cover diverse fields. A rough diver- 
sion of this activity in broad fields 
during the first six months of 1947 

Metallurgy 25% 

Chemistry 20% 

Physics 17% 

Fuels Technology 12% 

Ceramics 6% 

Mineral Processing 4% 

Welding 4% 

Production Research 4% 

Graphic Arts 4% 


Miscellaneous 4% 

More than 250 investigations were 
in progress during the year, 60 per 
cent of which were for industrial 
sponsors and 40 per cent under 
sponsorship of government agencies. 
The staff of the Institute numbered 
860 on January 1, 1947. By Decem- 
ber 1, 1947 the staff had grown to 
1,028, of which 60% are trained 
scientists, engineers, and technicians, 
and 40% are administrative and 
service personnel. 

The Mellon Institute of Industrial 
Research is the outgrowth of a plan 
originally conceived in 1906 by Dr. 
Robert Kennedy Duncan. The fel- 
lowship system was designed to pro- 
vide scientific research facilities and 
personnel for public use. Evolved to 
give manufacturers the privilege of 
establishing a temporary fellowship 
in a university for the investigation 
of a particular problem, it was ex- 
pected that the solution would bene- 
fit the manufacturer and ultimately 
the public. 

In 1910, Andrew W. Mellon and 
Richard B. Mellon asked Dr. Duncan 
to put his plan into active operation 
at the University of Pittsburgh. Fos- 
tered by the generous Mellon endow- 
ment, the plan was successful and 
was placed on a permanent basis in 
1913. Until 1927 the Institute re- 
mained a part of the University of 
Pittsburgh, at which time it was 
separately incorporated. Since then 
it has been managed by an executive 
staff responsible through the director 
to its own board of trustees. The In- 
stitute cooperates with the Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh, and members of 
its staff may take graduate work in 
the university. However, the "fel- 
lows" in Mellon Institute have the 
status of salaried workers. 

During the fiscal year ending 

The picture at the right and above 
shows an experimental combustor 
used by a fuel technologist at Bat- 
telle Institute in a study to de- 
velop a pulverized-coal-fired com- 
bustion chamber for gas-turbine- 
driven locomotives. The picture 
below, taken at Mellon Institute, 
shows apparatus used for research 
on absorption. 

MAY, 1948 


This is a genera! view of the extensive machine and carpentry shops at Midwest Research Institute. 

March 1. 1947, the expenditures for 
pure and applied research at Mellon 
Institute totalled $2,697,982. The 
staff consisted of 295 Fellows and 
their 280 aids, 34 more Fellows and 
16 more aids than in the preceding 

The Institute was active on 80 in- 
dustrially sponsored projects, of 
which 6 have been in progress for 
30 years or more, 2 for 25 years or 
more, 9 for 15 years, and 19 for 10 
years. It conducts research in the 
fields of pure chemistry and in chem- 
ical physics. The Industrial Hygiene 
foundation, a non-profit national as- 
sociation for advancing health in 
technology, operates under the Insti- 
tute's auspices. 

Armour Research Foundation of 
Illinois Institute of Technology, 
located in Chicago, was founded in 
1936 without endowment. It is a 
separate corporation although it re- 
ports to the president and the board 
of trustees of Illinois Institute of 
Technology. Since its conception. 
Armour has been an entirely self- 
supporting organization, maintaining 
its own staff and facilities. 

During the fiscal year ending 
August 31. 1947, the volume of 
sponsored research for industry and 
government at Armour Research 
Foundation amounted to $2,551,854, 
an increase of 34.6% over the previ- 
ous fiscal year. Of the 105 active 
research projects on September 1, 
1947, 39 were projects under govern- 
ment sponsorship and 66 were spon- 
sored by industry. 

The Foundation is organized in 
three operating divisions: 

1. The Research Division 

2. The Magnetic Recording 

3. International Research 

The latter division, recently organ- 
ized to render a research service to 
foreign governments and industries 
in foreign countries, has its headquar- 
ters in Mexico City. 

The Research Division has depart- 
ments of physics, chemistry and 
chemical engineering, metals, ceram- 
ics and minerals, electrical engineer- 
ing, applied mechanics, mechanical 
engineering and research services. 

On September 1, 1947 the staff of 

Armour Research Foundation num- 
bered 488, with 322 on the technical 
staff and 166 on the service staff. A 
further analysis of the 322 members 
of the technical staff shows that 
12.5% were occupied with scientific 
and technical supervision. 59% were 
research scientists and engineers, and 
28.5% were classified as technical 
and scientific assistants. 

Midwest Research Institute in 
Kansas City was organized early in 
1945 and recently completed its third 
year of operation as a non-profit 
independent, research institution 
serving both industry and govern- 
ment. In addition to functioning as a 
research institute serving the indus- 
tries of the United States, the Insti- 
tute has a unique function as a 
regional research laboratory working 
toward the development of the 
natural resources of the central mid- 
western states. Although an inde- 
pendent organization, Midwest 
cooperates with educational and re- 
search groups, particularly in the 
region from the Mississippi river to 
the Rocky Mountains. Conducting 
(Please turn to page 46) 



THE specialized vocabularies of 
science and technology are rich 
ore for students of the history of 
either language or science. Language, 
our indispensable daily instrument, 
our principal means of expression 
and communication, is full of un- 
recognized vestiges of the diverse 
processes of cultural history. 

Indeed, every single word has a 
history of its own. Every word in 
English entered the language either 
in Germanic antiquity or from some 
foreign tongue within historic time. 
To study the migrations of word roots 
is to be awed by the internationalism 
of our knowledge. Our debt to Greek 
and Latin becomes apparent, and to 
other tongues as well. We are re- 
minded of the contributions to sci- 
ence of individual men whose names 
have become common nouns. The 
dimension of time is evident to the 
student of words. It becomes possible, 
through specific, detailed study of 
the earliest recorded dates for the 
appearance of technical terms, to 
perceive the bloom periods and 
sometimes the amazing youth of spe- 
cialized vocabularies, and to compare 
the life cycle of one branch of sci- 
ence with that of another. New uses 
of old words bring many surprises. 
Many obscure facts and unrecog- 
nized metaphors are to be discovered 
in etymologies. In short, the study of 
the history of technical language car- 
ries one far into the history of science, 
and into awareness of the cosmopoli- 
tanism of technology. 

The New English Dictionary on 
Historical Principles endeavors to 
exhibit the full life history, so far as 
it is known, of every word found in 
English since about 1000. Prepara- 
tion of this greatest of all dictionaries 
occupied scores of workers over 
decades. Publication of sections ex- 
tended from 1884 to 1928. A fat sup- 
plement appeared in 1933. About a 
quarter of a million main words are 
treated in this sixteen thousand page 
work, which is the major source for 
study of the development of the 
English vocabulary between 1000 
and 1930. Using this mammoth die- 



tionary as a source, sixteen students 
at Illinois Institute of Technology 
recently investigated selected seg- 
ments of technical vocabularies in 
fields of their especial interests. What 
follows is a selection and synthesis 
of materials assembled by the indus- 
try and ingenuity of these students of 
the English language. 1 

In English, function words and 
many of the words for the most uni- 
versally experienced objects, rela- 
tionships, and concepts are of Ger- 
manic origin, with a history in Eng- 
lish that goes back well beyond 1000. 
Modern English is a West Germanic 
language, lineally descended from 
the tongues of Angles, Saxons, and 
Jutes, whose invasions of Britain be- 
gan in 449. But even before these 
Teutons left the continent, their 
language had absorbed numerous 
loan words from Latin. Though the 
Roman Empire fell, the hegemony of 
Latin in the intellectual life of 
Europe was unbroken until modern 
times. In the formation of technical 
vocabularies in English, classical in- 
fluence has been dominant. 

Mathematics is a case in point. A 
vast majority of mathematical terms 
go back to Latin, many of them by 
way of Old French. Some words re- 

1 These students, and the tields in which they 
worked, are: Robert B. Bell, photography; William 
M. Boyer, organic chemistry; Donald Chiz, or- 
ganic chemistry; Frank M Fisher, surveying; Ju- 
lian Friedman, mathematics; Robert W. Hitze- 
man, law; Henry |. |ob, mechanical engineering; 
William Kanoff, physics; |onas A. Korn, physical 
and inorganic chemistry; Joseph C. Kowalski, met- 
allurgical engineering; John Leek, electrical en- 
gineering; Frank Mannella, music; Orlando Man- 
nella, music; Martin C. Mazurk, meteorology; 
William J. Parks, electrical engineering; and F. 
|. Ryan, mechanical engineering. 

tain their Latin spellings — area, cal- 
culus, integer, locus, modulus, radius. 
Others have spellings first acquired 
in French — addition, arc, degree, 
function. Some are Latin forms 
minus inflectional endings: circum- 
scribe, decimal, determinant, prod- 
uct, sum. Second only to Latin is the 
Greek influence. From Greek come 
such familiar words as cube, cylinder, 
geometry, ellipse, and sphere, and 
such esoteric ones as adiabatic and 
loxodromic. Traces of the Arabic con- 
tribution to mathematics are found 
in algebra and azimuth. The native 
Teutonic element is slight, being con- 
fined to words bearing non-technical 
meanings also, such as length and 

Chemistry, likewise, speaks in 
classical tongues, though here there 
is almost a balance between Latin 
and Greek. (The date of word-forma- 
tion, as we shall see, helps account 
for the large Greek element.) Repre- 
sentative words of Latin stock in- 
clude acid, affinity, carbon, detergent, 
emulsion, occlusion, polarization, 
precipitate, and many more highly 
technical terms, such as acetic, butyl, 
collinate, and furturine. Familiar 
Greek descendants include aromatic, 
crystal, dynamite, and glycerine. 
Allotropy, anisotropic, endothermic, 
meniscus, and plasmolysis remain 
meaningful only to Greeks and chem- 
ists. From exotic sources and distant 
times come alcohol (of Arabian and 
Hebrew sources, with the original 
referent a cosmetic powder for stain- 
(Please turn to page 56) 

MAY, 1948 






WISHING to set the best pos- 
sible example in its post-war 
construction, the Electronics Divi- 
sion of the Navy Department, in 
cooperation with the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks, has attempted to 
evolve a basic layout for the United 
States Naval Radio Transmitting 
Station, Dixon, Calif., which will 
function with a minimum number of 
personnel, provide low maintenance 
cost, and solve all probable expan- 
sions in the future. 

This radio transmitting station is 
located approximately midway be- 
tween San Francisco and Sacramento 
and is in an area subject to earth- 
quakes. Ample radio station support- 
ing facilities are included at the site. 
Among these are an emergency 
power building, utility buildings, 
quarters, garage, and other units that 
go to make up a self-contained group. 

The radio transmitter building is 
designed to function as a basic unit 
capable of expanding in terms of 
transmitter room increments. The 
transmitter room layout is deter- 
mined by the quantity of equipment 
as well as the limitations of control 
imposed by the use of a single person. 

The building expresses a definite 
architectural character rather than a 
box-like interpretation, by the loca- 
tion on the outside of the exterior 
wall, on centers of 13' 4" by 40' 0", 
the columns which support the roof 
loads. This provides for a clear wall 
surface on the interior of the building 
and allows for ease of cleaning and 

lowered maintenance cost. It pro- 
vides unobstructed maximum work- 
ing area around the transmitters, and 
makes possible the running of trans- 
mission lines without any obstruc- 
tions whatsoever within the trans- 
mitting room. 

In order to obtain a flexible ar- 
rangement for routing incoming 
transmission lines to the various 
transmitters, seventy-five pairs of 
entering insulators are located be- 
neath the protecting cornice of the 
building. Thus, an incoming trans- 


- . * a 

A view of the interior of the trans- 
mitter building, United States 
Naval Communications station, 
Dixon, Calif., showing trench con- 

mission line is pulled tight and held 
fast on the transmission line anchor 
and looped under the cornice and 
into the feed through insulator. 

Trenches are used for cable, con- 
duit, bus bars, piping, and the like, 
in lieu of an alternate design which 
would have made it necessary that 
the transmission room be on a second 
floor, with access to the cables which 
would be arranged in continuous 
hangers from the ceiling below. Low 
cost in installing cable is made pos- 
sible by the ease with which cable 
can be rolled off the reels over the 
main trenches without moving any 
equipment to do so, as the equipment 
is installed directly over the adjacent 
system of small feeder trenches. 

The finish floor material is terraz- 
zo, ground smooth and divided into 
squares. The brass strips ordinarily 
used for dividing terrazzo could 
prove electrically dangerous to the 
personnel in the transmitter room, so 
plastic strips are used instead. Rather 
than a painted concrete surface, bat- 
tleship linoleum, or asphalt tile, ter- 
razzo fully meets the need of a good 
wearing surface capable of resisting 
heavy loads, and is easily maintained 
and kept clean. Trucks for carrying 
equipment for the initial installation 
or any emergency find easy access 
through the large aluminum sliding 
end doors and protection from the 
weather. An overhead rail for sup- 
porting a hoist is utilized over the 
end bays of the transmitter room. 
Thus, equipment is lifted from the 
truck by means of the hoist to a 
hand-steered electric powered trans- 




A view of the entrance of the transmitter building. 

porter. The use of the electric trans- 
porter permits a great deal of flexi- 
bility in placing the equipment on 
any desired location. 

This windowless building, save for 
the administrative portion and the 
lavatory, is ideal for air conditioning. 
In addition, it keeps the building bug 
proof, a vital consideration, for bugs 
have a tendency to work their way 
into and damage the transmitter 
equipment. The windowless wall acts 
as a blast resisting surface and pro- 
vides a good light reflecting surface 
for artificial illumination, because 
natural light would not be adequate 
for lighting the transmitter panels. 

The air conditioning system is de- 
scribed as follows: For more than 
half the year, cooling of the trans- 
mitters and the building is accom- 

plished by the introduction of cool 
outside air into the system to main- 
tain a constant supply of 70 to 75 
degree air in the supply ducts. This 
air is supplied to the administrative 
wing, the Communication Control 
Link room, the shop, and the equip- 
ment storage room. The air is 90% 
re-circulated or 100% exhausted 
through vents in the roof, depending 
on outside temperatures. When out- 
side temperatures become such that 
70 to 75 degree air can no longer be 
delivered, the refrigeration plant op- 
erates to supply the additional cool- 
ing required. The design is pre- 
dicated to a 95-degree maximum 
room temperature in the transmitter 
room, which would occur only at the 
assumed maximum operating level. 
In the normal course of operation, 

sufficient heat is generated by the 
transmitters to heat the building. 
This warm air is therefore recircu- 
lated and utilized for heating, being 
tempered by cool fresh air, intro- 
duced and controlled in the same 
manner as in the cooling cycle. Thus, 
the air in the ducts is maintained at 
a constant 70 to 75 degrees in the 
summer and winter. In the event of a 
shutdown, a boiler is provided as an 
auxiliary source of heat. Controls 
provide for the automatic operation 
of the system. 

The duct system is designed to 
distribute air through overhead ducts 
except in the transmitter room. The 
main supply duct to the transmitter 
room is located under the corridor 
and console cable trench, and the 
feeder ducts in the transmitter room 
are located between the cable trench 
and the exterior walls. Auxiliary elec- 
tric heaters are provided in the ad- 
ministration room and in the confer- 
ence or mess room in the event of 

Designed for construction when 
future commitments so require is the 
VHF (Very High Frequency) tower 
which will be located on center over 
the loading platform. The cantilever 
floor of the tower provides for 360- 
degree area for spacing line of sight 
link antennae. The antennae will be 
of the parabolic reflector type. 

Also planned for near future con- 
struction is the Standby Power build- 
ing, designed in harmony with the 
Transmitter building. It is planned 
to house a single diesel unit with pro- 
vision for another unit to provide 



The interior of the transmitter room of the transmitter building. 

power for the first building and the 
additional first expansion transmitter 
room increment. This arrangement 
permits all of the equipment to be 
under the surveillance of one man 
should the failure of the normal 
source of power occur. Space which 
is allotted for the future installation 
of an additional diesel driven gener- 
ator can meanwhile be used to ad- 
vantage for the storage of antennae 
and rigging gear. 

Indoor antennae switching gear is 
contemplated. It will be divided into 
two units, each unit to be mounted 
overhead in the middle bay of each 
extending wing of the transmitter 
room and on center of the two rows 
of transmitters. 

Switching will be accomplished by 
a system of handwheel switches and 
may possibly be remotely controlled 
at a later date. The completed unit 
will be suspended from cross mem- 
bers framed into side wall angles or 
channels in lieu of suspending the 
units from the ceiling or concrete 

The administrative unit is planned 
so that no enlargement is required in 
the event of expansion. The ever es- 
sential small kitchen finds a place 
in this area, inasmuch as coffee is a 
byword among the radio watchstand- 
ers; also, the isolated location of the 
radio station invariably makes it 
necessary that some meals be pre- 

pared in the station. The office and 
conference rooms have three-way ex- 
posure in order that the approaches 
to the station may readily be ob- 
served. The entry is preceded by a 
covered area to protect it from the 
weather. The ceiling of this portion 
of the building is acoustically treated. 

For general unloading, the easily 
accessible rear platform is used. The 
CCL room houses equipment by 
which all transmitters are radio con- 
trolled from a remote location. The 
cleaning gear, lavatory and air con- 
ditioning units have been placed so 
that they provide the most econom- 
ical runs of piping, cables, duct work, 
and control between the transmitter 
room of the first building and the first 
expansion increment. 

The antenna arrangement consists 
of a number of Rhombic type trans- 
mitting antennae erected circularly 
from the transmitter building. The 
Rhombic system is utilized because 
of its directional characteristics. The 
antennae are oriented in the specific 
direction in which the maximum 
signal is desired. The transmission 
lines run directly from antennae to 
the antennae switching system in 
order that any transmitter can be 
connected to any transmission line. 
The transmission lines are the stand- 
ard 600-ohm impedance open wire 
type. The transmission line anchors 
from an integral part of the building 

cornice design and, together with the 
antenna feed through insulator, it 
gives the radio transmitting station 
its definite character. 

All concrete reinforcing steel is 
interconnected by welded jaints and 
bonding wires to provide a continu- 
ous metallic electrical path to the 
ground rod. In like manner, all con- 
duit equipment, metal doors, and 
metal window frames are carefully 

Review of Navy experience on 
some of the radio transmitter rein- 
forced concrete building types which 
were built in previous years, has dis- 
closed that within a few months of 
operation the walls and roof of such 
structures heated up, cracked and 

The partial disintegration of these 
buildings came about by the action 
of the reinforcing steel as it heated 
up and expanded at a greater rate 
than the adjacent concrete. This 
heating was produced in the steel 
rods by the standing waves acting on 
them; this was a result of the radio 
frequency energy given off by the 
transmitters, transmission lines, et 
cetera. By acting as ungrounded an- 
tennae, the reinforcing rods absorbed 
a detectable quantity of the radio 
frequency output. 

In reinforced concrete transmitter 
buildings with exceptionally high 
power output, it has been found that 
the addition of a separate grounding 
and shielding system of copper rods, 
set in front of the steel rod reinforcing 
and held in place by the concrete 
envelope, proved satisfactory in car- 
rying the radio frequency energy 
directly to ground and shielding the 
steel reinforcing from the radio fre- 

In planning the new United States 
Naval Radio Transmitting Station 
for Dixon, the fundamental charac- 
teristics of electrical effects have 
been taken into consideration in the 
design of the structural elements of 
the building. 

An antenna acts as a conductor as 
it picks up radio frequency energy 
if it is a resonant component of the 
cycle of wave length, the range of 
which includes multiples as follows: 
(Please turn to page 60) 




for Engineers 

How to make handset 
4l handles twice as fast! 

To meet the tremendous postwar demand for tele- 
phones. Western Electric engineers were faced with 
the problem of molding 50% more plastic handset 
handles per day than ever before. Calling on their 
wartime experience, the engineers turned to electronic 
pre-heating, which raises the temperature of the phe- 
nol plastic from room temperature to 275 degrees 
Fahrenheit in just 30 seconds. In this way they cut 
press time in half, doubled production, improved the 
finish and increased the strength of the handset han- 
dles through more uniform heating. 

Laboratory precision 

in mass production ^ 

This line amplifier looks like something made in a 
laboratory— and destined to spend its life there. Actu- 
ally, the amplifiers are mass-produced to lead rugged 
lives up poles, down manholes, or in remote repeater 
stations along coaxial telephone cable routes. Each 
amplifier must boost the volume of as many as 600 
voice channels, ranging from 64 kc to 3,096 kc. with 
closely controlled characteristics over long periods 
without attention. Working out manufacturing 
methods and controls that assure uniform perform- 
ance of laboratory precision in telephone equipment 
is always an interesting project to Western Electric 

Engineering problems are many and varied at Western Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to devise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Electric 


MAY, 1948 21 

RAMIE-an Age-Old Problem 

(Continued from page 7) 
sion of the wood, inserts the fore- 
finger of the right hand in the frac- 
ture which is now compound, and 
draws it up between the peel on the 
left and the wood and the adhering 
peel on the right, removing on its 
way branchlets, leaves, and tips. He 
then draws down the peel on the 
left with his left hand to the root, 
where it is readily detached. In like 
manner, the peel and the wood on 
the right are removed; the latter, 
which is loosely attached, can be 
readily separated from the peel. 

"The operation is simple and can 
be accomplished with great rapidity. 
The Chinese then scrape gum from 
the fiber in the following manner: a 
piece of bamboo one-half inch thick, 
two and three-eighth inches long, 
and five-eighth inch broad, is 
grooved in the middle of the two 
one-half inch sides, and an arched 
band of copper or iron, three-eighth 
inches wide at the top of the arch 
and widening to one and five-eighth 
inches at the bottom, is hammered 
into the grooves. This forms a ring, 
which is put by the harvest man in 
the thumb of his right hand, the 
metal on the top and the flat piece 
of bamboo on the underside of the 
thumb. The other instrument is just 
like an iron shoehorn. It is seven 
inches long by two and one-half 
inches wide across the broad con- 
cave end, contracting to three-fourth 
inch at the narrow end with a very 
short thin tube through which a 
string may be passed when not in 

use for the purpose of suspension. 
The edges are blunt. The right hand 
also grasps the other instrument, 
concave side uppermost, by the thin 
end, leaving the thumb free. The flat 
bamboo can now be placed on the 
inner edge of the shoe horn and the 
ribbons of ramie peel are passed be- 
tween them, outer layers uppermost, 
touching the piece of bamboo. At 
the harvest the peel is made into 
bundles and placed in a tube of cold 
water to steep for as short a time as 
possible and never for more than six 

"When the fiber is to be extracted, 
a bundle of peel is removed from 
the tub, unfolded, untied, and hung, 
the outer layer under, over a piece 
of wood raised above the ground to 
the level of the workman's breast. 
Taking a firm hold of the ribbons, 
one at a time, by the butt end with 
his left hand, the peeler seizes it 
about six inches from the butt be- 
tween the thumb ring, bamboo, and 
the edge of the shoe horn, and 
scrapes it rapidly from the butt to 
the tip. The outer layer of the skin 
is at once removed and the fiber re- 
mains. It is rarely necessary to 
scrape the ribbon more than twice; 
the first scrape is often sufficient. 
When a dozen ribbons have been 
operated upon, the workman scrapes 
off the cuticle from the six inches re- 
maining at the butt end, scraping in 
this case in the opposite direction. 
The fiber is hung up until a suffi- 
cient quantity has accumulated, and 





10% KOH 


Beta and 


Degummed Ramie Fiber 96.01 

Highly Purified Wood Pulp a .. 95.08 
Rayon pulp now on market* 87.76 







* Schwarz, E. W. K. and H. R. Mauersberger, Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Handbook (1936) 53. 
b Estimated by difference. 

Analysis of degummed ramie fiber compared with that of commercial 
rayon pulp. 


then spread out on bamboo poles in 
the sun and wind to dry and bleach." 

In order to produce ramie com- 
mercially in the countries of the 
western hemisphere where wage 
standards are relatively high, it is 
going to be necessary to mechanize 
a large part of the production proc- 
esses. The production sequence of 
ramie fiber is harvesting, decorticat- 
ing (fiber removal from the plant), 
degumming, bleaching, and soften- 

Planting, cultivating, and harvest- 
ing of the plants present no particu- 
lar problems except that the har- 
vester must incorporate some device 
for stripping the leaves and 
branches from the stems. The strip- 
pings may be returned to the field 
for their fertilization value or they 
may be gathered and processed into 
animal feed. 

The greatest stumbling block 
throughout the history of ramie has 
been the development of suitable 
decortication equipment to separate 
the fiber strands from the bark of 
the plant. The best fiber is obtained 
if the plant is decorticated while 
green. Within a few hours after har- 
vesting the outer bark hardens and 
turns brown and it is then extremely 
difficult to remove the fiber. M. 
Faure of France designed the first 
fairly feasible machine; the stems 
were crushed and a flat ribbon was 
produced. The ribbon was then split 
apart by teeth on a spiked cylinder. 
This combing action removed a 
large part of the woody matter. 

Many attempts have been made 
to adapt such decorticators as the 
Krupp Stella and the Corona to the 
decortication of ramie, but the re- 
sults have not been too satisfactory. 
Excessive waste, low production, 
and injury to the fiber are the main 
disadvantages of the machines pro- 
duced to date. So far as it is known, 
there is no machine built today that 
can really be applied successfully to 
the decortication of ramie on a com- 
mercial scale. 

Ramie fiber, as it comes from the 
(Please turn to page 24) 


Because photography is fast. . . 

Fast as the hummingbird moves — 
his wings beat from 55 to 200 times 
a second — he's a "sitting duck" for 

Photography can split a second into 
millions of parts . . . and as a result, it 
can do things for industry and science 
that are truly astonishing. 

For industry, for example, ultra-speed 
photography is picturing the action of 
the exhaust from jet- and rocket-tvpe 
engines— engines that propel airplanes at 
speeds approximating the speed of sound. 

For science, ultra-speed photography 
—with cameras capable of operating at 
speeds in excess of five million frames a 
second — is, among other things, helping 
researchers study electrical discharges, 
explosive phenomena, and shock front 

Just a suggestion . . . this ... of what 
photography can do because it's fast. For 
a better idea of what it can do because 
of this and other unusual characteristics, 
write for "Functional Photography." 
Eastman Kodak Company 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 

FUlKtiOlllIll Pfi®^0grtSphy is advancing business and industrial technics 


(Continued from page 22) 
mechanical decorticators, is in long 
strands approximately the length of 
the plant stem. These strands are 
composed of individual ramie fibers 
tied together with various resins and 
gums. Well decorticated fiber 
strands will contain not more than 
20 per cent resin and gum. 

To reduce the fiber to usable 
form, the decorticated strands must 
be degummed. There are many se- 
cret trade methods for degumming 
the fiber, but nearly all of them are 
based on the use of caustic soda, 
which has a tendency to weaken the 
fiber. The fiber strands are boiled in 
soda lye, steeped in a chloride of 
lime solution, and then placed in a 
hydrochloric acid bath; the fiber is 
washed, of course, between dippings. 
The latter two operations are re- 
peated until all of the gum is re- 
moved and pure white fiber remains. 

Quite often the strands are not 
completely degummed, but only 
part of the gum is removed so that 

Composition Per Cent 

Cellulose ( Ash Free 1 83.51 

Alcohol-Benzol extract 2.15 

Cold water soluble 3.57 

Alkali Soluble 9.95 

Ash i in cellulose) 0.21 

Composition of decorticated ramie 
fiber calculated on dry weight. 

fibers longer than the component 
fibers themselves remain. The de- 
gree of degumming will depend 
upon the ultimate use of the fiber. 
Following the degumming process, 
the natural suppleness of the fiber is 
restored by steeping the fiber in a 
glycerine-wax-tallow solution. 

A large amount of money, time, 
and effort has been devoted to 
searching for a better degumming 
process than the caustic soda meth- 
od, one that would be more econom- 
ical and eliminate the weakening 
action of the caustic soda on the 

No particular problems are pre- 
sented in the bleaching and soften- 
ing of the fiber. 

Many large industrial concerns in 
the United States interested in 
ramie as a raw material are using it 
at the present time, and will find 
many other uses for it as soon as it 
is commercially available in suffi- 
cient quantity. 

When processes and equipment 
are developed for economically pro- 
ducing ramie fiber in large quanti- 
ties, the ramie growing industry will 
mushroom in the western hemi- 
sphere. Owing to its superior qual- 
ities and versatility, and to the fact 
that it is used mainly in high quality 
products, a relatively high price on 
this fiber is justified. 

The development of the neces- 
sary processes and equipment for 
mechanically separating the ramie 
fiber from the plant and the solution 
of the chemical problems of degum- 
ming offer a real challenge to mod- 
ern industrial research. 



Tapping a Waterfall. 





Design and build a hydro-tur- 
Dine to meet exacting demands of 
capacity, head and horsepower . . . 
that's just one of thousands of ab- 
sorbing problems tackled and solved 
by Allis-Chalmers engineers. 

A-C probes every phase of 
science and industry — electronics, 
hydraulics, processing, metallurgy 
. . . contributes important new ma- 
chine advancements to almost every 
basic industry. 

What better place could you 
find to develop your engineering 
talents ! What better chance to grow 
in your chosen field. 







Write for Book No. 6085, 
outlining A-C's Graduate 

Training Course. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., 
Milwaukee I.Wisconsin 

MAY, 1948 


Alumni Support of Colleges 

(Continued from page 9) 
count of the work being done to test 
golf balls, the studies of dynamic 
strains and stress during the cycles 
of artillery firing, the investigation 
of the plastic behavior of structural 
steel, the tests of porcelain enamel, 
the effort to remove odors, and the 
alleviation of water noise in pipes 
and valves. I ask you, in all serious- 
ness, is there anything that Illinois 
Tech is not investigating. 

The industry of which I have the 
privilege of being a part owes much 
to Illinois Tech. 






Automotive Clutches 

5558 S. Menard Ave. Chicago, III. 

Building Construction 

T.ltphon. N.r.di 6020 





In 1941, after an intensive two- 
year study by a group of outstand- 
ing leaders of the gas industry, the 
Institute of Gas Technology was or- 
ganized as a non-profit Illinois cor- 
poration and affiliated by agreement 
with Illinois Institute of Technol- 
ogy. Illinois Institute of Technology 
was selected by the gas industry as 
the most desirable engineering 
school in America to fulfill the pur- 
poses of the Institute of Gas Tech- 
nology. Under the terms of the affili- 
ation agreement, the president of 
Illinois Tech is made the president 
of the Gas Institute and Illinois 
Tech agrees to grant degrees to the 
graduate students of the Gas Insti- 
tute who have completed satisfac- 
torily a course of study of four aca- 
demic years in length plus three 
summers of employment in the gas 

The Institute of Gas Technology 
is thus fulfilling, through its affilia- 
tion with Illinois Tech, the prime 
purpose of its organization, namely: 
to train a selected group of chemists 
and chemical engineers at the grad- 
uate level to take positions of lead- 
ership in the gas industry. In addi- 
tion to the training of personnel, the 
Institute of Gas Technology is con- 
tinually engaged in most significant 
research projects of great current 
importance to the gas industry, in- 
cluding the study of the complete 
gasification of coal, various catalytic 
cracking processes, etc., all designed 
to develop more efficient and expe- 
ditious methods of gas production to 
meet peak requirements. There is 
now in operation at Riverhead, 
Long Island, a gas manufacturing 
plant which is using a catalytic 
cracking process (for which great 
hopes are held) developed by the 
Institute of Gas Technology. 

The Peoples Gas Company could 
not operate tonight in meeting a 
great human need for the vast popu- 
lation of Chicago without the skill, 
ability, and experience of 137 grad- 
uates and former students of this in- 
stitution and its predecessors — Ar- 
mour and Lewis. These 137 men, 
who are my associates at the Peo- 

ples Gas Company, include men in 
all of the divisions and departments, 
including the president of the com- 
pany, Mr. George F. Mitchell, and 
the operating vice president, Mr. 
Karl B. Nagler. I am delighted to 
note the presence here tonight of 
my associates at Peoples Gas: Ern- 
est S. Beaumont, Edward F. Pohl- 
mann, Frank P. Mueller and Robert 

A private college is now primarily 
dependent for its growth and sup- 
port upon its alumni, who are the 
members of the college family. In 
days gone by . . . and they may have 
been happier . . . college institutions 
obtained their support in part from 
tuition fees; but since education is 
needed and deserved by the less 
well-to-do, the greatest part of the 
support has, in the past, come from 
income on endowments. These en- 
dowments came to the institutions 
as the result of substantial gifts 
made by the very wealthy, either 
during their lifetime or by bequests 
effective on death. Many factors 
have intervened which have de- 
stroyed reliance upon endowment, 
income as the material resource to 
maintain the independent educa- 
tional institutions. 

We hear much currently of the 
profound and serious economic con- 
sequences of a tax policy which seri- 
ously limits venture capital upon 
which industrial and economic 
growth is dependent. More could be 
said, with equal effect, of the conse- 
quences of a tax policy which is rap- 
idly liquidating large fortunes and 
preventing the accumulation of new 
fortunes, the absence of which will 
prevent an increase in endowment 
support for private charitable and 
educational institutions. 

I have recently received figures 
from Princeton University, my own 
alma mater, which seem to me to be 
typical and significant. Between 
June, 1939, and June, 1947, a period 
of only eight years, Princeton's en- 
dowment increased $10,000,000 — 
from $35,000,000 to $45,000,000— 
an increased of 28 percent. The en- 
dowment income, however, in- 
creased only 18 percent — from $1,- 
200,000 to $1,400,000 — while the 
(Please turn to page 28) 



Many Theoretical and Applied Studies 
Behind Development of "Cordura" Rayon 

Stronger, lighter tires made 

possible by teamwork of 

Du Pont chemists, engineers, 

and physicists 

On the surface, the viscose process for 
rayon seems fairly simple. Cellulose 
from cotton or wood is steeped in 
NaOH to give alkali cellulose, which is 
treated with CS 2 to form cellulose xan- 
thate. Adding NaOH gives molasses- 
like "viscose," which is squirted through 
spinnerets into a coagulating bath of 
acid and salt to form from 500 to 1,000 
filaments simultaneously: 

"OH + NaOH 

R-ONa + H,0 
(alkali cellulose) 

CS 8 — > R-0-C-SNa 

(cellulose xantha 

R-0-C-SNa + H 2 S0 4 -> R-0H + CS 2 + NaHS0 4 

R* = C 6 H ; 2 (0H) 2 

Du Pont scientists were working to 
improve on the properties of rayon 
made by this process when, in 1928, a 
rubber company asked for a rayon yarn 
that would be stronger than cotton for 
tire cords. The problem was given to a 
team of organic, physical, and analyti- 
cal chemists, chemical and mechanical 
engineers, and physicists. 

Theoretical and Applied Studies 

In developing the new improved rayon, 
a number of theoretical studies were 
carried out: for example, (1) rates of 
diffusion of the coagulating bath into 
the viscose filaments, (2) the mechan- 
ism of coagulation of viscose, (3) the 
relationship between fiber structure and 
properties by x-rays, and (4) a phase 
study of spinning baths. 

Concurrently, applied research was 
necessary. This proceeded along many 
lines, but the main problem was to per- 
fect the spinning technique. It was 
known that a short delay in the bath 
between the spinneret and the stretch- 
ing operation allowed greater tension 
on the filaments. Du Pont engineers, 
therefore, designed a series of rollers, 
each revolving faster than the previous 
one, to increase the tension gradually. 

In addition, a textile finish was de- 
veloped that combined just the right 
amount of plasticizing action and lubri- 
cating power, allowing the filaments to 
twist evenly in forming the cord. A new 
adhesive was prepared to join the yarn 
with rubber. New twisting techniques 
for cord manufacture were found, since 
the usual methods caused loss in rayon 

Engineering Problems Solved 

Chemical and mechanical engineers 
were faced with the design and opera- 
tion of equipment for more than 15 
different types of unit operations. Equip- 
ment had to operate every minute of the 
day, yet turn out perfectly uniform 
yarn. It was necessary to filter the vis- 
cose so carefully that it would pass 
through spinning jet holes less than 
4/1000th of an inch without plugging. 
Some of the most exacting temperature 
and humidity control applications in 
the chemical industry were required. 

Out of this cooperation among scien- 
tists — ranging from studies of cellulose 
as a high polymer to design of enormous 
plants — came a new product, "Cor- 
dura" high-tenacity rayon, as strong as 
mild steel, yet able to stand up under 
repeated flexing. Today, this yarn is al- 
most 100 % stronger than 20 years ago. 
Tires made with it are less bulky and 
cooler running, yet give greater mileage 
under the most punishing operating 

Determination of spinning tension by C. S. 
McCandlish, Chemical Engineer, Northwestern 
University '44, and A. I. Whitten, Ph. D., Physical 
Chemistry, Duke University '35. 

conditions. In "Cordura," men of Du 
Pont have made one of their most im- 
portant contributions to the automo- 
tive industry. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 

How are new men engaged? 

Most college men make their first contact 
through Personnel Division representatives 
who visit many campuses periodically. Those 
interested may ask their college authorities 
when Du Pont men will next conduct inter- 
views. Write for booklet, "The Du Pont 
Company and the College Graduate," 2518 
Nemours Building, Wilmington 98, Del. 


More facts about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of America" Monday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 

MAY, 1948 

Rayon spinning machine. The spinning solution is pumped through a spinneret immersed in a harden- 
ing bath. Filaments are guided over a rotating glass wheel and down into the whirling collecting 
bucket. Inset shows close-up of spinneret; each hole forms a filament. 


(Continued from page 26) 
total annual expenses of Princeton 
increased from $3,000,000 to $7,- 
000,000, or an increase of 139 per- 
cent. During this period, the endow- 
ment income dropped from 40 per- 
cent of such expenses, and tuition 
fees dropped from 41 percent to 30 
percent of the expenses. These facts 
create a vacuum, and spell disaster 
for Princeton and Illinois Tech as 
independent institutions unless new 
and reliable sources of continuing 
financial support are found from 

private sources. 

To fill this vacuum, the educa- 
tional institution must turn to its 
sons, the members of its alumni, who 
owe it the greatest debt and who, as 
a group, can supply the resources to 
maintain the institution. The ex- 
perience of Princeton has been sig- 
nificant. Annual giving by alumni 
was instituted in the academic year 
of 1940-1941, during which period 
3.500 alumni provided $80,002. 
This participation has gradually 
grown until in the academic year of 


Peabody has spent three generations 
in building a high degree of skill in 
the business of mining, refining and 
distributing coal. This ability is ac- 
companied by ample mining machin- 
ery for efficient production as well 
as preparation equipment that makes 
scientific use of advanced methods. 
With mines in Illinois, East Ken- 
tucky and West Virginia ... and sales 
agencies in other coal fields - Peabody 
is serving virtually everv type of 

IN ITS 64 th YEAR 


231 South LaSalle Street, Chicago 4, Illinois 




1946-1947, 8,450 alumni contrib- 
uted $231,000. The goal at Prince- 
ton this year is $250,000, and ulti- 
mately $1,500,000 per annum. 

It will readily be seen that rela- 
tively small amounts given regular- 
ly by large numbers of alumni can 
be the equivalent of vast endow- 
ment funds which are now not pros- 
pectively obtainable. 

The record of Illinois Tech is 
equally impressive. Your alumni 
giving also started in 1941 when 26 
percent of the alumni of Illinois 
Tech contributed in excess of $50,- 
000. In 1947 almost 3,000 alumni of 
Illinois Tech contributed in excess 
of $117,000. There is one desirable 
feature of the present tax policy 
which encourages this growth: that 
is, the deductibility of such gifts in 
the computation of federal taxes on 

Reference was made a moment 
ago to happier days. Maybe this is 
an erroneous statement. Perhaps the 
real happy time is when every alum- 
nus of every educational institution 
accepts his responsibility annually, 
and by regularly contributing rela- 
tively small amounts, participates in 
the development and growth of the 
institution of which he is a member. 
Perhaps this situation is more 
wholesome and healthy than where, 
as in the past, the institution has 
been financially dependent upon the 
purse-strings of the wealthy few. 
Certainly it is more healthy than a 
surrender to government subsidy. 

As the alumni of your institution 
and mine contribute regularly to 
our respective institutions, these in- 
stitutions will necessarily mean 
more to us, and the more they mear 
to us, their Alumni, the finer, strong- 
er, and better they will be. 

I congratulate you upon your ei - 
thusiastic approach to a great work, 
and predict a new record for 1948. 
May I leave you with the story of 
the group of old residents sitting in 
the Vermont store. One of their 
number had recently died. He was 
reputed to be a rich man and his 
friends were acrimoniously debating 
the extent of his wealth. Finally old 
Joshua said, "I know exactly how 
much Seth left. He left all of it." 



— — - _—• - -I 

this xs TBendfr 

^o&^' , ' , ■ I • ***.*'r 

MAY, 1948 

Members of Sigma Kappa sorority gather for a song session. Sigma Kappa is one of the two national sororities 
at Illinois Tech. 

Extracurricular Activities 

(Continued from page 12) 
the Radio Club, the Airplane Model 
Club, and the Musical Clubs, are also 
quite popular. 

The need for workshops, labora- 
tories, and meeting places for these 
hobby and recreational groups is 
great, and their future development 
is dependent somewhat upon the 
ability of the college to provide space 
in which they can operate. 

The nucleus of these organiza- 
tions, in fact, the main support for 
all activities, comes from the fraterni- 
ties. Nine of the twelve fraternities 
have already become affiliated with 
national organizations; three operate 
as local organizations and one of 
these three is at present negotiating 
with a national organization. Last 
fall, many more men were denied 
admission to fraternities than it was 
possible for the twelve groups to 
accept. Consequently, the Interfra- 
ternity Council recommended that 


an additional fraternity be invited 
to establish a chapter at Illinois 
Tech. Recently the college added 
one such group. 

The fraternities are doing a par- 
ticularly fine job and all are in excel- 
lent condition. They are operated 
under the authority of the dean of 
students and through an interfrater- 
nity council composed of undergrad- 
uate representatives from each fra- 
ternity. An organization made up of 
an alumnus of each group gives valu- 
able guidance and advice. This coun- 
cil serves in an advisory capacity 
and meets regularly with the dean 
of students. 

While eight of the fraternities are 
in a position to assume responsibility 
for the maintenance of fraternity 
houses, the Institute has been able to 
supply only six with permanent quar- 
ters. Of the six, two own their own 
houses, one rents from a private 
owner and three rent from the col- 

lege. All are attractively furnished 
and house from 20 to 40 men each. 
Plans for the development of the 
new campus include quarters for 
these fraternal bodies, and it is ex- 
pected that they will continue to play 
an important role in the program. 

From time to time, fraternities 
have been the target for rather bitter 
criticism. These complaints have not 
always been unjustified, at least on 
a national scale. Fraternities fre- 
quently have been on one side of the 
fence and the college on the other. 
They have been called the mecca for 
the rich boys who preferred to look 
upon colleges as country clubs and 
the fraternities as places for hazing, 
snobbery, and other non-acceptable 
practices. There has been a change 
of attitude recently on the parts of 
both national fraternities and college 
administrators, and a definite trend 
in an opposite direction is noticeable. 

Illinois Institute of Technology 
looks upon fraternities as an integral 
(Please turn to page 32) 


RCA scientists— pioneers in radio-electronics — apply the "radio 
tube" to communications, science, industry, entertainment, and transportation. 

This "magic lamp" makes Aladdin's look lazy 

You will remember the fabulous lamp- 
and how it served its master, Aladdin. 
Serving you, today, is a real "magic lamp" 
. . . the electron tube. 

You are familiar with these tubes in your 
radio, Victrola radio-phonograph or television 
set . . . but that is only a small part of the 
work they do. Using radio tubes, RCA Lab- 
oratories have helped to develop many new 
servants for man. 

A partial list includes: all-electronic tele- 
vision, FM radio, portable radios, the elec- 
tron microscope, radio-heat, radar, Shoran, 
Teleran, and countless special "tools" for 
science, communications and commerce. 

The electron microscope, helping in the 
fight against disease, magnifies bacteria more 

than 100,000 diameters, radar sees through 
fog and darkness, all-electronic television 
shows events taking place at a distance, 
radio-heat "glues" wood or plastics, Shoran 
locates points on the earth's surface with 
unbelievable accuracy, Teleran adds to the 
safety of air travel. 

Constant advances in radio-electronics are 
a major objective at RCA Laboratories. 
Fully developed, these progressive develop- 
ments are part of the instruments bearing 
the name RCA, or RCA Victor. 

When in Radio City, New York, be sure 
to see the radio, television and electronic 
wonders at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th Street. Free admission. Radio Corp. of 
America, RCA Building, Radio City, N. Y. 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor — one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well -rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Write today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 


MAY, 1948 

(Continued horn page 30) 
part of student life. Not only does 
the college administration accept, 
but it enthusiastically supports the 
fraternities and their programs. In 
exchange, however, for this interest 
and support, the college has charged 
the fraternities with certain respon- 
sibilities and proceeds on the thesis 
that the two parties are in one boat 
rowing together. These fraternal 
bodies submit monthly financial 
statements to college authorities and 
meet specified membership require- 
ments. Those maintaining houses are 
regularly inspected for safety and 
cleanliness, and each has either a 
housemother or proctor. 

The housemothers or proctors are 
approved in advance by the college 
authorities and, once elected by the 
fraternities, are responsible only to 











Telephone BELmont 3360 

the dean of students and the alumni 
advisors of the chapter. They are 
neither detectives nor disciplinary 
officers; their function is to help the 
men of the fraternities become better 
students, better fraternity members, 
and better gentlemen. Inaugurated 
last September, this plan for house- 
mothers or proctors is still too new 
to permit a conclusion as to its effec- 
tiveness. However, it gives every 
indication of becoming a vital and 
significant step in the right direction. 
Although fraternity members at first 
disliked the idea of this system, they 
have always given complete coopera- 
tion and in most cases are now con- 
vinced of its value. 

We believe, as does the National 
Interfraternity Conference, that "the 
college fraternity has as its goal, in 
harmony with that of the college, to 
provide training and discipline of the 
individual who, in seeking an educa- 
tion, desires to make of himself a 
useful member of society, possessing 
knowledge, trained skill, and capaci- 
ty for accomplishment. The college 
fraternity, as a group organization, 
seeks to train men how to live and 
work together, striving by precept 
and example for the personal devel- 
opment of the individual in the train- 
ing of mind and body. It carries for- 
ward the fundamental purposes of 
education, adding a fraternal influ- 
ence for correct living and individual 

Illinois Tech fraternities are mak- 
ing an earnest effort toward that end; 
and so long as this is the case, they 
will be given hardy endorsement. 

Along with the fraternities, three 
sororities, two or which are national, 
are active on the campus and play 
an important part in the program for 
women. While the present enroll- 
ment of women students is relatively 
small, a definite effort is being made 
to increase the number. Illinois Tech. 
through Lewis Institute, has always 
had an excellent home economics 
department and other highly rated 
curricula in a wide academic pro- 
gram which can serve women stu- 
dents. It is imperative, therefore, that 

we sponsor a sound extracurricular 
program to supplement the formal 
education of the woman student. 

The Illinois Tech Women's Asso- 
ciation was organized a year ago with 
this objective. Every woman enroll- 
ing in the institution automatically 
becomes a member of ITWA and, 
through its acitvities, is urged to join 
some organization or take part in 
some activity of interest to her. Teas, 
receptions, dances, and other social 
events have been sponsored by this 
group. Although relatively small in 
number, women students have taken 
a real lead in campus activities. Rep- 
resentatives serve on the student 
governing board and a significant 
position has been assumed by them 
in such all-college activities as Junior 
Week, the newspaper, and other out- 
lets. The sororities have acted as the 
spearhead for this interest. 

It should be emphasized again 
that sororities and fraternities have 
served as the driving force for all 
campus activities. It has been said 
by some that student affairs are con- 
trolled by the "Illinois Tech 400". To 
a large degree, this is correct; further- 
more, it is true that the vast majority 
of the "400" students are members of 
social fraternities and sororities. 
Membership in those groups places 
the individual in a closely knit organ- 
ization which can and does direct the 
interests of its membership. Such a 
group, if it is worth its existence, is 
interested not only in improving the 
scholarship of its members, but also 
in seeing that they participate in 
campus activities. Obviously, it is 
through that leadership that the fra- 
ternity gains its reputation. At the 
same time, unless it offers this type 
of program to its membership, it has 
little reason for being. Students in an 
institution of Illinois Tech's size and 
character who have no fraternity or 
social ties have little impetus to be- 
come activity-minded. Except in rare 
cases, they become "commuters" 
whose only interest lies in classroom 

Another reason for the fraternity 
and sorority leadership in the extra- 
curricular program is the fact that, 
until now. they have offered the only 
(Please turn to page 34) 



Who named if wireless ? 

^he ether which brings mys- 
» terious electrical impulses 
across the miles to your radio, has 
always enveloped the earth. It was 
there when Noah launched his Ark. 
So were all the elements that com- 
bine to make this modern miracle. 
But Noah's only contact with the 
outside world was a Dove. 

Today any teen-aged youngster 
knows more about the subjectthan 
did Noah, yet, relatively speaking, 
we know as little about electricity 

as he did. We haven't scratched the 

Roebling saw the future of elec- 
tricity and recognized the import- 
ant part it would play in American 
industry, sixty-eight years ago. 
Roebling undertook the manufac- 
ture of electrical wires and cables in 
1880 because it had confidence 
in America's future, and because 
it knew that individual enterprise 
and free competition speedily 
would cieate a steadily growing 

demand for its product. Roebling 
has consistently led the way in the 
design and manufacture of elec- 
trical conductors. 

Roebling electrical wire and 
cable enjoys the well-earned con- 
fidence of electrical men — not 
only in this country — but through- 
out the world. 


Branches and Warehouses in Principal Cities 



MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 32) 
real opportunity for housing on the 
campus. It is difficult for a student to 
participate in the affairs of various 
clubs and recreational groups when 
he must spend from a half-hour to 
two hours on public transportation at 
the end of the day. "Street-car" stu- 
dents are generally not leaders for 
the reasons mentioned above. A stu- 
dent who lives on the campus and 
spends 24 hours a day living his col- 
lege life is much more inclined to 
take advantage of extracurricular 
opportunities. It means, too, that 
going to college is his life rather than 
merely his full time job. The result 
is that he will create new friends and 
new interests rather than merely 
absorb information. 

The development of the Institute's 
housing program will mean a great 
deal to the further development of a 
well-rounded educational program. 
With a larger percentage of the stu- 
dents living on the campus, one can 
expect a larger participation in the 
extracurricular portion of the educa- 

tion program. We expect that these 
new residents not only will be incor- 
porated into the activities which 
already exist, but that other activities 
stemming from the housing units 
themselves will be developed. 

The well-organized and intelli- 
gently-led discussion or "bull session" 
has traditionally been a part of col- 
lege life. Such sessions, except in 
fraternities, have had little oppor- 
tunity to exist on the Illinois Tech 
campus and will almost certainly 
come into their own with the devel- 
opment of the dormitory system. 
With the increased number of stu- 
dents living on the campus and par- 
ticipating in activities, one can ex- 
pect that the "Illinois Tech 400" will 
no longer exist and that this larger 
group, exerting its influence on the 
student program of the college, will 
broaden its base and make it more 
attractive to all students. 

When one finds the control of and 
participation in activities resting 
with a relatively low percentage of 
the total student body, he finds an- 

other and rather serious problem — 
the relatively small group of student 
leaders lead everything. 

As an example: the editor of the 
yearbook is also the chairman of the 
Publications Board of Control, mem- 
ber of the Illinois Tech Student Asso- 
ciation board of control, president of 
the senior class, and member of a 
social fraternity. 

Another student is president of the 
journalism honorary fraternity, 
member of Alpha Phi Omega service 
fraternity, president of his social fra- 
ternity, member of Chi Epsilon hon- 
orary fraternity, treasurer of the stu- 
dent chapter of the American Society 
of Chemical Engineers, and member 
of the Interhonorary Council, and he 
also works as a student in one of the 
major administrative offices of the 
college. In the past, he has held offices 
in a number of these organizations, 
was editor-in-chief of the newspaper, 
a member of the Honor Board, and 
has always been extremely active in 
non-organized student activities. 
(Please turn to page 36) 

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These "dividends" show- 
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Many unique features 
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Grinding Machines 

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No illustrations can do more than suggest the wealth of facilities 
at Standard Oil's new research laboratory at Whiting, Indiana. 
Here, in one of the largest projects of its kind in the world, there 
are provided the many types of equipment needed and desired 
for up-to-the minute petroleum research. 

The caliber of the men who work here is high. For many years, 
Standard Oil has looked for and has found researchers and en- 
gineers of high professional competence. Further, the company 
has created for these men an intellectual climate which stimulates 
them to do their finest work. 

And there is nothing new about the idea that motivates 
Standard Oil research. It is simply that our responsibility to the 
public and to ourselves makes it imperative to keep moving steadily 
forward. Standard Oil has always been a leader in the field of in- 
dustrial research; the new Whiting laboratory is proof of our 
intention to remain in the front rank. 

Standard Oil Company 


MAY, 1948 


Electrical Fixtures 



Triangle Electric Co. 

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"Caterpillar" Diesel Engines 


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(Continued from page 34) 

In both these cases, the men 
earned grade point averages higher 
than the all-college average, but it 
could be legitimately argued that 
they might have done a better acade- 
mic job had they not participated in 
so many activities. Another point of 
view is that, by holding these jobs, 
they eliminated the possibility of 
other students gaining the benefits of 
participation in activities. 

This over-concentration on the 
part of some students has been a 
source of constant discussion, not 
only on the Tech campus but on the 
campus of every college in the coun- 
try. In the last analysis, one always 
comes back to the conclusion that 
"those who can lead, will lead". Point 
systems limiting such participation 
have been evolved in some colleges, 
but they never have been completely 
satisfactory. In the Illinois Tech situ- 
ation, the program has not yet 
reached the point where those re- 
sponsible can even seriously consider 
such a possibility. 

Rightly or wrongly, Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology student leaders 
always say "if we don't do it, who 
will"? That argument, of course, may 
be based on a false assumption. 

In evolving a point system there 
is one great problem: the inability to 
measure the relative time spent in 
membership compared with that of 
being an officer in an organization, 
and the even greater difficulty of 
measuring the load between one or- 
ganization or activity and another. 

If a point system is adopted, one 
is forced to decide whether the edi- 
torship of the yearbook is as time- 
consuming as the editorship of the 
newspaper; or whether the sports 
editorship of the newspaper is as 
heavy a load as the presidency of a 
fraternity. Obviously, the presidency 
of a fraternity or an editorship is 
more time-consuming than playing 
in the orchestra or being treasurer of 
one's class; but evolving that differ- 
ence in load into a specified system 
of points is much easier said than 
done. In education, as in life, we can- 
not overlook the human factor. There 
is always the individual who can and 


should spend more time studying 
course work. There is also the student 
who can and who should participate 
in more activities and take a lead 
in more functions than the man who 
may sit next to him in the classroom. 

A point system would forbid the 
evaluation of such individual differ- 
ences. Students on academic proba- 
tion are barred from holding any 
office or representing the Institute in 
any activity, but the problem is to 
make the potential "B" student a "B" 
student rather than a "C" student 
and, at the same time, help him be- 
come a well-rounded citizen of the 
community. This cannot be accom- 
plished by simply evolving a set pat- 
tern into which each individual stu- 
dent must fall. 

Therefore, one comes back to the 
original conclusion: in planning each 
student's program, both curricular 
and extracurricular, he must be 
treated as an individual. But it is 
difficult, if not impossible, to contact 
and influence every individual stu- 
dent. The answer seems to lie only 
in the development of a two-fold pro- 
gram which will permit more stu- 
dents to spend more time on the 
campus, and an adequate counselling 
system to direct students' interests 
into proper channels. 

Even dormitories and fraternity 
houses will not solve the problem 
unless the college administration 
lends its influence to the develop- 
ment of student activities. A greatly 
expanded student personnel program 
is needed, and such a program is 
already underway. We hope that 
eventually every student at Illinois 
Tech will carry not only the specified 
curricular requirements for a degree 
but will also participate in his share 
of student activity. 

The college firmly believes that it 
is on its way toward that goal. How 
long it will take, one dares not fore- 
cast. The brightest spot in the picture 
is a realization of the problem and 
the unity of students, faculty, and 
administration in working toward its 


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BRIGHT FINISHING was the problem — and engineers 
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Then, to obtain the high temperatures necessary 
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This typical installation demonstrates the flexi- 
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Manufacturers of Gas Equipment and the American 
Gas Association support continuing programs of 
research designed to assure the most efficient use 
of GAS for every heat-processing requirement. 



MAY, 1948 


The Future of Materialism 

(Continued from page 13) 
terialism. Berkeley maintained that 
whatever is perceived is something 
mental and that the very existence 
of the object consists in its being 
perceived. Thus he denied the exist- 
ence of material objects apart from 
the mind of the perceiver. The weak 
point in his argument is that he does 
not deny the existence of a thing 
when he does not perceive it, but 
states that it must exist in other 
minds. Here, however, he invokes 
the testimony of minds other than 
his own, thus giving these objects 
an objective independent existence. 
But his first postulate compels us to 
admit that our belief about other 
minds is again an idea in our brain. 
Various other objections have been 
pointed out by modern philosophers 
like Bertrand Russell, who shows 
that there is a confusion of the ob- 
ject and the thought of the object. 
It is not my purpose here to dis- 
cuss the validity of the idealist phil- 

osophy, but merely to state that an 
attempt has been made during re- 
cent times by certain scientists (per- 
haps all physicists) to return to the 
idealist philosophy in a modified 
form, basing the arguments on de- 
velopments in modern physics; and 
it is worthwhile to note what it is in 
modern science that does not fit in 
with the materialist doctrines of the 
nineteenth century. 

Let us first of all examine the de- 
velopments in modern physics, for it 
is here that the twentieth century 
has witnessed two great revolutions. 
The Theory of Relativity and the 
Quantum Theory are generally re- 
garded as the two important devel- 
opments of philosophical conse- 
quence. Even before the advent of 
relativity, physicists developed the 
field theories to describe electrical, 
magnetic and gravitational pheno- 
mena, but the atomistic point of 
view still remained the dominating 
influence in shaping the philosophi- 

cal beliefs of the nineteenth century. 
Nor did the discovery at the begin- 
ning of this century that atoms are 
not indivisible, but that they are 
composed of a number of still tinier 
particles called electrons, protons 
(and now neutons, also), bring 
about a change in our outlook; it 
merely involved a substitution of 
these new particles in the old place 
of the atoms in our picture of the 
material universe. 

While for obvious reasons we can- 
not go into the details of the Theory 
of Relativity here, we can still con- 
sider the possible manner in which 
relativity can bring about an altera- 
tion in our philosophical ideas. One 
of the results of the special theory 
of relativity is the discarding of the 
conception of space and time as hav- 
ing unique independent existences. 
Each observer (the observer need 
not be a human being but may be a 
recording instrument) is shown to 
possess his own private system of 
space and time for the description 
(Please turn to page 40) 

Marsh & McLennan 


Insurance Brokers 






























'fa 0%t/l/~C?*&e 

tc&j *n 

?4m>&t*c&yi /yic<fcHe<fJd 

Probably few people realize that the dairy industry is a 
large user of special brushes. In pasteurizing and bottling 
plants milk flows through pipes and tubes, and these must 
be thoroughly scrubbed inside, using small cylindrical 
brushes attached to rods. Naturally, the brushes them- 
selves must be capable of sterilization, which means a metal 
back. Conventional tufted brushes do a good job, but a fa- 
mous manufacturer realized that a better job would result 
if it could make a brush by holding 
(he bristles in a channel, and then 
winding the straight brush into a small, 
tight spiral. Experiments immediately 
showed, however, that there was a 
lower limit to the radius obtainable 
without cracking the metal and loosen- 
ing the bristles. That limit, unfortu- 
nately, was considerably above the 
radius necessary to make a brush that 
would have an outside diameter, over 
the bristles, of %" and an inside 
diameter, over the mandrel, of % 6 ". 
It was at this point that Revere was 
called in. Did we know of any metal or alloy which would 
withstand such a double deformation? Remember, Revere 
was told, the metal first must be turned up into a channel, 
enclosing a brass wire around which the bristles are set. 
Then the channel must be bent on its back in a tight coil 
with that small inside diameter of %e"- Was there any- 
thing that would take this abuse and not crack, split, break, 
or open the bristle-filled channel? 

Anybody could see that this was a tough problem. If 
annealing could have been resorted to, perhaps the opera- 
tion would not have been considered too difficult, but you 
can't anneal bristles. The metal had to be taken as it came 
from the mill, made to do that double flip-flop, and make 
a perfect brush. 

If you had been the brush manufacturer, we trust you 
would have done what he did — come to Revere for help. 
If you had been Revere, you would 
have done just what we did — study the 
characteristics of all the Revere Metals 
and Alloys, seeking one that would have 
the required strength and toughness, 
plus maximum corrosion-resistance. 

Revere is proud to have found the 
answer in a certain gauge and type of 
Cupro-Nickel Strip. Test runs with 
this were entirely successful, and reg- 
ular production soon began. Thus it 
became possible for our customer to 
offer this improved brush to the dairy 
This is but one example that shows how a supplier can 
collaborate with his customers to mutual benefit. Revere is 
not alone in carrying on such activities. Every supplier, no 
matter whether he produces metals or woods, chemicals or 
plastics, rubber or glass, inevitably knows a great deal 
indeed about his materials and how to work them into 
finished products. The great essential is that he be fully 
informed as to methods and end uses, for only then can he. 
turn his knowledge and experience to your benefit. 


Founded by Paul Revere in 1801 

* * * 

Executive Offices: 
230 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 38) 
of natural phenomena and it is 
pointed out that no one observer is 
in a more privileged position than 
the other. Thus it comes out that the 
time interval between two events is 
not an invariable magnitude but 
that it depends upon the observers. 
This point has been made the basis 
of an argument that if an event A 
happens earlier than an event B ac- 
cording to one observer, and accord- 
ing to a second one the event B 
precedes the event A. not only is the 
time interval between the two 
events not a definite magnitude, but 
the order of the events is altered 
also. How then can the law of Cau- 
sation (which is at the basis of ma- 
terialist philosophy) be held true? 
The fallacy, however, lies in sup- 
posing that any two events can have 
their time order reversed for suit- 
ably moving observers. As a matter 
of fact, events which are causally 
connected can never have their time 
order reversed whatever the motion 
of the observers. Relativity, indeed. 

does not assert (as is supposed by 
some) that everything is relative; 
rather, relativity distinguishes the 
invariable from the variable, and in 
respect to this lies the importance of 
the substitution of space-time for 
space and time. 

Among the other consequences of 
relativity there is the equivalence of 
mass and energy, which in pre-rela- 
tivity physics were regarded as in- 
dependently conserved. It therefore 
follows, as a result of this relation- 
ship, that mass can disappear and 
reappear as energy or vice versa — a 
prediction which has found ample 
experimental evidence in atomic 
physics. It was found that an elec- 
tron and a positron may annihilate 
each other and appear as radiation. 
The converse effect of the materiali- 
zation of radiation has also been ob- 
served, as for instance when a -/-ray 
photon materializes into an electron 
and a positron. 

While the old idea of the con- 
creteness of mass has been dwin- 
dling in the light of relativity, still 

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another stab has been made by the 
more recent developments of quan- 
tum mechanics. It has been found 
necessary to attribute wave-like 
properties to matter on one hand 
and matter-like (corpscular, as it is 
called ) properties to waves of radia- 
tion on the other hand. In the new 
Quantum Theory developed by 
Schrodinger, Heisenberg and others, 
electrons and protons have lost their 
concreteness and are replaced by 
waves — waves of probability. 

While matter was thus becoming 
more and more shadowy, Heisen- 
berg enunciated his famous prin- 
ciple of indeterminancy. In non- 
mathematical terms the principle 
amounts to the statement that it is 
impossible at the same time to state 
precisely the position and velocity 
of an electron and that the product 
of the uncertainties in the determin- 
ation of each is always greater than, 
or (at best) equal to, the Plank's 
quantum of action, h. This is not 
merely a statement regarding the in- 
accuracy of our experiments but es- 
tablishes the theoretical limits be- 
yond which we cannot hope to make 
our measurements. In view of this, 
most of the laws of classical physics 
came out to be what are generally 
known as statistical laws, from which 
alone the behavior of individuals 
cannot be determined. Let me take 
an example of this: from the death 
rate which is found to prevail in a 
particular place it is possible to give a 
fairly correct figure as to how many 
people die in a year in a particular 
city, but if the particular persons 
who would die in a certain year are 
asked to be named, it is at once 
found to be impossible. The well 
known Second Law of Thermody- 
namics is itself an example of this 
statistical type of law. 

The nineteenth century ended 
with the firm conviction that mat- 
ter, composed of electrons and pro- 
tons, is alone real, and that the ex- 
planation of all natural phenomena 
is to be sought in the behavior of 
these particles obeying perfectly 
definite laws. The twentieth century 
witnessed the view — forced upon on 
one hand by the Theory of Relativ- 
ity and on the other by the Quan- 
(Pleass turn to page 42) 



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MAY, 1948 41 

(Continued from page 40) 
turn Theory — that matter behaved 
as waves under certain circum- 
stances, and as particles, whcse posi- 
tion and velocity cannot be known 
with absolute certainty, even in 
theory, in other circumstances. With 
this scientific background, the old 
idealist philosophy and the pre-Dar- 
winian creation theory of the world 
have forced their way from an alto- 
gether different route. From the Sec- 
ond Law of Thermodynamics, which 
states that the universe is becoming 
increasingly random with the pas- 
sage of time. Sir James Jeans postu- 
lates the creation of the universe. 
The probable time according to 
Jeans is, of course, far greater and en 
an astronomical scale compared with 
the time given by Edmund Goese's 
father who argued that the world 
was created in 4004 B.C. 

Further, the freedom of will 
which found no support in the strict 
mechanistic pre-determination cf 
the classical physics, was rescued by 
the atomic indeterminacy. The un- 

predictability of the behavior of in- 
dividual atoms has been made the 
basis from which, by a logical chain 
of reasoning, the freedom of the hu- 
man mind can be established. Thus, 
according to one group of scientists, 
the philosophical outcome of science 
seemed to be not much different 
from the idealist philosophy, though 
the conclusion was arrived at in an 
altogether different way. 

While the progress of physics all 
along the twentieth century has been 
a retreat from the materialistic view, 
biology and psychology have taken 
an apparently different path. While 
the behavior of inorganic matter ap- 
peared to be less and less predict- 
able, biologists have been, in general, 
trying to explain the functions of the 
living organism in terms of its con- 
stituents, and have done so with no- 
table success. One cannot help ask- 
ing what light the new developments 
of physics have thrown on the issue 
of whether living and non-living 
matter are essentially alike cr dif- 
ferent. Physics has never observed 

in the study of even the tiniest par- 
ticles, electrons, protons, etc., of 
which all known bodies are com- 
posed, anything similar to that we 
call life. Nor have the most ardent 
vitalists ever been able to isolate life 
from matter. Perhaps much of the 
unnecessary discussion might be 
avoided if we would remember that 
a group of entities might exhibit 
properties which may not be char- 
acteristic of the individuals that 
compose the group. Everyone knows 
that a gas possesses properties like 
pressure, temperature, entropy, etc., 
which cannot be independently ex- 
hibited by the molecules that com- 
pose it. So, too, life and its attendant 
attributes may simply be properties 
of the atoms, depending in some as 
>et unknown way upon their ar- 

One need not imagine any incom- 
patibility between the developments 
of biology and those of physics. No 
fact has ever been found in biology 
that does not fit in with the laws of 
(Please turn to page 44) 

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How boilers are built for modern naval and 
merchant vessels— how they are installed— how 
they function— all this is interestingly narrated 
and vividly pictured in a recently-completed 
16mm sound film entitled "Steam Power for 
American Sea Power". It is a 30-minute educa- 
tional movie that students in any phase of engi- 
neering will find thoroughly enjoyable and 
enlightening. B&W will gladly loan a print with- 
out charge for showing to engineering classes 
and student groups. Simply drop a line for full 
particulars to B&W at the address given here. 



'Intellectual improvement arises from leisure"— s amuel johnson 

Why housekeeping gets ^lighter" all the time 

". . .Woman's work is never done." 

True enough. But today's homemaker — aided by her 
modern refrigerator, range, water heater, vacuum cleaner 
and other appliances finds more time for family and for 

And what helps these "automatic servants" operate so 
dependably? Better materials for one thing. 

Materials on the inside — the unseen working parts of 
household standbys. Such as alloy steels, new plastics, car- 
bon brushes in motors . . . lighter, more compact materials 
that make appliances stand up longer and handle with ease. 

Materials, too, that you can see . . . as those stainless steel 
surfaces so easy to clean. Or the chemicals in more enduring 
waxes and polishes, varnishes and plastic finishes. 

Yes, today's housewife enjoys new leisure, new freedom 
from drudgery . . . thanks to better materials. 

Producing these belter materials and many others— for 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of mankind 
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MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 42) 
physics. The uncertainty about the 
behavior of the individual atoms 
need not force us to give up our 
attempt to explain the behavior of 
the living organisms in terms of its 
constituents. Even the smallest liv- 
ing cell is composed of vast numbers 
of atoms, whose behavior as a group 

















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can be determined without violating 
the principle of indeterminancy. 

Thus, while the controversy be- 
tween pre-determination and free- 
will and mechanism and vitalism 
has not yet received a satisfactory 
solution, a powerful group of experi- 
mental psychologists known as Be- 
haviorists, led by Dr. J. B. Watson, 
have been making relentless attacks 
against everything that is considered 
mental as opposed to material. Born 
in America, Behaviorism rapidly es- 
tablished itself all over the world 
both as a powerful method (the only 
reliable one according to Behavior- 
ists) of observation and as a philo- 
sophy. The Behaviorists start from 
the assumption that what can be 
learned from objective observation 
alone is significant, thus ruling out 
the possibility of introspection as a 
method of attaining knowledge. 
They, therefore, set out to explain 
every action in terms of the stimu- 
lus-response theory; and, if for no 
other reason, the success which they 
have achieved is sufficient reason to 
claim for Behaviorism a place in any 
philosophical discussion. Many of its 
doctrines have the peculiar charm 
of appealing to the rational type of 
mind in spite of their apparent con- 
tradiction to traditional ideas. For 
example, Behaviorists reduce think- 
ing — an accepted mental faculty in 
academic psychology — to what they 
call sub-vocal speaking and corre- 
late it with movements of the 
muscles of the larynx. Our emotions, 
feeling, memories all have, accord- 
ing to them, their Beha vioristic 
equivalents. Behaviorism thus ap- 
pears to be the main development 
in the twentieth century in support 
of the materialistic viewpoint of all 
the recent scientific developments. 

We have so far briefly examined 
the various philosophical trends in 
the important developments of sci- 
ence, and it is now our last business 
to consider the possible conse- 
quences of the philosophical out- 
come of science to human society. 
While the consequences of the dis- 
coveries of applied science to hu- 
manity are at once apparent, the ef- 
fect of theoretical developments is 
not so obvious to the layman, al- 
though they are far more profound 
in the long run. We have just wit- 
nessed on a collossal scale the effect 
of the thoughtless application of 
physical science, but a similar ap- 
plication of biology and psychology 
may be far more dangerous, and if 
man is to evolve into a better type, 
he must learn to use science before 
he takes his evolution into his own 
hands. Aldous Huxley in his Brave 
New World has given a warning of 
the world that may emerge out of 
the application, or rather, misappli- 
cation of our present knowledge and 
power of science. 

Science, it is often stated, cannot 
help us to decide the right thing to 
do, but can only state the result of 
such and such an action. When 
every conceivable problem the en- 
tire universe presents is answered 
by science, there still remains the 
most important task for mankind — 
to build a philosophy based on it, 
which alone can provide the basis 
for our values. If the purpose of sci- 
ence were merely to substitute one 
set of beliefs in the place of another, 
without suggesting a philosophical 
outlook — that deep-seated hunger of 
every enquiring soul — science 
would hardly have sustained the en- 
thusiasm of the most patient explor- 
ers of truth, the scientists. 

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The PianO BusineSS GetS a LIFT., .when Alcoa Aluminum Castings Replace Heavy Metal 

Even a well-trained husband who'll rearrange the 
living room every Spring balks at piano-moving. 
You can see the main reason above. It's the big 
metal plate that holds the strings — and it has 
always tipped the scales at around 125 pounds. 

No wonder it gave the piano business a lift when 
a progressive piano builder replaced the heavy iron 
plate with one weighing 45 pounds — made of 
Alcoa Aluminum. As perfected, this big casting 
from our foundries is strong to resist the 18-ton 
pull of the taut strings. It is stabilized to provide 
tonal quality and stay in tune. And its cost today is 
competitive with the old-fashioned cast-iron plate. 

With other advantages, in other industries Alcoa 


Castings are effecting similar changes. In one 
plant, their corrosion resistance means no painting, 
simple finishing. In another, they are liked for 
their superior machinability. In still another, they 
are preferred for the ease with which they swing 
through production, where iron castings had to be 
hauled by truck or hoisted on heavy cranes. 

The change from heavy metal castings to Alcoa 
Aluminum Castings is a revolutionary switch in 
product engineering. Old, old habits are being 
questioned as engineers re-evaluate metals — with 
a sharper eye than ever before focused on Alcoa 
Aluminum. Aluminum Company of America, 
Gulf Building, Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania. 

rst in ALUMINUM 

Just 60 years ago six young men started a tiny 
business in a little shed in Pittsburgh. They began 
to make aluminum by a new process. That was 
the beginning of what is now Alcoa. Alcoa's aim, 
then and now, was to make aluminum cheaper 
and more useful. How successfully that has 

been done is shown by the fact that America 
today has the greatest aluminum industry in 
the world, employing around 1,000,000 people 
in the manufacture of aluminum in its many 
shapes and forms or in making many useful prod- 
ucts in which aluminum plays an essential part. 

MAY, 1948 


Trends In Industrial Research 

(Continued from page 16) 
industrial research for mid-contin- 
ental industry, developing new uses 
for existing agricultural produce, and 
developing the resources of farm, 
forest, mines, and wel's of the region 
are primary objectives. 

The total research expenditures 
during the last fiscal year amounted 
to $450,000, demonstrating a re- 
markable growth in the three years 
of Midwest's existence. At the end of 
the fiscal year the staff numbered 
100, of which 60 were technical and 
40 were non-technical personnel. 
Midwest Research Institute is now 
conducting research in agricultural 
chemistry, organic chemistry, inor- 
ganic chemistry, physics, and engi- 
neering mechanics. At the present 
time there are 30 major research 
projects active, not including short- 
term investigations on advisory serv- 
ices to industry. 

The Southern Research Institute 
at Birmingham, Alabama is a non- 
profit organization, founded in 1945, 
supported by private capital sub- 
scriptions and endowments, and 
making its services and facilities 
available to industry on a fee basis 
fully protecting the sponsor's inter- 
ests. The Institute is doing industrial 
research in plastics, applied chemis- 
try, physics, metallurgy, engineering, 
food technology, biochemistry, and 
organic chemistry. 

Research expenditures for the year 
of 1947 will exceed $300,000, an 
increase of about $100,000 over the 
previous year. There are at present 
40 active research investigations. 
During October, 1947. the research 
efforts were distributed as follows: 
69% in industrial contracts; 15% for 
government agencies; 14% in the 
biochemistry of disease, and 2% on 
Institute sponsored research. 

The organization of Southern Re- 
search Institute now consists of about 
80 persons, of whom 48 are on the 
technical staff and 32 are on the 
service staff. 

The Southwest Research Institute, 

an endowed organization for scien- 
tific study founded by Tom Slick, 
was dedicated September 11, 1947 
on the Essar Ranch, 7 miles from 
San Antonio. 

The new laboratory includes 
chemical and biological units, engi- 
neering departments, and a complete 
machine shop. Further expansion 
of facilities is expected as soon as 
materials are available. The second 
laboratory of the Institute, devoted 
to petroleum chemistry and tech- 
nology, is expected to be located in 

Although barely started, South- 
west already has enough business to 
keep its present laboratories operat- 
ing at near capacity. This expanding 
organization currently has a staff of 

40. The Southwest Research Insti- 
tute is the third and final part of a 
research organization which also 
embraces the Foundation of Applied 
Research, now working on agricul- 
tural and medical studies, and the 
Institute of Inventive Research, 
which aids inventors in developing 
their ideas. 

Leading industrialists of California 
and the Pacific Northwest recently 
cooperated in the establishment of 
Stanford Research Institute, which 
is a non-profit organization designed 
to undertake any type of investiga- 
tion needed by industry or govern- 
ment. It is equipped to study prob- 
lems in business organization, indus- 
trial relations, personnel procedures 
and marketing, as well as to do tech- 
nical research in physics, chemistry, 
engineering and biology. 
(Please turn to page 48) 

Biologists at work in the animal 
Southern Research Institute. 

room of the biochemistry division. 




6,000,000,000,000,000.000,000 MILES 

Tomorrow a new door to the 
secrets of the universe will be- 
gin to open. A door through 
anomers will be able to see 
6,000,000,000,000,000.000,000 miles in- 
to space — twice as far as ever before. It is 
the giant telescope atop Mt. Palomar, so 
powerful that the canals of Mars, il there are 
any, will for the first time be photographed. 
It all began 12 years ago when Corning 
cast the glass for the famous 200" telescope 
mirror — the world's largest piece of glass — 
after most experts said it couldn't be done. 



big disc Corninj 
special glass — tin 

itists de 

material that would insure the permanence, 
stability and accuracy demanded by the 
telescope's designers. This glass is similar 
to that used for Pyrex ware and Pyrex in- 
dustrial glass piping. Making the disc was 
a job Corning took in its stride, because it 
is accustomed to finding practical solutions 
to all kinds of glass problems. Its research 
laboratory has contributed to the develop- 
ment of more than 37,000 different items, 
ranging from simple custard cups to tele- 

vision bulbs, laboratory ware, optical glass, 
and Steuben artware. 

If Corning has a specialty, it is the ability 
of its skilled engineers and craftsmen to 
translate research into glassware to solve 
modern problems. With labor and raw 
material costs constantly on the rise, glass 
may some day help you keep down the cost 
of your product. 

Or glass may help you make your future 
product easier to sell. In either case, re- 
member to write Corning Glass Works, 
Corning, New York. 



MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 46) 

Under the plan, all companies, 
both large and small, may use the 
services of experts in a wide variety 
of fields to carry on independent 
research or to supplement their own 

While the organization is entirely 
separate from the university, it will, 
nevertheless, draw upon the Univer- 
sity faculty in its work, in addition 
to having its own staff of technicians 
and scientists. 

One example of the engineering 
research and development organiza- 
tions recently organized is Engineer- 
ing Research Associates, Inc., in 
Minneapolis. At the close of the war, 
a group of scientists and engineers 
who had worked together in the 
Navy resolved to continue their re- 
search and development as a private 
enterprise. Engineering Research 
Associates was incorporated January 
8, 1946, supplementing the techni- 
cal skills and training of the group 
with the management, fiscal organi- 
zation, and facilities of the North- 

western Aeronautical Corporation. 
At the present time Engineering Re- 
search Associates has offices in 
Washington, D. C, as well as in Min- 
neapolis, has a staff numbering 450, 
and is carrying out research and de- 
velopment work under contracts 
amounting to more than S3 million 

The primary objectives of Engi- 
neering Research Associates are in 
the fields of research and develop- 
ment. However, in order to insure 
that research and development will 
lead as far as possible toward public 
benefits, the organization undertakes 
certain limited production of equip- 
ment that gives a strong impetus to 
the practical solution of research and 
development problems. 

More than at any time in the 
past years, both industry and gov- 
ernment are "farming out" their re- 
search problems to organizations of 
the type discussed above. It is becom- 
ing increasingly evident that the role 
of the independent research organi- 
zation will be a responsible one in- 

deed. To them industry looks for a 
substantial part of future industrial 
progress, a greater production of 
better products at reduced cost, 
opening new avenues of better liv- 
ing to all people. 

The Government In Research 

Before World War II our federal 
government paid about one-fifth of 
the nation's research costs, while in- 
dustry, research organizations, uni- 
versities and colleges financed the 
remainder. The war brought about 
a complete reversal of this situation 
as industry concentrated on produc- 
tion and the government spent great- 
ly increased sums for the develop- 
ment of existing weapons and the dis- 
covery of new ones. 

Since the war, governmental ex- 
penditures for research have dropped 
less than one-third while industry ha* 
increased from its S80 million annual 
outlay for research during the war to 
a figure six to eight times that 
amount. According to the Report of 
(Please turn to page 50) 



3%" x 2Y B " x lYi"; Weight 3y 2 oz. 

Lindemann Electrometer 

This instrument was originally designed for use in 
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astronomical work. It is now used extensively for the 
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stable, it has high sensitivity, stable zero, and does not 
require levelling. The capacitance of the instrument is less 
than 2 cm. For general use, the instrument is placed upon 
a microscope stand and the upper end of the needle ob- 
served, illumination being obtained in the usual way 
through a window in the electrometer case. 

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MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 48) 
John R. Steelman to the president, 
the government spent approximately 
$625 million for research in the fiscal 
year 1947, exclusive of the atomic 
energy budget. Today there is little 
difference between the annual ex- 
penditures for research by govern- 
ment and by industry. Steelman esti- 
mated research expenditures by in- 
dustry at $450 million, but others 
feel the total is probably higher and 
might reach $600 million or possibly 
even $700 million. Whatever the rela- 
tive expenditures may be, it is evi- 
dent that the federal government has 
greatly increased its expenditures for 
basic scientific knowledge and the 
application of that knowledge, and 
that expenditures are likely to stay 
very high. 

The government owns and oper- 
ates research facilities valued at ap- 
proximately $1.5 billion, not includ- 
ing atomic energy development and 
production projects which probably 
double that figure. Thirty thousand 
scientists are now employed directly 
by the government and there are 
some 60 agencies which have dis- 
tributed projects through all forty- 
eight states. 

Mr. Steelman, in Vol. II of Science 
and Public Policy, gives the Federal 
research expenditures, by agency, for 
the fiscal year 1947 as follows: 

Navy Department $262,000,000 

War Department 237,000,000 

Agriculture Department 31.328,000 

Interior Department 30,358,000 

Natl. Advisory Comm. for 

Aeronautics 27,000,000 

Federal Security Agency 13,236,000 

Commerce Department 10,494,000 

Federal Loan Agency 

(R.F.C.) 4,699,000 

Tennessee Valley Authority 3,654,000 

Veteran's Administration.. 2,523,000 

Federal Works Agency 822,000 

Smithsonian Institution 309,000 

Treasury Department ._. 220,000 

Federal Communications 

Commission . 200,000 

Maritime Commission 87,000 

It is estimated that, over-all, $570 
million of the $625 million spent by 
government was used for applied 
research and development. Further, 
it is estimated that $465 million out 
of $500 million spent by military 
agencies was for applied research 
and development. 

Of the $625 million spent on re- 


The photomicrograph, made at Armour Research Foundation, shows a 
thin film of Vitamin K taken with crossed nichols to bring out twin bands 
and other structural features. Studies of this type are quite useful in 
optical crystallographic work. 

search, government owned labora- 
tories did only about $200 million of 
the work. The remainder was done 
by industrial laboratories, by re- 
search organizations and by univer- 
sities and colleges. Merely directing 
the program of government research 
has become a major operation, yet 
it is expected that the federal budget 
for research will be increased by at 
least two-thirds and possibily dou- 
bled within the next ten years. 

Whenever private industry is un- 
likely or unable to pursue research 
urgently required in the nation's in- 
terest on an adequate scale, the 
federal government and the state 
governments must take the respon- 
sibility. For example, prior to the 
war, research and development in 
agriculture consumed a large part of 
the research budget; individual farm- 
ers cannot afford to do research, yet 
the improvement of their methods 
and the search for new and basic 
scientific information in agriculture 
is vital to the nation's interest. In the 
1946 report of the administrator of 
agricultural research, it is stated that 
from a total investment of $10 mil- 

lion in research on hybrid corn, the 
nation is now collecting annual divi- 
dends of at least three quarters of a 
billion dollars. Research on small 
grains by federal and state labora- 
tories is believed to have added half 
a billion dollars each year to the 
national wealth. An investment of 
less than one million dollars in sugar 
cane research has increased the an- 
nual value of sugar cane crop by 
more than $20 million. 

In addition to research for the de- 
velopment of the nation's resources, 
to further its basic industries, for 
public health, for public safety, for 
the maintenance of adequate and 
reliable industrial technical stand- 
ards and for the development of pre- 
cision scientific standards, the gov- 
ernment now has the responsibility 
to support basic and applied research 
necessary to maintain our military 
security. The international situation 
since the close of the war has neces- 
sitated the continuation of research 
in this direction. 

It is generally agreed that authori- 
ty granted by Congress to the various 


departments and agencies is suffici- 
ent for the establishment of a sound 
research and development program. 
A large part of the funds granted 
under this authority are now used to 
sponsor research in industrial or uni- 
versity laboratories, and such support 
will likely be expanded in the future. 

Government research and devel- 
opment expenditures during the war 
were 83% for the military agencies. 
The percentage remains about the 
same since the war. During the war 
an emotional factor welded science 
and the armed forces into a victori- 
ous team. Now the emotional factor, 
although not gone, is considerably 
lessened even though the percentage 
of government funds being spent for 
military research and development 
has remained about the same. This is 
the problem with which the military 
agencies, much more enlightened and 
recognizing for the first time the 
absolute necessity for scientific re- 
search, is faced. 

Research and development units 
in the army, navy, and air force are 
not new things but they are new "big" 
things. Branches of the military have 
a new awareness of the necessity for 
research and development. Such an 
awareness is made evident in their 
research programs and their deter- 
mination to push those programs to 
completion. Examples of this attitude 
may be seen in talks delivered before 
the Engineering College Research 
Council meeting in Washington in 
November 1947 by Admiral Paul P. 
Lee, chief of the Office of Naval Re- 
search; General H. S. Aurand, re- 
search and development director of 
the Army; General L. C. Craigie, 
research and development director 
of the Air Force; and Dr. L. R. 
Hafsted, executive secretary of the 
Research and Development Board, 
National Military Establishment. In 
the words of Admiral Lee, "The war 
demonstrated most forcefully that 
the security of the United States is, to 
a very large degree, dependent upon 
our national scientific strength. It is 
demonstrated that from purely basic 
research studies comes knowledge 
which can have a profound effect 
upon the conduct of war. It is demon- 

strated that the civilian scientist and 
the man in uniform must work to- 
gether if they are to apply our sci- 
entific knowledge to problems of 
national security". 

Admiral Lee stated that the Navy 
Department has under contract 
"something over 600 research proj- 
ects in about 100 universities and 
nonprofit laboratories. By the end of 
this fiscal year we will have obligated 
over $50 million for the support of 
this program. We have planned to 
stabilize it at an annual expenditure 
level of $22 million." 

General Aurand stated that, under 
the direction of the Research and 
Development Division of the army, 
"the technical services have at pres- 
ent contracted for 605 basic research 
investigations, roughly 10% of which 
are being carried on by universities 
and colleges". 

General Craigie said, "at present 
there are 54 universities engaged in 
research and development work for 
the Air Forces, working under 242 
contracts. These contracts cover re- 
search projects for the 12 different 
laboratories of the Air Material Com- 
mand, and represent more than 10% 
of the 1947 research and develop- 
ment funds". 

The National Research and De- 
velopment Board, represented by Dr. 
Hafsted at the Engineering College 
Research Council conference, is a 
new organization, but it is actually 
an outgrowth of the Joint Research 
and Development Board chartered 
during the war, established to avoid 
duplication of efforts. 

John R. Steelman states in his 
report to the president that "it is 
vital that the funds for basic support 
of research be administered with the 
advice of an imaginative group of 
scientists". Here Steelman is alluding 
to the National Science Foundation. 
Congress passed, but President Tru- 
man disapproved, a bill for the estab- 
lishment of such a foundation during 
the 80th Congress. There was, and is, 
controversy on the advisability of 
creating such an organization. In his 
Memorandum of Disapproval, dated 
August 6, 1947, the President gave as 
his reason for disapproval the fact 

that the representative group of sci- 
entists was given full responsibility 
for the administration of the Founda- 
tion. In his message the President 
said the role of the scientists should 
be "more appropriately one of advis- 
ory nature rather than one of full 

To quote the Steelman report on 
the matter of the Foundation: "It is 
. . . recommended that the Congress 
be urged to establish at its next ses- 
sion a National Science Foundation 
within the Executive Office of the 
President and that the Foundation 
be authorized to spend $50 million in 
support of basic research its first 
year, with increasing amounts there- 
after rising to an annual rate of at 
least $250 million by 1957. No re- 
striction should be placed on the 
fields of inquiry eligible for support. 

"The National Science Foundation 
should be headed by a director ap- 
pointed by the president and as- 
sisted by a part-time advisory board 
of distinguished scientists and edu- 
cators similarly appointed. It is rec- 
ommended that this advisory board 
be appointed half within the govern- 
ment and half without. The federal 
government's share in the national 
science program makes it imperative 
that the government's scientific 
agencies be represented in the plan- 
ning of the basic research program. 

"Moreover, a portion of the monies 
expended in support of basic research 
should take the form of grants from 
the government's scientific bureaus 
and agencies themselves. This is an 
important means of strengthening 
contacts between the government 
and private scientists, of keeping both 
groups informed of work in progress, 
and of strengthening our total scien- 
tific effort. 

"It is clear that a portion of the 
funds expended by the National Sci- 
ence Foundation should be used to 
strengthen the weaker, by promising 
colleges and universities, and thus to 
increase our total scientific poten- 

Later in his report Steelman 

"While the large role contem- 
plated by the federal government 
(Please turn to page 52) 

MAY, 1948 


(Continued horn page 51) 
will not necessarily be reflected in a 
comparable increase in federally- 
owned and operated facilities, con- 
siderable increase is desirable." 

And further: "Except in event of 
military emergency, it is unlikely 
that the Federal Government will 
have to finance the necessary expan- 
sion in industrial research facilities. 
We should have a favorable climate 
for such expansion through tax incen- 
tives and other established methods, 
without making direct grants to in- 

When the bill for the National 
Science Foundation came up for de- 
bate in the 80th session of Congress, 
it met some opposition from research 
men in industry and in private re- 
search organizations. The opposition 
was directed against the govern- 
ment's engaging in research and was 
based on the tenet that basic research 
could best be promoted by tax in- 
centives to industry to induce them 
to finance fundamental scientific re- 

Opposition to the passage of the 
bill also was based on the belief that 
greater diversity in research activi- 
ties and freedom from political in- 
fluence can be obtained only by 
encouraging private enterprise to fur- 
nish funds. 

A bill introduced into the 80th 
Congress on February 5, 1947 would 
have made the Department of Com- 
merce a clearing house for scientific 
and technical information. This bill 
died in committee. It was not revived 
although certain portions of it reap- 
peared in the National Science Foun- 
dation bill. 

It is very likely that legislation will 
be introduced in the next congress to 
create a National Science Founda- 
tion, and it is not unlikely that nec- 
essary legislation to make the Foun- 
dation a reality will be enacted. It is 
also not unlikely that legislation will 
be reintroduced to create more ex- 
tensive authority for the Department 
of Commerce to provide a technical 
service to industry. 

Research In The 
International Field 

Although American firms have 
studied the products and resources of 
foreign countries in their own labora- 
tories, seeking new sources of supply 
for raw materials and seeking new 
products for development, few of 
them have conducted scientific in- 
vestigations in the foreign field. It is 
true, of course, that other firms have 
provided engineering and technical 
assistance on a consulting basis to 
foreign governments and industries, 
and in this manner a considerable 
amount of American technology has 
been exported. 

In 1942 the Corporation para la 
Promocion del Intercambio of Argen- 
tina commissioned Armour Research 
Foundation in Chicago to conduct a 
study of Argentine industries for the 
purpose of: 

1. Discovering ways in which scien- 
tific research can best be applied 
to the improvement of Argentine 
products already in production. 



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2. Discovering ways in which scien- 
tific research can be undertaken 
toward increasing or creating de- 
mand for Argentine raw materi- 

3. Discovering ways in which certain 
Argentine raw materials can be 
used to alleviate shortages within 
the country. 

4. Calling attention, where possible, 
to opportunities for applying 
known technology which might 
have been overlooked in the con- 
duct of some Argentine industrial 
and agricultural operations. 

Specifically studied were jute, 
hides and leather, minerals, dairy 
products, grains, chemicals, forest 
products, vegetable oils and fuels in- 
dustries. The survey in many respects 
formed a pattern for similar studies 
which may be made for Argentine 
and other foreign countries and has 
led to the development of a number 
of helpful procedures. 

To help develop an orderly pro- 
gram of industrialization in certain 
fields of Mexican endeavor, and to 
promote the development of indus- 
trial technology in Mexico, Banco de 
Mexico undertook in 1945 a coordi- 
nated series of studies in fields asso- 
ciated with its diversified responsi- 
bilities and the national interest. At 
the instigation of its Director Gen- 
eral, Banco de Mexico requested 
Armour Research Foundation to 
make a technological audit of major 
areas of Mexican industrial activity, 
including coal, coke and other solid 
fuels and by-products, hides, leather, 
hard fibers, and forest products in 
general, together with related indus- 
tries and associated activities in agri- 
culture, technical education, and re- 

The basic survey was completed 
and published at the end of 1945, but 
numerous special research projects 
and laboratory investigations were 
continued well into 1946. In April of 
1947, Banco de Mexico arranged for 
a new and expanded program. Proj- 
ects now in progress include : evalua- 
tion of a packing house by-products 
industry in Mexico; a comprehensive 
study of fats and oils native to 
Mexico as raw materials for both 
new and established industries; eval- 

uation of fluorspar deposits with a 
view toward their benefication, and 
the stablization and nutritional im- 
provement of the tortilla masa. 

Countries in Central and South 
America are becoming more con- 
scious of the essential role that tech- 
nology and research can play in the 
improvement of living standards for 
their people, in the impetus toward 
industrialization, and in the futher- 
ing of their national economy. For- 
tunately this view is beginning to be 
shared by leaders of government, in- 
dustry and banking everywhere. 

Financial and government leaders 
in the United States are also recog- 
nizing that scientific knowledge, re- 
search skills, and technological 
knowledge form an important export 
commodity to assure a continued 
supply of raw materials for our in- 
dustry, to maintain an active foreign 
trade, to provide for hemispherical 
security, and to increase the standard 
of living for our country. 

The Management- Of Research 

Research management and organi- 
zation have their own peculiar and 
characteristic problems. That this 
field of management is attracting 
great interest at this time is verified 
by the several conferences on re- 
search management held during the 
year, and by the great interest in 
graduate courses and seminars on the 

The Engineering College Research 
Council held a well-attended three- 
day meeting in Minneapolis in June 
of 1947. Great interest was shown by 
a large attendance of industrial, uni- 
versity and government representa- 
tives. Proceedings of this conference, 
as well as the previous one held 
under the same auspices in 1946, are 
published in booklet form. 

Pennsylvania State College con- 

ducted a conference on Research 
Management in October of 1947, 
again very well attended by numer- 
ous representatives of industrial lab- 
oratories, universities and govern- 
ment research agencies. Proceedings 
of the conference will be available 
early in 1948. 

The Industrial Research Institute 
regularly holds two or more confer- 
ences each year to consider the many 
problems connected with operation 
of research laboratories in industry. 

Graduate courses and seminars on 
research management, pioneered by 
New York University, have been con- 
tinued at that institution, and have 
been conducted at Illinois Institute 
of Technology and at Pennsylvania 
State College. 

Such conferences have empha- 
sized the fact that management of 
research cannot be fitted into a def- 
inite pattern even to the extent pos- 
sible in most fields of management, 
and that each laboratory with its 
peculiar conditions of personnel, ob- 
jectives, and background presents a 
unique situation taxing the utmost 
skill, ingenuity and understanding on 
the part of its management to secure 
maximum creative productiveness. 
The growing shortage of technical 
manpower will make even more dif- 
ficult the problems of management, 
since the skills, abilities, experience 
and knowledge of able scientists must 
be spread even thinner over the 
rapidly multiplying and increasingly 
complex problems brought to the 
laboratory for solution. 

Research In Management 

The place of research in manage- 
ment is receiving an increasing 
amount of attention and interest. Dr. 
Raymond Stevens, vice president of 
Arthur D. Little, Inc., pointed out 
(Please turn to page 54) 

MAY, 1948 


(Continued from page 53) 
before the June 1947 meeting of the 
Industrial Research Institute that it 
was not uncommon a short time ago 
for management to be divided into 
three parts: production, sales, and 
finance, with the head of the organi- 
zation either a production, sales or 
financial man depending upon force 
of personality or family inheritance. 
The three parts were the complete 
triumvirate of management. 

"Research is now being accepted 
as a portion of this policy-and-deci- 
sion-making group". Dr. Stevens con- 
tinued. "Today's research director 
may have the same title as that of 
thirty years ago but he has much 
greater responsibility." 

There is a decided trend to make 
the chief research officer a part of 
top-management, frequently with 
the title of vice president, and to 
depend on him to take a prominent 
part in policy decisions. Dr. Stevens 
suggests that the research director 

1. Know and help formulate the 
over-all future policy of the com- 


2. Plan for products and processes 
leading in the right direction. 

3. Not only explore scientific and 
technical areas but examine mar- 
kets, patents, costs and competi- 

4. Be as thorough in his economic 
as in his technical examination of 
a new development. 

5. Create and prove new products 
and processes that will reach an 
attractive market, be free of pat- 
ent or other important restriction, 
meet competition, and make a 

Maurice Holland, Industrial Re- 
search Adviser, reports a recent sur- 
vey on What Management Expects 
of Research and lists the following 
in the order rated by the manage- 
ment of several companies: 

New products. 

Maintenance of competitive 
technical position. 
Cutting production costs. 
Sales volume and net profit on 
new processes and products. 
Serve production through devel- 

opment of new and improved 

6. Be on the level or in advance of 
the best managed laboratories 
of the leading companies. 

7. Operate like other departments 
of the company, not as "prima 
donnas" of special privilege. 

8. Serve the chief executive in long 
range planning. 

9. Demonstrate the dollar value of 

10. Assist sales with technical 
Thus research in industry, and its 
place in the corporate structure, is 
becoming more than a mere "fact- 
finding" unit concerned solely with 
scientific exploration. As the fountain 
head of new products, processes, and 
developments, it has an important 
place in determining long range in- 
dustrial policy and in providing a 
needed service to production, sales, 
and distribution as well as an advis- 
ory service to financial management. 
Industrial recognition of this new 
role is unmistakable. 


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Are you going to hang up a lot of useful habits along with 
it . . . OR . . . are you going to use those habits to give you 
a flying start on your career? 

There's the habit, for example, of reaching for an author- 
itative McGraw-Hill book to answer the toughest problems 
they can throw at you in an engineering course. That's one 
you can use to good advantage for the rest of your business 
life. To it, add the habit of reaching for the latest McGraw- 
Hill magazine, edited especially for your industry, to keep 
abreast of up-to-the-minute trends and developments. 

For years, the keenest technical minds in industry have 
funneled their best thinking into McGraw-Hill books and 
magazines, building up a reservoir of useful information 
larger than any one business could ever acquire for itself. 
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MAY, 1948 


Technical Words 

(Continued from page 17) 
ing the eyelids), alkali (Arabic for 
calcined ashes, related to the verb 
meaning to try), camphor (traced all 
the way back to Sanskrit), naphtha 
(of uncertain oriental origin), and 
quinine (from the Peruvian word for 
bark of a tree). Nicotine is one of the 
few chemical substances named after 
an individual — Jacques Nicot, 
French ambassador to Portugal, who 
introduced tobacco into France in 
1560. Native Germanic roots appear 
but infrequently, in words of basic or 
many meanings such as heat or crack, 
or in strays such as the verb sinter 
(cognate with cinder). 

The ratio of Latin to Greek loans 
in physics is comparable to that in 
mathematics, rather than in chemis- 
try. Latin to French to English is a 
most frequent line of movement. 
Such basic monosyllables as flux, 
force, lens, power, sound, and stress 
are of Latin origin, worn smooth of 
suffixes by centuries of handling in 
English. Nucleus, pendulum, spec- 


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trum, and vacuum, of later arrival, 
show their classical origin more plain- 
ly. The basic language of physics is 
widely known, which is to say a large 
group of Latin borrowings is widely 
known — motion and temperature, 
gravitation and volume, attraction 
and velocity, to cite a few at random. 
The Greek element, though much 
smaller, contains such familiar items 
as atom, energy, gram, meter, and 
prism, as well as rarities such as 
entactic and laogonic and recent 
adaptations such as dyne and erg. 
Lever, gage, battery, and buoyancy, 
appearing in that order, represent a 
small French element in physics. 
Teutonic survivals include terms for 
spatial dimensions (depth, width), a 
couple of fundamental terms in me- 
chanics (gear, shear), and the ancient 
speed and not so ancient stretch. 

In that part of physics concerned 
with electricity and magnetism, Latin 
is the major source for words, as we 
would expect from precedents. From 
antenna and armature through lami- 
nation and motor to terminal and 
transmit — all through the electri- 
cian's alphabet Latin stems abound 
as the largest group from a single 
origin. Large numbers of Romance 
stems were immediately from 
French; a sharp line between Latin 
and French borrowings is especially 
impracticable here. Electric itself is 
from the Greek word for amber, the 
substance in which electrical attrac- 
tion was first observed. Related 

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words have followed electric ( 1600), 
with Franklin contributing electrify 
and electrician, and with electricize 
(1872) as a relatively young addi- 
tion. Familiar borrowings from Greek 
include anode, dynamo, static, and 
telephone. Damp, ground, lightning, 
short, spark, wave, and wire are from 
native Germanic roots, some of which 
have obviously undergone extension 
of meaning. Electricity lacks exotics, 
but is perhaps the field in which 
proper names figure most conspicu- 
ously. Familiar to electrical workers 
are the names of the Frenchmen 
Ampere and Coulomb, the Italians 
Galvini and Volta, the Englishmen 
Faraday, Joule, Watt, and Wheat- 
stone, and the Germans Gauss and 
Ohm. Ingenuity has been at work, 
and for a unit of conductance, the 
reciprocal of resistance (ohm), mho 
has been established. The backward 
spelling daraf is less well-rooted. 
Radar, made up of initials, offers no 
possibilities for inversion. 

The passage from electrical to me- 
chanical engineering is a passage 
from the relatively newly discovered 
to what is to a considerable extent 
centuries old. Of all the subject mat- 
ter fields here considered, only ma- 
chinery provides a place where Ger- 
manic derivations approach in fre- 
quency the Latin-French borrowings. 
Germanic forms such as mold, nail, 
ore, shaft, tool, wedge, and wheel 
have been in English for over a thou- 
sand years. Many more are long- 
lived northerners: hammer and 
tongs; anvil, shank, spindle, and stud: 
wrench, weld, clutch; etc. These are 
no ink-horn terms introduced by 
pedants. Though Latin loans disk, 
spi>«, and die are homely enough, 
others betray recent and academic 
importation: centigrade and cruci- 
ble, ferrous and ignition, lubricant 
and torque. Greek figures far less — 
automatic, eccentric, the therm fam- 
ily, and a few others. 

A sampling of metallurgical terms 
shows general linguistic sources in 
the following order of frequency: 
Latin-French, first by a great margin: 
Germanic roots, a decisive second: 
Greek, a poor third. Yet metallurgy 
itself goes back to Greek origins. 
Germanic stock includes cast, frorft, 


melt, ore, oven, slag, and smelt. 
Words entering from French include 
alloy, forge, foundry, roast, and vol- 
atile, while others have more imme- 
diate contact with Latin origins: 
amalgamate, centrifugal, precipitate, 
and resilience. 

Greek figures prominently, how- 
ever, in the language of meteorology. 
The weather has been talked about 
for a long time. Cloud, drizzle, mist, 
rain, and wind go back in unbroken 
line to Old English, and hail, snow, 
and hoarfrost have been traced to the 
pre-historic continental Teutons. The 
learned jargon, though, is classical, 
as is characteristics of all branches of 
science. Besides general terms which 
happen to appear in meteorological 
language, Latin contributes the cloud 
names — altocumulus, cirrus, fracto- 
stratus, noctilucent. Greek items are 
largely highly technical — nephology 
(the study of clouds), isotherm, 
pyrheliometer, troposphere — though 
climate and cyclone are familiar 
enough, and atmosphere, thermome- 
ter, and meterorology itself have been 
thoroughly popularized. Of particu- 
lar interest are Arabic monsoon and 
typhoon and Spanish hurricane and 
tornado, showing as they do a corre- 
lation between geography and vo- 
cabulary. Blizzard and chinook are 
American contributions, as are many 

The dominance of Latin and the 
prominence of Greek, repeatedly 
cited above, are far more character- 
istic of scientific than of colloquial 
English or of non-scientific special- 
ized vocabularies. The fields of law 
and music present a distinct contrast 
in origins. In law, there is a large 
group of words that are unmodified 
French. Latin and French, thanks to 
Roman law and the Norman Con- 
quest, dominate the field, to the al- 
most total exclusion of Germanic and 
Greek derivatives. In music, Italian 
is the international tongue, with no- 
tations on musical scores uniformly 
in unaltered Italian. Middle English, 
French, Latin, and Greek, in falling 
order, have likewise fed into modern 
English musical vocabularies. 

So far we have largely isolated 
the question whence? To answer 
briefly the question when? is to 

glance at the chronology of science. 

Mathematics is an ancient study, 
but its time of most rapid expansion 
was shortly after the Renaissance. 
Billingsely in the sixteenth century 
and Descartes, Napier, and Leibnitz 
in the seventeenth did much to enrich 
the vocabulary of mathematics. 
Physics has a core of terms reaching 
far back, and also experienced a con- 
siderable seventeenth century expan- 
sion, but it has had its greatest burst 
of vocabulary additions since the 
nineteenth-century triumph of the 
industrial revolution. Chemistry was 
most prolific of new terms between 
1850 and 1880; only a negligible part 
of its present vocabulary existed in 
English before 1600. 

There is a marked correlation be- 
tween language of origin and date 
of entry. Words of native Germanic 
stock were, for the most part, an in- 
tegral part of emergent modern Eng- 
lish of medieval times. Latin has been 
drawn upon constantly, but forms 
coming by way of France cluster 
around the Renaissance, while still 
scholarly borrowings, complete with 
Latin case endings, are for the most 
part from the nineteenth century or 
later. The Greek element (except in 
mathematics) is thoroughly discon- 
tinuous, consisting of late (nine- 
teenth and twentieth century) arti- 
ficial borrowings. 

As an illustration of the steady in- 
flux of Latin stems, consider this 
sequence from mathematics: prime 
and line (by 1000, though not in a 
specifically mathematical sense), 
division (1430), triangle (1525), 
binomial (1557), rectangle (1571), 
sine (1591), decimal (1608), quad- 

ratic (1656), calculus (1672), trac- 
trix (1727), catenary ( 1 788 ) , folium 
(1848), and radian (1879). Greek, 
too, is a continuously mined vein in 
mathematics: sphere (1300), theo- 
rem (1551), polygon (1570), trigo- 
nometry (1595), logarithm (1614). 
asymptote (1656), hyperbola 
(1868), ellipse (1753), conchoid 
( 1798), and strophoid ( 1880). With 
the dates of these mathematical 
terms, contrast the surprisingly short 
life of the following basic chemical 
terms from Greek: hydrogen ( 1791 ). 
phosphorescence (1796), catalysis 
(1836), electrolysis (1839), colloid 
(1847), picric (1852), kerosene 
(1854), osmosis (1867), octane 
(1872), proton (1893), isotope 
( 1913). Chemists' Latin occasionally 
shows some longevity — precipitate 
(1594), emulsion (1612), capillary 
(1664), effloresce (1775). But 
chemistry is essentially a newcomer. 

Especially in applied science, the 
vocabularies are largely built up by 
the appropriation for technical mean- 
ings of words earlier naturalized. The 
mechanical engineering sampling, for 
example, showed the most populated 
centuries of entry in any meaning to 
be the fourteenth, fifteenth, and six- 
teenth, in that order. More technical 
meanings, however, appeared in the 
nineteenth century than in any other. 
In metallurgy, the leaders were again 
the fourteenth and the nineteenth, 
respectively. In the ancient art of 
surveying, the seventeenth led in 
both respects; the fourteenth was a 
good second in any meaning, but fifth 
in surveying senses. An especially 
notable instance of borrowing from 
naturalized sources is photography, 
a field so new that photography it- 
self was not coined until 1839. Nega- 
tive, plate, positive, print, sensitive, 
and sharpness had all been in the 
English language for five hundred 
years before they took on photog- 
raphic senses. In contrast, the legal 
vocabulary experienced its most 
rapid growth between 1550 and 
1650, and experienced an increment 
of little more than 10 per cent during 
the nineteenth century. 

This treatment can only faintly 
suggest the wealth of historic detail 
(Please turn to page 58) 

MAY, 1948 



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(Continued horn page 57) 
that a student of technical language 
may discover. Behind every word 
there is a story, eloquent in some de- 
gree of the intellectual experience 
of English-speaking peoples. 

So much for place and date. Mean- 
ing is best of all. The familiar mean- 
ings and the figures of speech im- 
plicit in technical terms can afford 
almost limitless entertainment and 

Area, calculus, and cubes are now 
names of intangibles, but originally 
their roots meant, respectively, va- 
cant property in a town, a small 
stone, and dice. There is much nat- 
ural history — and scientific history, 
too — hidden in mathematics and 
chemistry. Cissoid and conchoid are 
Greek for ivy-like and mussel-like; 
limacon is French for snail-shell; and 
lens comes from Latin for lentil. 
Many chemicals are named after 
ancient names for original natural 
sources: aconitine from the scientific 
name of wolfsbane; allyl from garlic; 
amyl from starch; codeine from pop- 
py-head; formic from ants; hippuric 
from horse's urine; malic from ap- 
ples; opium from poppy juice; 
methylene from wine of wood; and 
phlorizin from root-bark. Viscous 
goes back to a sticky bird-lime made 
of mistletoe berries. Capric refers to 
goats; crystal to clear ice. Miniscus 
means little crescent, a diminutive of 
the Greek word for moon. 

A strangely immortalized bit 
of history is represented by the 
chemical name cinchonamine 
(C19H24N20). The Countess of 
Chinchon, a Spanish dignatary in 
Peru, was cured of malaria in 1638 
by the use of a bark that bears this 

Numerous hard chemical words 
make descriptive sense when trans- 
lated from Greek — allophanic, ap- 
pearing otherwise; atmolysis, vapor- 
releasing; cacodyl, stinking; catalysis, 
down-loosening; chlorine, light green; 
chromogen, color-bearing; colloid, 
glue-like; creosore, flesh-preserver; 


endosmosis, inward-pushing; glycer- 
ine, sweet; myristic, ointment; nar- 
cotic, benumbing; phosphorescence, 
light-bringing; picric, bitter; etc. Phe- 
nicine refers to Phoenicia; it is the 
technical name of the famous Tyrian 
purple dye. 

Translation explains other kinds 
of scientific words, too: asymptote, 
not falling together; subtract, draw 
off; tangent, touching; nucleus, ker- 
nel; and friction, rubbing. Orifice is 
from the Latin words for mouth and 
make; lever is French for to raise. 
Focal goes back to fireplace or hearth. 
The most distant root of engineer is 
Latin for to beget — now extended 
from progeny to artifacts. The dis- 
guise of some loans is easily pierced: 
centrifugal, center-fleeing; goemetry, 
earth-measure; kinetic, moving; syn- 
thetic, put together; telephone, far- 

But there is figure as well as fact 
in etymology. Mathematics has its 
implied comparisons : cardiod, heart- 
shaped; catenary, chain-like; folium, 
leaf; line, linen thread; sine, bend; 
trapezoid, table. Chemists drew on 
Greek mythology to name poisonous 
atropine after one of the Fates and 
morphine after the god of sleep. The 
capillary tube is hair-like; corrosion 
is intense gnawing. There is dead 
metaphor in the electricians' imped- 
ance (shackled feet) and insulate 
(make an island). 

Semantic change is present, too. 
The root of furnace once meant oven, 
while that of chimney meant furnace. 
Latin galleta, the source of our gal- 
lon, meant wine-measure. That word 
has become generalized; turbine is 
an instance of specialization. The 
Latin noun turbo meant anything 
turning, from a cyclone to a child's 
top. Matter itself, the subject of phys- 
ical science, takes its name from 
Latin materia, which originally sim- 
ply meant wood for fuel or building. 
So it goes. Language is a complex 
symbolism, a mirror in which we may 
catch countless reflections of the 
movement of all kinds of human 
thought and endeavor, a mirror in 
which we may discover innumerable 
gleams of meaning which we would 
never have found if we had not 
looked for them. 

Contributors . . . 

(Continued from page 4) 

in 1941. From 1941 to 1944 he was 
a member of the admissions staff at 
Lawrence and in 1944 received a 
master's degree at the University of 
Chicago. He became director of ad- 
missions at Illinois Tech in 1944. In 
September, 1946, he was appointed 
dean of students. Just 29-years-old 
at the time, he was believed to be 
the youngest dean at any major edu- 
cational institution in the country. 
He is a member of Phi Delta Kappa 
honorary educational society, Delta 
Tau Delta social fraternity, and Al- 
pha Phi Omega, and a number of 
professional organizations. 


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in any way. WRITE OR CALL 


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53 WEST 
WABASH 6743 


MAY, 1948 


Naval Architecture 

(Continued from page 20) 
1 Wave Length, V2 wave length. '4 
wave length, and Va wave length. The 
conductor thus absorbs power which 
is evidenced in the heat absorbed and 
given off. Any wave length multiple 
less than Vs can be considered negli- 
gible from the standpoint of energy 

The speed at which an electromag- 
netic wave travels is equal to the vel- 
ocity of light, or 300,000,000 meters 
per second, and the distance which 
it will cover in one cycle will be equal 
to this velocity divided by the fre- 
quency in cycles per second, or the 
Wave Length = 300,000,000 meters 

Therefore, Wave Length X fre- 
quency = 300,000,000 meters per 
second. Wave Length X frequency 
= 300 X 10 6 . 

The radio frequency output of the 
United States Naval Radio Station is 
classified as high frequency, from 
three (3) or 3 X 10° meters to twen- 
ty-five (25) megacycles, or 25 X 
10 (1 meters. 

Thus, Wave Length = 300 X 10" 

3 X 10° 
100 meters 

Wave Length = 300 X 10 6 

25 X 10 fi 
= 12 meters 

At 100 meters, the multiples of wave 
length are: 

100 X 39.37" = 328 feet. 328 = 

12" 2 

164 feet. 328 = 82 feet, 328 = 41 


At 12 meters, the multiples of wave 

length are: 

12 X 39.37" = 39.37, say 40 feet, 

40 = 20 feet, 40 = 10 feet, 40 = 5 

2 4 8 


From the above calculations, it is 
determined that any metallic objects 
more than five feet in length and co- 
inciding with the various multiples 

in the frequency range, being the 
electrical resonant equivalent, will 
absorb radio frequency energy. 

Therefore, all steel reinforcing 
rods, although primarily calculated 
for strength requirements to carry 
the roof loads, and the weight of the 
materials of construction, and to 
withstand earthquake or blast, are 
rigidly and continuously bonded to 
ground in order to eliminate any 
standing waves which would other- 
wise occur. Should any bond connec- 
tion be broken or be incomplete at 
both ends and be of a length equiva- 
lent to any multiple of one-half a 
wave length, heating can be expected. 

It becomes apparent that to insure 
an adequate and rigid bonding of the 
reinforcing rods and other metallic 
items, that welding or brazing is spe- 
cified to form a continuous unbroken 
metallic electrical path to the ground 
bus. The arc welding or brazing 
method has been adopted for bond- 
ing, not only because of the adequate 
power supply available at the site — 
the standby power diesel engine gen- 
erator — but it has clearly demon- 
strated its feasibility in field work. 
It appears to be the most suitable 
means for getting at the intersections 
of the complex and sometimes tightly 
knit network of the reinforcing rods 
to produce a bond to withstand the 
vibrations of concrete as it is being 
poured or the jars which may be due 
to blast or earthquake. 

The Specifications for the United 
States Naval Radio Transmitting 
Station read in part as follows: 

Section 21. Grounding 

21-01. General requirements. — 
The work includes the grounding of 
all metal and equipment in the 
Transmitter Building. 

21-02. Materials to be grounded 
include all structural steel, concrete 
reinforcing steel, ladders, wire mesh 
partitions and doors, anchors, curb 
angles, gravel stops, gutters and 
down-spouts, metal lath and studs, 
metal windows, metal and metal- 
covered doors and their frames and 
forms, metal frame screens, bolts, 

metal ducts, electrical wiring con- 
duits, metal railings, piping, metal 
thresholds and all other metal used 
in the construction of the building, 
except nails and screws. Care shall be 
taken so that the trench covers and 
trench curb angles shall make a good 
electrical contact and that no paint 
shall be placed on the trench curb 
angles or on the underside of trench 
covers. At all points where grounding 
connections are made, the metal shall 
be cleaned of all paint, rust, dirt, 
grease and scale. In general, the only 
means considered satisfactory for 
bonding steel members for grounding 
is by welding or brazing. Painting 
specified under another section shall 
not be applied until after the ground- 
ing connections have been inspected 
and approved. 

21-03. Grounding of reinforcing 
steel. — All reinforcing steel in the 
Transmitter Building, including 
main bars, temperature bars, fabric 
mesh, bar supports, spacers and stir- 
rups shall be inter-connected by 
welded joints and bonding wires, to 
provide a continuous metallic elec- 
trical path to the ground bus. All 
bonding between reinforcing bars 
shall be No. 6 BWG black steel wire 
of sufficient length and so placed as 
to prevent any tensile stress in the 
wire. Lap splices in bars forming an 
electrical path to ground, specified to 
be welded at every intersection, shall 
be made electrically continuous by 
bonding across with a No. 6 BWG 
wire welded to each bar. Any isolated 
reinforcing bar shall be grounded by 
bridging with a bonding wire to an 
adjacent grounded rod or other 
grounded metal part. Above every 
window or wall opening, all vertical 
bars shall be welded to a horizontal 
bar that is grounded by bonding to a 
grounded vertical bar. 

All vertical bars in each face of 
wall shall be welded to the one above 
or below to make a continuous elec- 
trical path from cornice to founda- 
tion. Weld all horizontal bars to 
either of these vertical bars on col- 
umn centers to assure that each bar is 
grounded at least once in each bay. 
All vertical bars in walls shall be 
welded to the 1 inch square bars at 
(Please turn to page 62) 



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Contributed by this magazine in co-operation with the Magazine Publishers of America as a public service 

MAY, 1948 61 

(Continued from page 60) 

first floor elevation to form a girdle 

around building. 

In roof slabs, weld all bars on col- 
umn centers (in slab and beam) to 
all crossing bars; at walls, connect all 
horizontal bars to vertical bars. 

On main and second floor, connect 
all bars on center-line of columns to 
crossing bars. At walls, connect all 
horizontal bars to vertical bars. At 
columns, connect one vertical bar to 
floor reinforcing, bonding all other 
reinforcing to this bar. 

21-04. Grounding of conduit. — 
All outlet boxes and panel boards 
shall be bonded to reinforcing steel. 
All conduit shall be bonded at least 
every 20 feet either through an out- 
let box or by direct bonding to rein- 
forcing steel. 

21-05. Grounding of equipment. 
— All electrical equipment, except as 
noted, shall be considered sufficient- 
ly grounded through its conduit con- 
nections. Care shall be taken to main- 
tain the electrical continuity of the 
conduit system to the equipment to 
be grounded. Mechanical equipment, 
not mounted on an integral metal 
base with electrical equipment, shall 
be grounded separately. Minimum 
ground connections shall be No. 6 
bare copper. 

2 1-06. Grounding of metal doors 
and windows. — Door and window 
frames shall be bonded to the wall 
reinforcing. The doors and windows 
shall be considered sufficiently 
grounded through their hinges. 

21-07. Grounding of miscellane- 
ous steel and metal work. — All in- 
serts, anchor bolts, angles, columns, 
channels, sleeves, sheet metal work 
and other metal work shall be 
grounded to the reinforcing steel by 
welding, or brazing. Removable 
trench cover plates shall not be 
grounded. Angles and other metal 
longer than 10 feet in length shall 
be grounded approximately 10 feet 
on centers. 

21-08. Grounding. — The ground- 
ing system in trenches consists of a 
network of V& x 2 inch copper bars 
supported as shown on the drawings. 

Ground rods shall be s /s" x 10 feet 
copper-covered steel, with No. 2/0 
stranded copper cable connecting 

them to the reinforcing steel. All 
connections between copper and 
reinforcing steel shall be brazed. 

21-09. Concrete and masonry 
work, containing metal work im- 
bedded therein, shall not be per- 
formed until grounding of metal 
work has been inspected and ap- 

By proper bonding and grounding 
of the steel reinforcing rods, metal 
doors, window frames, and the like, 
which are used for the construction 
of a large high frequency radio trans- 
mitter type of building, no reflections, 
or standing waves and, consequently, 
heat absorptions are present. 

The effects of standing waves may 
be summarized as follows: 

( 1 ) A personnel hazard, due to 
electric shock or burning; (2) an 
absorptive factor in using power 
needlessly, resulting in power waste; 

(3) a heat factor, causing an expen- 
sion of steel reinforcing rods at a 
greater rate than the enveloping con- 
crete, and weakening the concrete 
bond and endangering the structural 
effectiveness of the building, and 

(4) a maintenance factor, causing 
hair-line cracks and flaking of the 
concrete and adversely affecting the 
architectural appearance. 

In addition to arc welding or braz- 
ing the network of reinforcing rods 
and ground bus bars, bonding wires 
are used as a by-pass for radio fre- 
quency across the steel and ground 
bar lacework. If for any unforeseen 
reason there should be an incomplete 
rod connection, or should a broken 
bond occur by reason of the vibrat- 
ing methods which are used to obtain 
a greater strength concrete, the stray 
radio frequency energy can be effici- 
ently carried off by an unbroken 
metallic network to the ground. 

In ordinary reinforced concrete 
construction, tie wires serve to hold 
the steel rods in place as the concrete 
is being poured. In this design the tie 
rod serves primarily as a rod spacing 
and holding method for the welded 
connection. Should the spacing be- 
tween rods come out in multiples of 
one half the radio frequency wave 
length and should the bonds be brok- 
en at both ends, then the rods will 

have the tendency to act as an un- 
grounded antennae and will need- 
lessly use up power. 

Additional strength for earthquake 
or blast resistance of the building is 
provided by the continuous welded 
bond of the reinforcing rods. Future 
design of radio transmitter buildings 
based on this experience will provide 
even more economic sections of rein- 
forced concrete, taking into consid- 
eration the increased structural 
strength brought about by the 
bonded network of reinforcing rods, 
resulting in greater building econo- 

The problem of controlling radio 
frequency energy in the metallic con- 
struction members of the high power, 
low frequency station is basically the 
same as that of the high frequency 
transmitter building; however, it is 
much greater in magnitude. For this 
type of proposed construction, cop- 
per-coated steel rods, such as "Cop- 
perweld", are being considered as re- 
inforcing for concrete. These rods 
would prove highly effective in rapid- 
ly transmitting stray radio frequency 
to ground without heating up the 
steel core, because the tendency of 
electric current at radio frequency 
is to travel on the outside perimeter 
of a conductor, particularly one of 
relatively low resistance, such as cop- 

Research is contemplated for high- 
conductivity metal rods, as well as for 
copper-coated steel rods, to deter- 
mine, as follows, their feasibility for 
use in the reinforced concrete radio 
transmitter building: 

( 1 ) Suitability as concrete rein- 

(2) Use as an open metallic rein- 
forcing lacework shielding bonded to 
a copper ground system at the base. 

(3) Suitability of welding togeth- 
er of reinforcement to provide ade- 
quate bonding strength, and a con- 
tinuous "to ground" network. 

It is felt that this correlation of 
applied electronics structural bond- 
ing techniques and architecture will 
prove of interest, particularly in 
bringing out an improved and eco- 
nomical solution for new electronics 
structures insofar as military appli- 
cations are concerned.